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January 7, 1920, ToL I, No. 8 



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PtiJZii.'wi toartj other 
trtii; ct JSS5 Broadwaii, 
Xew Tort. N.Y., U^J.. 



Tea Ceals s C<«7— IL&O k Tc 



o^c Golden Age 



Vol. I 



New York, Wednesday, January 7, 1920 



No. 8 



LABOR AND ECONOMICS 



A Creeping Famine 

IN THE olden days famine was a scarcdty 
which often leaped suddenly npon the popu- 
lace. Civilization, hoTvever, is tlireatened -with 
vrhat might be termed a creeping famine, Ttnder 
the name of the high cost of living. Like a 
creeping palsy this may gradaaily bring pax- 
alysis to a world. 

The weakest, physically and pecnniarily, come 
first under this benmnbing influence. A poor 
family has been accustomed to many necessities 
and some comforts. First, increased cost of 
living takes aivay the comforts one by one- 
Tlie necessities are anxiously scanned, and 
cheaper substitutes take the place of one neces- 
sity after another. The effort is made to main- 
tain the nutritive value of food and the -warmth 
of clothing, but cheaper food and older clothes 
are the rule. 

Income does not rise -with expense; for the 
employers are fighting the hi^ cost of bnsiiieaa, 
and oppose and postpone wage increaaea aa 
long as the worker can be induced to cut his 
living do\j-n to a subsistence basis. Labor must 
live, and a strike forces a little "raise" from a 
desperate or profiteering employer. But strikes 
rtiisQ the general cost of business; and the 
TTorker pay?; for Ms own wage-raise, plus the 
sub; laniial profit the employer takes through 
incrc'lr.st^ price-increases. 

Hi ah cost of living creeps up, and again the 
funiily food o|?.i-;ency is impaired. lAttle sister, 
und'Tnourisb'^c!. grows sickly; disease steps in, 
doctors, prpsr-riptions, drugs and finally the 
un'iertakpr— an appalling problem om top of all 
that has hr^n ondured. Less and still less can 
be bought; hopcles^ess comes — and the next 



strike for a raise is the work of a desperate 
man. Though the raise comes, it is leas than 
needed; and the vicious circle is repeated. 

How real this is and how rapidly the creeping 
death is mounting appear in the figures for the 
living cost of a family of five; 



House (Rent, Insurance, Heat etc. K 

Food 

Clothing: Wife 

CJoUilng: HusbanU 

aothlm: Children (3) . 

Doctor, Boote, Car Tares, Mlsc: 



1913 1919 Increara 
53(X>.ig....f.3SS.30.._27% 
681.00... 8.^1.40__25% 
76.-3._ 100.46_31% 
1«.1S._ 353.99_ 7% 
136.00— 22658.-45% 
1S6.S0_ J96.9C._ 5% 



?1,550.88 $1,918,19 26% 

The cost of living has not stopped rising; it 
is still on the move. Temporary expedients give 
it panse ; but after a rest, it resumes the climb. 

What does it signify? The Bible tells. We 
are at the door of the kingdom of God. TJie 
grandest blessings ever imagined are about to 
be ushered in. But first the present order of 
things is divinely permitted to break down, fall 
to pieces, disintegrate through its own imper- 
fections. It was all divinely foreknown. Jesus 
said that at this time, "There shall be faminea 
and troubles: these are the beginnings of 
sorrows". (MaA 13:8) Margin reading says, 
"The word in the original importeth the pains 
of a woman in travail" — as though the troubles 
of the closing of the old-world period would 
come in succes.sive spasms. Again, '"'I will in- 
crease [more and more] the famine upon you 
and will break your staff of bread". (Ezeldel 5 : 
16) Bat not for long; for in only a few years, 
after humanity's heart is softened by trouble 
and men have turned for refuge to God, ''lliere 
shall be showers of blessing" (Ezekicl .34:26) ; 
and "1 will pour you out a blessing, that there 



228 



The Qolden Age for Jamutrj 7, 1920 



shall not be room enough to receive it". — 
Malachi 3:10. 

It is not easy to pass tkroo^ the birth-panjs 
of the coming age of blessings, bat all -who 
possess meekness, courage and faith will come 
thTongh it in safet7. 

Clean Hands 

THIS is not the nrst war that has presented 
opportunities for "easy money". Every war 
has seen thousands of business men who have 
had a hard time making ends meet but to whom 
war looked good as a cliancc for making a little 
money, as well as profiteers galore who had 
made money and realized that a big war meant 
for them a "killing". 

This country might have profited by the 
example of other nations to minimize profiteer- 
ing. Some inordinate profits would be inevit- 
able, because rules coiild not be laid down to 
prevent all profiteering without stifling honest 
business. But to neutralize profiteering, tax 
laws were passed in advance providing that 
undue profits should automatically flow back as 
taxes into the national treabTiry. There would 
be few amzissing inordinate wealth. It fore- 
stalled some of the disturbance of confidence 
that would necessarily follow war. 

American foresight failed in this particular. 
The number of millionaires has doubled since 
1916, and there arc thousands of newly-wealthy 
men whose hands arc not clean. 

Where lives by tens of thousands have been 
cheerfully laid down, where hundreds of thou- 
sands have suffered wounds and millions have 
undergone privations, it is a moral asset to 
have clean hands. In a day of universal sacri- 
fice hands that drip with blood-money are a 
public menace. 

Any class of business men that outrages 
public sentiment is doomed as soon as public 
;ientiment is aroused againist it. The liquor 
liusines^ abused pnbl ic confidence, and the public 
turned upon it to destroy it. The public never 
forgave Commodore Tandtjrbilt's "public-be- 
damaed" policy of railroad management, and 
they turned upon the railroads ^"ith a public- 
regulation system that made railroad manage- 
ment a nightmare. It is not hard to foresee 
tiiat the new crop of millionaires and near- 
millionaires have placed themselves in a pre- 
carious position. 



Nothing aroqses public suspicion like tamper- 
ing with the private pocket-book. *^t is a short 
cut to dispossession," comments a man pvomi- 
nent in public alTairs; and "if the men respon- 
sible for policies in any industry wish to be 
deprived of it without fine discriminationB as 
to rights and equities, the sure, quick way is to 
permit the public to believe that these men ar« 
profiteerina^''. 

TVLether profiteering is a cause of high prices 
or an incident connected therewith, the public 
have come to regard it as a leading cause for 
the lessened purchasing power of wages. Sooner 
or later public indignation is likely to look for 
a victim, and the man that today has acquired 
the worst name is Mr. Profiteer. 

It was doubtless of this class that the "Wise 
Man spoke many centuries ago: "There is a 
generation, whose teeth arc as swords, and their 
jaw teeth zs knives, to devour the poor from off 
the earth, and the needy from among men". 
(Proverbs 30: 14) The Psalmist also said: 'n;7hy 
boasteth thou thyself in mischief, O mighty 
man t God shall destroy thee ; he shall take thee 
away, and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, 
and root thee out of the land of the living^. 
—Psalm 52:1-5. 

What Coald a Laundry Do 7 

TN AK eastern city something akin to a shock 
-*- was felt by the patrons of the laundries 
when they saw by window signs that shirts 
which once cost ten cents to have laundried 
would be fifteen cents, and those once twelve 
cents would be eighteen cents. 

But what could a laundry dot The small 
hand laundries do little or no washing, but send 
the work out to be washed by steam laundries. 
They iron out the pieces, do thorn up with their 
own tags, and get what profit they can — from 
$1S to $25 a week. This income is equivalent to 
$9 to $12.50 before the war, and is not an extra- 
vagant return for a man who undertakes the 
responsibility of a business. Perhaps now the 
hand laundry proprietor can get $30 to $40 a 
week, and be able to buy Iwtter food and clothing 
and rent a better flat for the children, and enjoy 
a very little of the "place in the sun" every 
one has the right, to. 

The origin of the rise was tie needs of tho 
workers to improvr the meager Irving they got 
by ironing. The Shirt Ironers" Union members 
have wires and children, and want them to be 



The Golden Age for January 7. tgzc 



229 



fairly well fed and clothed- They think it not 
onreatioxiable to ask ten cents for ironing plain 
shirts and twelve cents for shirts -with cqUats 
and cuffs, for which they had reoeiTed eight 
cents, a snm which became insofficient for food, 
rent, clothing and shoes for the family. For the 
pre-war wage of eight cents had shnmk in 
bnying power to four cents. 

The situation is made complicated by a side 
issne. Enterprising little promoters make the 
conditions difficult. They create independent 
latmdries and apply forced methods of pnehing 
the bnsinesB to a point where it may be sold at 
a profit of one or two hundred dollars. In these 
promotion laundries there are no Union ironers, 
but the proprietor, his wife and all the children, 
do the ironing. With no proper wage cost it is 
easy to ask cut prices for wort and Aow such 
a proiit on the books that some would-be laundry 
proprietor can be induced to buy the business 
I'or a few hundred dollars. 

In addition, the steam laundries have a rising 
cost of doing business, consequently keep raisLng 
the wholesale rate to the hand laundries. Be- 
tween all these factors it looks as though fifteen 
and eighteen cent shirts might come to stay. 
For under aD the eixcmustances, what else 
could a laundry doT 

In Bible days men were required to see that 
not mei-ely the workers but even the cattle had 
plenty to cat; for it was the law that "thou 
slialt not muzzle the 01 when he treadeth out 
the corn'. (Deuteronomy 25:4) We who look 
for the Golden Age surely ought to be willing 
and glad to pay a little more if it is going to 
help some fellow worker to get some of the 
plentj' we would like to enjoy ourselves. 

Money in Steel 

TlfKRI'j is monpy in the steel business, and 
tho bnainess is an empire in itself. The 
L-nited States Steel Corporation was formed 
'-igbtoi^-t^ yoars ago ont of twelve steel plants of 
vaiious kind.*. loLl.OOO acres of coal lands, 
'•ortaiii aatviral :^as ^v^Us, and the Mcsaba ore 
d^'po^-it^, of Minnesota. 

Mr. J. Pv Morgan, Sr., bought these properties 

in IWl by ^vrng the stockholders of the original 

i;oTt\pu.w<^s bond>j in the yteel Corporation, 

■ ■■<\\r hf !,opi Mir^./apital ^tock of $t)00,000,000 

for biiu&eU' and his associates, to pay him for 



his trouble in organizisg the company. The 
stock cost him little or nothing, but it is the 
capital stock that oontrob the company. . 

In ci^teen years the Steel Corporation, be- 
sides paying large salaries and commissions to 
bankers and ofG^als, and paying the interest 
and dividends on a billion and a half of stocks 
and bonds, has laid up assets to the value of 
more than six times the original value of the 
properties. In 1917 the Steel Corporation earned 
fifty per cent on the original value of the 
properties, and in 1916 another fifty per cent 
Ordinarily it earns about fourteen per cent on 
the original value. 

The Steel Corporation employes more men 
than were in the United States Army at the 
beginning of the World War, and has dependent 
upon it more people than the entire population 
of some of the coimtries involved in the 
European disputes. It is an empire or monarchy 
within a repubUc Its subjects long for repre- 
sentation in the government of the indnatry 
upon which their lives depend. 

The workers for the Steel Corporation have 
the same just right to organize, and to bring 
together aD the men in all the shopa aa the 
Corporation had to organise and to hiing to- 
gether the shops themselves. The President of 
the Steel Corporation, Mr. Gary, denies €us 
right He is unwiHing to treat with delegates 
of labor thus chosen. 

It is estimated that from a third to a quarter 
of a million men went out on strike in the steel 
business when Mr. Gary refused to treat with 
their representatives. The statistics of sbnA 
production showed a redaction of forty per 
cent in the output, maintained for many weeks. 
No doubt the Steel Corporation felt that its 
tremendous profits made during the war are 
sufficient to carry it over until the strike is won. 

In a ^eat strike there are many hardships 
and injustices. Not infrequently, strike-breaJc- 
ers, or "detectives", as they arc called, use their 
efforts to aronse one nationality against an- 
other. Thus, they urgt; Serbians to go back to 
work, telling them that if they do not the Ital- 
ians AviJl gpt thHr jobs. The. Steel Corporation 
has done something at Gary to\vard American- 
i-dng the aliens employed in the miUa there, but 
it needs to do more and should instantly dismiss 
"detectives' engaged in the kind of work here 
mentioned. 



2S0 



The Qolden Age for January 7, 1920 



A clever kind of camouflage whicii Las been 
practiced in at least one locality is to give dead 
mills the appearance of being bnsy by burninjj 
tar in tbe chimneys and sending up a thick, 
black smoke, and to arrange electric lights in 
such a tray as to convey the impression that a 
mill is mnning when it is actually cold. 

Railroad Perplexities 

FOR several years railroad managers, or 
those responsible for the properties, have 
been in great perplexity. They have the inex- 
orable payrolls to meet; and yet they are re- 
stricted by their charters, or otherwise, in what 
they can charge for transportation. In the 
effort to get around their difficulties they do 
some strange things. 

Of coarse, as everybody knows, the financiers 
and others who conld get hold of the properties, 
robbed the Erie, New Haven, Pere Marquette, 
Alton, Eock Island, Frisco and many other 
lines, in the most shameless manner; and the 
dear public, who paid the bills and vrho still 
continnea to pay, could only dieer feebly wlien 
the first generation of robbers turned the pro- 
perties over to another, presumably to perpet- 
uate the good work. 

The death of Mr. Shonts, and the efforts of the 
company of which he was president to chum up 
public enthiisiasm for an increased subway fare 
in New York City, has drawn general attention 
to another railway, the Interbo rough, one of 
the greatest railways in the world in point of 
number of passengers carried, and in point 
of safety. 

In the summer of 1918 the Iiiterborough Com- 
pany needed $33,000,000 to jMiy for certain 
improvements, and current interest obligations 
of $11,500,000 per year. The money was bor- 
rowed from J. P. Morgan and Company, and a 
statement filed that in the ten years from 1907 
to 1917 the gross operating revenues of the road 
incrba^ed seventy-four per cent and the net 
income available for interest payments, 179 per 
cent. The statement went on to show that the 
company's expected increase in profits on a five 
cent fare basis would be sufficient to meet all 
indebtedness ,,up to 1926, and contained the 
statomenttlhat "the engineers state that in mak- 
ing the estunates, full allowance has been made 
for the unfavorable conditions brought about 
by the war". 

Apparently the Interborough wanted the 



money so badly in the summer of 1918 that it 
concealed the real facts, or else the real facts 
were purposely hidden from sight in the sum- 
mer of 1919 when the process of "churning" for 
a larger fare was started. It is interesting to 
watch one of these "churning" operations, and 
see how the public is gradually homswoggleiL 
One step was to have a "strike" for higher 
wages on the part of the men. The Interborough 
paid the hall rent, lights, printing hills, and 
time spent in attending the meetings of the 
"union" that did the striking. Perhaps -fliey 
thought there would be more money in getting 
the men to force them to pay higher wages so 
that they could force a much larger sum out of 
the public in the form of an increased fare. 
Tlie wage increase is expected to nm to about 
$5,000,000 per year, while the fare increase 
asked for will run to $32,000,000. 

"WTien the railroads are returned to the men 
who were miming them previously (we can not 
say to the owners, for the "financiers" who ran 
these railroads were not the owners) we sfaaH 
probably see the Interborough clamor for in- 
creased rates repeated on a gigantic scale. It 
is always the calculation of those who rob the 
people on a grand scale that tlie whole matter 
will be forgotten in a few years ; and it generally 
is. From 1900 to 1910 eighteen railroads of the 
United States gave away stock bonuses aggre- 
gating $450,414,000, besides paying liberal cash 
dividends to stockholders; and now of course, 
the men to whom these bonuses were given are 
hoping for perpetual interest payments on 
these gifts. 

President Underwood of the Erie has stated 
that the Government operation of the railroads 
would have made a much better showing than 
it has made if the payrolls had not been over- 
loaded with unnecessary employes who were 
given positions for politicai reasons. 

Early in the War it was reported that master 
mechanics of railroads had orders to maka 
repairs of locomotives and cars in such a man- 
ner as to cause, not serious accidents, but little 
delays so anno>-ing to passengers and shippers 
as to discredit governmental ownership. Similar 
reports were in circulation about railway signal 
systems. If the railroads were not managed by 
irresponsible individuals, it might be possible 
for the same rules for elTicient service to apply 
to railroad execntives, directors and finanoienf 
as to railroad workers. 



The Golden Age for January 7, igzo 



231 



SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL 



J 



SmtmDead MiUionairea 

T\ I^ING the Fan of 1919 an unusual ntcmbtr 
-L' c^ millionaires passed away ; and the man- 
ner 14 which their fortunes "were obtained, how 
they irere nsed and how ihej -were disposed of 
arc, as always, items of general interest, be- 
cause they are out of the ordinary. As far as 
nwst of us are concerned, the nearest we can 
hope to ijome to this subject is to read about it. 
But there is one thing about it that is encourag- 
ing, or discouraging — depending on how we 
look at it — and that is that when we die we 
eadi ef us leave as much as the wealthiest ; that 
is to say, wo leave everything, all we have. 

Siitee the world began, nobody has given 
away such a colossal fortune as Andrew Car- 
negie. His known gifts aggregated more than 
$350,000,000; and inasmudi as at his death 
he left no more than about $30,000,000 he must 
have given away many more millions of which 
no r*cord survives. In his will Mr. Carnegie 
remel^bered a half dozen British statesmen by 
life aktamties of $5,000 to $10,000 a year; also 
all tie living ex-Presidents and living wives 
•t Presidents. He is buried at Sleepy 
, New Yoric 

:iaia Waldorf Astor, who recently died in 
«, was the owner of $60,000,000 worth of 
tate in New York CSty. A grandson of 
the original John Jacob Astor, and at one time 
in pi^i« life on this si<le of the water, even to 
oecu^ng the post of minister to Italy, he 
eveataally rcnouneed his country, saying, 
"Aoj4Tiea is not a fit country for a gentleman 
to live in". But tliis was before the passage of 
the Espionage Act 

Mr. Astor was a "climber", for about a 
quarter of a centnry trying to break in to 
English society, and finall y sncceeded- The trar 
was^^iis opportunity; and for his gifts to the 
British cause, he was made a viscount, what- 
ever that is. It is estimated that his efforts to 
get into the peerage cost him $12,000,000. His' 
danghter-iO'law, Lady Ajstor, an American girl, 
rau forHhc Seat in the Hoase of Commoos made 
vacant by her husband when he moved np into 
the Houiie of Lords. This shows a considerably 
higher line of thought thaa that indulged by « 

t 

) 



Mrs. Astor on this side of the water, a con- 
nection of William Waldorf, who recently dis- 
tinguished herself by appearing in a mule race 
at the Khinebeck, Dutchess County, N. Y., fair. 
It is hard to see what America ever got in return 
lor the millions that it gave to the Astora. 

Theodore P. Shonts is dead, too. Mr. Shonts 
was reckoned as one of the world's great 
engineers, having received at one time a fee of 
$7,000,000 from one western railroad. Chosen 
by the United States Government to build the 
Panama Canal, he made splendid progress with 
the work, but suddenly resigned to take the 
presidency of the Interborough, giving as hia 
reason that his love for his family would net 
permit of his rejecting the offer the ^ter- 
borough had made him. 

Apparently, Mr. Shonts did think a lot of his 
family at one timej for the allowance which he 
gave to his wife and two daughters wss, for 
many years, $93,000 per year. But he wredsed 
his fortune by plunges in the stock market, cat 
hia family's allowance to $45,000 per ye«r 
(which would still be large enough for some of 
us to live upon, in a pinch) and finally became 
estranged from them altogether, and eiagaged 
other apartments. However, only two years ago 
he paid one jewelry bUl for his fanuly aaoont- 
ing to $135,000. 

Mr. Shonts left an estate valued at $475,000. 
He divided $200,000 among his two daughter!;, 
a sister and two nieces, reserved $100,000 for 
the payment of a tlebt to his ■wil'o which he 
acknowledged owing to her, and gayc her $5,000 
outright The balance of his estate he gave to a 
woman not related to the family in any way, an 
cx-actress. Mr. Shouts made eight separate 
wills since 1900, which indicates that the pos- 
session of money does not necessarily bring one 
rest of mind; and it can not be said that his 
career, as a whr>1o, is anything the youth of 
the country should emulate. Col. Roosevelt de- 
nounced liitn bitterly at the time he left tlxe 
employ of the Government, issuing a public 
statement that Shonts had left his country for 
the sake of mere lucre. CoL Boosevell, himself, 
is one of the wealthy men who died during the 
past year, his total fortune aggiegating a Uttlo 
less than one million dollars. 



23S 



The QoUcn Age for January 7, 1920 



■»" 



Mr?. Russell Sage is another famons million- 
aire who died during the latter part of 1919. 
She was a wonderful womau, deserving of the 
arrnatest respect. Out of a net estate of 
$4:i.l'61JL'4 she gave $40,000,000 to philauQiropy 
and cducatJOD, while the appraisement of her 
])prEonal wardrobe showed that its vaJae was 
$288. She always dressed neath', and her ward- 
robe was maintained for that purpose and not 
lacvely for display. 

Then there was another millionaire, little 
knuvni. but nevertheless the possessor of a 
large fortune. Solomon Schinasi, a Turkish 
cigarette maker, left an estate of 61.5.000,000. 
Tliat seems like a large fortune to be coUecied 
out of such a business as makintj and selling 
"coffin nails". Wonder how many buildings 
■were burned by the cigarettes for which Mr. 
Schinasi was responsible? One hotelkeeper in 
Willimantic, Conn., has .stated that he was 
burned out seven times, in various localities, 
and that in each ease the fires were proven to 
have been started by cigarettes. 
And Some Lice Ones 

'y HE number of millionaires in Great Britain 
-»- is about the same in proportion to the popu- 
lation that it J3 liere. In Great Britain there 
are 148 individuals with an annual income of 
over .<)i500,000, and in the United States there are 
456 yrith like incomes. One of these lives in 
Chicago, and has a personal income of more 
than $70,000,000 annually. We do not know who 
this is, and it would be agaiust the law to tell, 
if we did know; but we can make a guess. 

Mr. Philip D. Armour is a very modest ap- 
pearing and economical man, for one in his 
station in life; and he says that he buys two 
suits per year, one straw hat. three neckties, 
six suits of underwear, two dozen pairs of 
socks, an overcoat eveiy other year, and a soft 
hat once in five years, occasionally touched up 
with ink in the meantime. 

The five big packers, of whom Mr. Armour 
is perhaps the leading spirit, are interested in 
bigg^.lhings than seeing hov.- nicely they can 
doll np. They have gained a grip on many of 
the big hotels of the comitry. 'ITie snpplying of 
meats to sLs of the great hotels in New York 
City is supposed in each ca.'io to net the packer 
who has the^contract about $50,000 profit per 
annum, "^'he National \\holesalG Grocers As- 
sociation declares that 375 American railroads 
arc gl\-ins tlic Big Five a favored service. 



, Eabbi Levinthal, of Brooklyn, thiaks that the 
Big Five have gotten a start that nothing can 
stop. He said recently: "The war has let loose 
tlie passions of the people as never before. It 
has opened up a flood of intense hatreds and 
strifes that can not be controlled. Speculators 
are greedily buying up the necessities of life; 
trusts, like Pharaoh's lean kine at the banks of 
the Nile, are swallowing up industry after in- 
dustry, and yet never seem satisfied". 

A man with an income of $70,000,000 per 
year can swallow up a good many big businesses 
every year and not notice it. Even the little 
Milk Trust, in New York City, is estimated to 
clean up $;;o0,000 per day, or $123350,000 per 
year, in the prollts they make off from New 
York's hungry kiddies, and that amount will 
buy quite a few industries ever7 year. In Eng- 
land the taxes do something toward curbing the 
rapacity of the money-grabbers. The old estates 
are unable (o keep the pace and are being 
broken up. This is a, good tiling for the country; 
it is distributing the wealth more evenly. 

During the war, with 4,000,000 of the workers 
absent, we produced in the United States about 
$530 for each man, woman and child in the 
country; enough, if properly distributed, to 
give plenty to everybody. Harrington Emerson, 
the great efficiency expert, with eight other 
industrial engineers of similar standing, has 
issued a solemn warning to the great business 
men of the country that the cause of present 
unrest in industry is the acquisition of wealth 
f orwhich no adequate service has been rendered. 

The charge of these engineers is that labor 
shares with capital in this form of plunder: 
and their charge is just. The policy of eitlior 
capital or labor, of exacting profit without 
rendering fully compensating service, has wast- 
ed enormous stores of human and natural re- 
sources and can not continue T.Tthout a wrecic 
that will smash everytliing in sight. 

Wc do not know whether the Idjig and queen 
of Belgium expected too much profit on their 
recent trip through America. The trip is re- 
ported to have coet them $1,000,000; but wc 
have not the least idea that they wont back to 
Belgium witli less money than they had wlieji 
they came. The same may be said for Cardinal 
Mercier. Ho came over here "just to sec Amer- 
ica'"; but i;i ovcry place he went his admireri 
passed the hat, and the great Amenean public, 
that loves to have it so, paid cheerfully. 



The Qolden Age for January 7, 1920 



finn 




Coal in Spitzbergen 

IS IT in OHahoma or in Aiiaoim? wonld be 
the first questioTi about Spitzbergen. Bat no ; 
it is a group of islands withiu the arctic cii-ele 
some 400 miies north of Xorway, wtb a climate 
which Mr. VilhjaJraua- Rt^'fan^son, the arcuo 
explorer, assnrea ia 'no worse than that of 
Winnipeg". 

•'"rhe mild cb'mate of Spitsbergen,'' ?ays Dr. 
W. S. Btuco, who has invpstigafed the principal 
island of the archipi^lago, ''if, due to the- warm 
drift that reacbes tho wt'stern shores from the 
Atlantie''. By a '''mild climate" the doctor seems 
ia mean that it is not quite a^ bad ar- ice-bonnd 
Grwnland; and tliat Spitzbereen will he a good 
place to live is suggestod by the dream that tJie 
i.=lands will become a great steel centov. 

'•"IPot'', says Mr. StePanpson, "there Is no 
reason why great steel mills should not be erect- 
ed in Spitzbergen, and their i>roduet shipped to 
all Northern Europe". This is a modern replica 
of the counsel! of Henry Hudson in 1607, who 
sjiid that 'it would proiit to adventure Spitz- 
bergen", in other words, to make it the subject 
of a stoclc-sellsELg promotion scheme. This may 
ind€0d not be impossible today, for was it not 
the Boston film of Ayer & Longyear, some 
years ago, that exploi'od Spitzbergen'a mineral 
possibilities, but — probably wisely — sold out to 
a more optimistic Norwegian syndicate? And 
did not a British company go to the islands and 
start to "adventure" themf However, all the 
concerns that have tried Spitzbergen have quit, 
with the one result suggested by Mr. Stefans- 
son".s remark, '"I do not know what they accom- 
pJished". 

The great explorer is enthusiastic over tlie 
po.-nbilitios 01 tills '■■farthest-north" proposi- 
tion : "The coal is better for steam purposes 
i ';aa the best Welsh coal, and that means it is the 
bet i:i ths v.oi-ld. There seems to be an almost 
iinlimii'^d amount, of Oio highest grade of iron 
ore; it is this ore which constitutes the wealth 
of SpitzbcT-geti and winch is likely to make it 
one oi' Uie -jcreate;*t steel manufacturing centers 
01 the world. The Pittsbnrgh district is the 
only one that has the same characteristics as 
Spil-.bevgen. The high-Ararle coal and equally 
^ood Iron ore are practically contiguous, and 



both are so close to the sea that shipments can 
be made by gravity trams. Outcroppings of 
botli coal and iron are all along the coast, and 
the weathered coal is so good that the miners 
can use it In their stoves during cold seasons." 
The trutli about Spitzbergen is that it is a 
very cold place. Thfs temperature ia somewhat 
warmer than Bear Island, haKway to Norway; 
but the thpnnometer averages abont twcnty- 
(hree degrees on the warm west side, and frnm 
cloven to fourteen degrees on the cold east .side 
of tlif> principal Island. The west shore is 
raocierated by the warmer, yet cold, Atlantic 
Ocean currents; bnt the. east coast ifl bathed by 
a frigid arctic current, and is practically unin- 
habitable. In winter even the west coast is 
made almost unendurable by the persistent east 
winds ihat svrcep with arctic severity from the 
ice plains and mountains of the central plateau 
and the east coast, I^et us compare the Spitz- 
bergen climate with Winnipeg; for do not th« 
explorers say that it is "milder than 'Winmpeg", 
and that "records show that the niercary never 
reaches the same depths in Spitzbergen that it 
does in Winnipeg and other thriving aettla- 
ments of Canada" t But Winnipeg has its sum- 
mer heat enough for crops and trees to groir, 
while the Spitzbergen climate, according to the 
Britanniea, permits the growth of oidy oba 
"tree", the arctic willow growing not over two 
feet high and bearing a few leaves not larger 
than a man's finger nail. ITicre are also some 
crowberry and cloudberiy bushes, poppies, some 
gras.s in favored valleys and plenty of bright 
jrrcen moss. There are in fact 130 varietifes of 
flowering plants of arctic species. 

It has never been possible to inhabit the 
islands permanently. Hunters have occasional- 
ly been foFced to winter there, and the Islands 
have been made the basis of a few arctic expedi- 
tions which penetrated a couple of hundred 
miles farther north over the ice-covered Arctic 
Sea. The ice closes in on the coast in September 
and does not relax its grip until May, a con- 
dition quite different from Winnipeg, which is 
accessible by rail all the year round. Trans- 
portation to and from Spitzbergen is suspended 
while the ocean ice locks the harbors. From 
October 14 to February 3 there ia no sunlight, 



w-i 



The Golden Age Jor January 7. igzo 



.hut twilight, oxcopt from December i to 20, 
iho dark arc-tie night, lighted liov.-evf-r by the 
bright floar moon. 

l*rior to iho present (li3cov<^ries of iron ore 
and good coal th<? areliipelago has never been 
thought worth fighting over by the predatory 
European nations. In the summer of 1622, how- 
ever, British whalers and fishor.'i eoniing there 
informed the Dutch workers on the ground 
that they held a comiTiipsion from the King "for 
the depression of any Flemings or interloper', 
but they hoped of course that the Dutchmen 
would go quietly. The Dtttehman, however, 
said that ''being a simple fisherman, he knew 
nothing about these matters; he had been .sent 
by Ws employers, and would do what he had 
been told to do". This it is claimed was the last 
attempt of the English to as.sert their "rights" 
against the Dutch. Bat now that the islands 
have a.ssumed ''importauce" because there is 
soraetJiing there worth grabbing, there may be 
further assertions of rights by one nation of 
Knrope or another. 

If any workers want to find a good lonesome 
place to winter in, they might try Spitzbergen, 
if wealthy promoters decide to invest some 
money there. It is not a particularly good place 
to bring up a family, so those that apply should 
be single, or widowers, or possibly grass- 
widowers seeking ''ills they know not of," to 
escape the ills they have. It is probable that 
there would be movies supplied, and once in a 
while an airplane from Norway; for, says Mr. 
Sto-fansson, "Spitzberijen would not be cut off 
from the v.-orid, even when inaccessible for 
ships. The radio woulfl provide communication; 
and with Uie rapid development of aircraft it 
is quite possible that a regular passenger and 
freii^hr pr-rvice migiit bo maintained. It is sel- 
dom that yon find tifty milps of unbroken ice 
even in the farthest north, and seaplanes would 
fiinl many opon spaces in which to land." 

There is some hope for ftven Spitzbergen. In 
the ^^boniferous era the islands were all 
united, and were covered with extensive peat 
liogs in which "the marsh p\'prcss flowered, 
dropping its leaves and blossoms into the 
marshes.. There were also sequoia, poplars, 
birches, -^lan^e and large oaks, and tluck under- 
brush froely deve'loped tmder their shadow; 
and in contrast ■nith the almost total absence 
of insect life now, thousands of insects swarmed 
in the tliicbet,' In comparatively recent geolog- 



ical limes the islands were entirely covered with 
deep ice sheetfi. That the ice is graduftHy dis- 
appearing when measured by a period of two 
thousand years or more is encouraging for the 
belief that tho archipelago uiJl eventnally be 
entirely clear of ice fields and glaciers. The 
same I'lood tiiat deposited the arctic ice cap, 
and caused the glaclation of much of the north- 
orn hemisphere, pbiyed havoc with the Spitz, 
bergen climate. Its effects are slowly m/&Jting 
away, and in the course of the next few hundred 
years will probably be entirely gone, aa the 
earth becomes more like the Eden it is promised 
to be. Then this group of arctic islands -will 
eome into their own, and there may be steel 
works in Spitzbergen. But not until then. 

Building to Cost More 

THE intending builder of a house should get 
his building under way at once unless he 
wants to pay considerably more for it — so say 
experienced builders. Next spring is expected 
to see a fifteen per cent increase in the cost 
of btiilding materials alone. 

The factors producing the rise are labor 
shortage, unrest, and mounting cost of labor 
and materials, according to one of thd largest 
concerns in the East. 

Taking the 1909 cost aa a basis of 100%, the 
cost of building each year has been as follows : 

1900 100% 1914 «0.4% 

isno 98.9?i 1913 8T.9»4 

1911 _ 9R.3% 1&16 IOS.5% 

lfll2 00.-4% 1017 1518.6',; 

1913 • 02.8% 1918 . in.e';i 



First halt oE 1019_ 



.JT4.S? 



If labor increases in cost with other items, a 
building next spring will cost at least 1%^% of 
what the same building would have cost in 1909. 

One of the stablizers of a social order is a 
home. If all the people owned their homes, 
there would be only a firaction of the unrest 
there is. How to get the people possessed of 
the sense of security that comes from sitting 
down beneath one's own roof is a problem the 
wise men of today would like to solve. They 
will be no more able to solve this insolvable 
problem than any of the others that confront 
them. Eat nevertheless the time is near, when 
"they [the common people] shall build houses, 
and inhabit them; and they shall plant vine- 
yards, and eat the frtiit of them" (Isaiah 60: 
21), for these are the things that will be brought 
about by the wi^e men of the Qoldcn Age. 



The Qolden Age far January 7, 1920 



235 



^ 
k 




B ailreadFinaticun 

THOSE who made nneamed millions out of 
the financing of the New Haven, Pere Mar- 
quette, Alton, Frisco, and many anotlier Amer- 
ican railroad are perfectly sincere in their 
desires that the railroads should be rotumed 
t* them withont delay. 

To th« disinterested onlooker there wonld 
seem to be no particnlar reason why the Penn- 
sylvania ahonld wish to have its road letamed ; 
for the rental which haa been paid to it by the 
Government amounts to 11.29% on its capital 
Btoek, and that seems like a pretty liberal rate 
of interest. Bnt other roads have received even 
better returns. 'Hie New York Central has 
received 12.96% on its capital stock, the Bur- 
lington 22.25%, the Reading 25.7% and the 
Lackawanna 32.61%. 

And then that capital stock. How did it aU 
eome into existence! Far be it from us to teU ; 
for we do not know. Bnt it is cnrrently report- 
ed that the capital stock of the New York Cen- 
tral contains $57,000,000 par value for which 
nothing vras ever paid except the cost of print- 
ing and distributing it; and we partly believe 
it. On this $57,000,000 it is said that dividends 
amounting to $120,000,000 have already been 
paid. As a matter of fact the public has paid 
the cost of actual construction of the New York 
Central four or five times over, and continues 
to pay it aU over again every few years in 
interest and dividends. 

"Wlien railroad presidents look about them 
and see managers of steel plants making sal- 
aries of $1,000,000 TpeT year, they cannot under- 
stand why the "financiers" who put them into 
office should object to paying them salaries of 
$100,000 per year; and the corporation attor- 
neyS'^^uid consulting engineers see no reason 
why they should not be well rewarded for any 
special services they render. Hence fees run- 
ning far into the thousands, and occasionally 
into millions, hare given another class a heart- 
felt interest^ in the disposition of these railway 
propertiea. 

And aside from the salaries, and fees of 
attorneys and engineers, and honorariums of 
$50. or more for each director who spends a few 



minutes at a directors' meeting, there is the 
great, juicy American stock market, where a 
person who knows what earnings a railroad has 
made or is going to make, and what kind of 
report they will publish, can often make a 
fortune by "wise" moves in the market just 
before the report is made public 

We do not know how it is now, but a few 
years ago there were "auditors", who were on to 
their jobs so well that they had complete re- 
ports of tlie actual receipts of the road for a 
month in the hands of the management several 
days before the month had ended. This was 
accomplished by a careful withholding or ac- 
celeration of deposits sufficient to make the 
published reports agree with the facts. And in 
two or three days, in a lively stock market, a 
"financier" can do a great deal for himsaelf and 
his friends. It is a great life. 

Jetae James Employee 

THE dear public would have stood a chance 
of curbing the old time financier, and Con- 
gress was actually making some prepress with 
the difficult problem, when the great railway 
brotherhoods accidently discovered a way to 
get some or all of the money that has heretofore 
gone to financiers, officers, attorneys, consulting 
engineers and stockholders. 

There are fourteen unions of different classes 
of railway employes, the four big brotherhoods 
of engineers, firemen, trainmen and conductors, 
and ten others that are affiliated with the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor. The four big brother- 
hoods were the first to discover and to use their 
strength; and if there is anybody tliat doubts 
that these four brotherhoods held up the whole 
country at the point of the pistol just before we 
went into the war, now wonld be a good time 
to bring the truth to the light. 

They have exacted such wage concessions 
from the Government as to make their increased 
wages amount to more than the total amount 
which the Government has paid to the railway 
companies for the rental of their properties. 
Freight and passenger conductors now receive 
over $300 per month, and freight engineers 
receive $392 per montL The latter amount is 



B3< 



The Golden Ag* for January 7. ip^a 



only $296 l^^ss than $5,000 p6r year. There are 
thirteen states in the Onited Stales that pay 
their governors not more th£Ji $4,000 per year ; 
and one of the^ is Texas, tiie largest stale in 
the Union. We believe that men who ran on the 
railroads should be well paid, better paid than 
most men ; bat we cannot forget the onder-dog 
in this pretty little game of hold-np; and the 
public, and the lesser railway nnions, are the 
nnder-dog, very much so. Bi^ dogs onght to be 
friendly to little ones. 

Some of the finaindal papers are criticising 
railroad englaeers for wearing $12 silk shirts 
when they are off duty, and for permitting their 
wives to wear $10 silk stockin^^ But perhaps 
these railway men have as good right to wear 
such finery as the "financiers" and "anditors" 
who have milked the same cow in the past, but 
have done it in a more quiet and gentle manner. 

The average wage of all railroad men in 
Jnly, including over-time pay, was $12150. If 
this represents a full month's work for each 
man it is not too much, but the men in the lesser 
anions complain that the four great brother- 
hoods get most of the money and wUl not per- 
mit the rank and file to receive any benefits at 
all except as they rise with them and above 
tliem. There would have been a strike of some 
500,000 shopmen in August, but they postponed 
a walkout at the request of the President in 
order to give the Govemment a chance to 
reduce the cost of living. 

Since the threatened shopmen's strike the 
trainmen and conductors have renewed their 
demands for immediate wage increases to con- 
form to the increased cost of living. The Gov- 
ernment declined the general increases asked, 
amounting altogether to an enormous sum, but 
did set aside $3,000,000, which weis used to 
equalize the compeoi^ation of such engineers, 
firemen, conductors and trainmen as are em- 
ployed in the slow frt^ight train service. 

The railway officials claim that as railway 
wages "have inerpased, ihfi efficiency of the em- 
ployes has dpcreased; and a Pennsylvania rail- 
road official goes so far as to claim that it now 
Tcquires ten men to produce the same results 
as were aoc-omplLsh«d by six men before the 
war. There ia 'an off.^et to this in the fact that 
railroad engines haul three times more today 
than they could haul thirty years ago, their 
weig^ having increased from 127 tons to 254 
tana, so that fewer emgloyea are reqaired for 



the tonnage moved. In the sUune time the 4"*6r- 
age freight car ha.s iniTr eased in capacity from 
20 tons to 50 tons. The traffic of this coantr>' 
has d alibied every ten or tWBlve years, bnt the 
emplDy«s have not doubled -ir&h. ihe traffic ; nor 
has it been necessary that they should do so. 

Rcuitvay Finanea 

RAILWAYS go to pieces rapidly. On the 
Chicago and Nortiiwestern Bailroad, the 
line loses eleven cars per day; and taking the 
country as a whole, there are from 80,000 to 
100^000 freight cars scrapped aimuaJly. Ties 
decay and rails wear out. Bridges are an im- 
portant factor, and they too wear out. On the 
New York Central lines east of Buffalo there 
are over 4,000 bridges and trestles, and 15,000 
culverts and other crossings. • 

There are various ways of strengthening 
weakened bridges and prolonging their Lives, 
such as riveting reinforcing material to weak- 
ened parts, putting in additional girders, mak- 
ing long, weak spans, into short, strong ones, 
and. using weak bridges for places where only 
li^t duty will be required of them. But even 
with all this they do wear out. 

For four years the railroads have bought 
comparatively little; and since the armistice 
the Railroad Administration has been restrict- 
ed as to the amount of funds it could spend for 
additions and betterments, so that it is now 
estimated that during the next three years the 
railroads should have $3,500,000,000 to invest 
in 20,000 new locomotives, 10,000 passenger cars 
and 800,000 freight cars, with another $2,500,- 
000 for new trackage and shops. 

The maintenance of the roads has been sup- 
posed to be kept up, as was agreed upon when 
the roads were taken over by the Government ; 
but early in November the President of the 
Cotton Belt Boad declared that much of that 
road was at that time unsal'e for normal opera- 
tion, and in some districts was at the jjolnt of 
danger, due to rotten ties, loo.se and missing 
bolts and defective drainagp. Porbaps I'und.- 
will be needed to again^ put some of tliesp 
properties in first-class conditioa. 

As to bills payable, the railways owo Ibe 
Government $771y'')51.000 forexpf'ndiuiri'>.5mnde 
for brtterments. As to working oapilai, Ihcy 
need a month's working expenses, estimated 
for all th*> road,s at $?>r>3,000,000. Then they 
need $20,000,000 more every month, to make 



77»e Qolden Age for January 7, 1920 



£r.t 



good i:io avfranje Iofs which the Govenuneat 
novsr fusiaiDS lor overy monih that It, contuioes 
io oporatn liie roads, xJi'ovidfd iliey eonLlQUP, to 
pay the present i\^turns of Lnierest and divi- 
deads. (it. :';hoaid be remarked in thi^ counection 
that more thaa Ihij-Cy-nine per cent of railway 
shares pay no dividends.) Atop of all this is 
the insistent demand of the railway employes 
for more and ever more wages. 

Expecting that shortly, in haimony with the 
President's promise, the roads woold be re- 
tuiiied to their former managers, these mana- 
gpvi? are now sayiiig some pretty severe things 
ahout the Government. They are ajccusing 
formei- Administrations of having starved them 
and mined their bank and investment credit 
by insTiffioJent trafBc rates, and the present 
Adraiiiistratioa of having mortgaged the body, 
life and sonl of the railway properties to 
gratify the exactions while stimulating the 
excesses of the four great brotherhoods. 

They declaun that since the beginning of the 
war railroad wage rates have risen 85%, and 
costs of materials 100%, taken together a rise 
of 90% in cost of operation. To meet these 
rising costs the average rates for freight and 
passenger service have been raised 35%. During 
the war the average trainload was increased 
from 452 tons to 625 tons, but even with this 
saving in operating costs tJie net cost of trans- 
portation during the war was increased 80%. 

Higher Bates Propaganda 

THE next thing for which the dear public 
may prepare themselves, in view of the 
hard facts which the railway managers must 
face, is a strong propaganda for higher freight 
rates. We are informed that such a propaganda 
is in preparation, with a fund of $1,000,000 
back of it to see that the work does not lag. 
In a little while the churning process will be in 
full s^^ing and the person who does not fall in 
line wiU be a pro-German or a Bolshevik or 
some -ejJier animal suitable for incarceration. 
The need of fimanciai relief i.s evident. Pres- 
ident F.liiott of the Northern Paciiic evr-n going 
so far a;^ to say that the railroads must have an 
increase of 25% in the rates, eren if there are 
no moreW'age increases or higher material 
cost?!. On-ihe other hand there are wise people 
who think that if the railroad.^; carry their rates 
any higher they will stimulate the trucks and 
bus lines and. will have less boflineaa and siob- 



ably less returns. Nevertheless, the larJc of 
tonnage, due to the falling off ia ste,"] and coal 
production, on account gj' the strlLf.i in those 
industries, is forcing the issae; and some In- 
crease in freight rates is certain, to talie cai-e 
of the great overhead eicpense from vvhich tlie 
railroads cannot escape. 

But just think for a moment of what an in- 
crease of 25% in the freight rates ^dll mean to 
the country. \\Tiea the eonstmier pays this 
increased freight rate experience has shown 
that he always pays five times the amount of 
the increase. For instance, if the freiglit rate 
on coeJ is increased ten cents per ton, the cus- 
tomer pays an increase of lifty cents, the other 
forty cents being always divided up among the 
dealers and middlemen as profit on the trans- 
action. Hence the anticipated increase of some 
$875,000,000 i>er year would in practice increase 
the living expenses of each faimly of five 
persons by something over $200 per year. 

Proposed Rait Remedies 

WE AfiE not going to propose a new rail 
remedy. Congress has had fifty of these 
plans tmder consideration, and thirteen of them 
have been pushed with a great deal of energy. 
The President admitted to the Congress that 
the question is so intricate that he had no solu- 
tion to propose; and the Congress is finding it 
equally hard to know what is the best thing to 
do. In view of the importance of having the 
question settled wisely the American Federa- 
tion of Labor has urged Congress to continue 
Government control for two years from the 
conclusion of peace, so that the subject can be 
coolly discussed at length, and without politics 
coming into it. The temptation is very great, 
on the eve of a Presidential election, to let the 
railroad question develop into a political issue ; 
but in our judgment this would l>e very unwise. 
The President has vetoed a bill taking out of 
his hands the power to fix rates, and this is 
generally held to mean that he expects to retai Q 
the roads tmtil July first. 

In November two railway bUls were intro- 
duced and pa.ssed, the Cummios bili in the 
Senate and th.e Each bJl in the House, Neither 
bUl becomes a law until it pasa^^s both houses 
and is signed by the President. The hjsch bill 
was passed as a republican measure, the demo- 
crats voting against it. It provides for tho 
eontinoed use of joiot tansLoals and other real 



238 



Th£ Golden Age for January 7, rgio 



advantages which have come about throogh 
govermneut operation; it requires the railroads 
to appeal for advances in rates -iWtliin sixty 
days from the time the roads are turned over, 
if they expect to receive continued assistance 
from the Government ; it provides for continued 
loans by the Government for a year after the 
roads are returned, all loans to be repaid to the 
Government "within ten years, and interest at 
six per cent. It also provides a Labor Court of 
forty members, half employers and haK em- 
ployes, and a Supreme Labor Court of nine 
members, one third employers, one third em- 
ployes and one third public representatives, 
appointed by the President, •with assessments 
of damag'es against railway property for lock- 
outs (that could never possihiy happen) and 
against union property for strikes in violation 
of contract It leaves the rate-making to the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, providing 
only that the rates must be just and reasonable. 
The financial papers believe that the principal 
features of the Esch bUl will prevail over those 
of the Cummins bill in the joint confeiesco 
now under way. 

The Cummins bill plans for fonr or five 
competing lines between NewTork and Chicago, 
and twenty to thirty-five railway systems cover- 
ing the entire country; it authorizes tho pooling 
of freight and pots all issues of securitiea under 
federal control; the standard authorized return 
on the value of the property is fixed at five and 
one half per cent, and it is required that the 
rates shall be such as to maintain this standard ; 
in view of the fact that a rate which is suffi- 
cioat to provide a fair return for a weak road 
affords an excessive return for a strong road, 
the exccsi? earnings of the strong roads are to 
be diverted to the weak ones, which have here- 
tofore suffered many wrongs at the handa of 
their stronger neighbors. 

When the Cnmmins bUl was first passed it 
cfeated great excitment because of a provision 
m^fcipg railway strikes criminal and providing 
puniilunont for them. In support of tViig feature 
ol his bill Senator Cummins said; 

"A general suspension in the movement of traffic foi 
3, fortnight would saxre or freeze, or both, a Large 
number W itien, women and diiidren; and ii it were 
cor.tiiiTia4 a month or two months it wonld practically 
ilei^troy half our population. Our busineM affairs would 
be so disordered that the loss would be greater th.an in 
tny conceivable war in which we mi^ht etmjgei It id 



jiist as much the function of the government in theaa 
cireumEtances to see to it that transponation is adequate, 
continuous and re^'uLir as it is to maintain order, punish 
crime and render justice in any other field of hiuaan 
activity." 

As a general thing tke Chambers of Com- 
merce throughout the country seemed to favor 
this legislation; for several of them sent memo- 
rials to Congress urging such legislation as 
would absolutely prohibit strikes or lockout.'? 
in connection with railroads or other public 
service corporations engaged in interstate or 
foreign commerce. But the railroad men were 
not enthusiastic for it, some of them even going 
so far as to say that if the bill became a law 
there would not be jaUs enough ia the country 
to hold the violators. 

While we appreciate as keenly as any the fact 
that an interruption of the circulation of goods 
is as serious as an interruption of the circula- 
tion of money and that the one would inevit- 
ably lead to the other if long continued, yet we 
can not see how any employer can ever profit 
by holding an employe against his wilL 

Foreign Railroad Notet 

GF.KMANY is troubled by lack of coal for 
her railways, but is not saying much about 
it. Germany do«s not have vaxiah. to say in these 
days. Before the war the railways were state- 
owned, the employes were state employes and 
it was Ulegal for them to strike. The freight 
rates in Germany have been nearly twice as 
high as iu this cotmtry; but they have had an 
advantage over us in one item of the passenger 
service, as a person could buy a card ticket for 
a certain sum, giving him the right to travel all 
he wished during tha yeax. TTii f ; stimulated 
passenger travel, and was a good thing ail 
around. 

In France only one sixth of the railroads 
have been state o^vned and operated- The line 
which has been under gOTemment operation has 
had forty per cent more employes in proportion 
to its earnings than the other Luies, and the 
I'Yench ilinister of Public Works recently made 
a public denunciation of the whole system, de- 
claring that the road was ran in the interest of 
the employes and nobody else. On the twenty- 
first of October all the ralljoads of Prance were 
placed under the control of a committee com- 
posed of representatives from all the different 
cJas.sgB of railwa;^ ftffii'inii! smA employee 



The Qolden Age for January 7, 1020 



sst 




The Old Alliances Again 

IT WAS the honest expectation of President 
Wilson Ti-heii he expressed the hopes of 
himianitj'' in the Fourteen Principles that thara- 
by a solntion -would bo furnished of the many 
soriona problems threatening the peace of the 
world. He fonnd it impossible to impregnate 
the selfish, hardened Enropoan leaders mth the 
better ideals. The jiister regulations expressed 
in the proposed basic law of earth seem far 
from ■what was hoped for, but perhaps the best 
obtainable from the aggregation of diplomatic 
sharks that had long kept Europe in turmoU. 

It is not surprising to see one of the leading 
French publications beginning to come franldy 
out with what amounts to a repudiation of the 
hopes of the world and a return to the darkness 
that culminated in that catastrophic blunder of 
diplomats and kings — the World War. This was 
the inevitable outcome when, on the same day 
a year ago, President Wilson stated that the 
United States would take no part in a reversion 
to thes attempt to keep international poise by a 
balani^e of power, and when Cleroencean said 
that ie adhered to the system known aa tlie 
balance of power, and had never been in agree- 
ment 'with President Wilson in ail respects. 
The Tiger of France has had his way over the 
Idealist of America; and in accord with him 
are the munition makers, the militarists, the 
nobles and the kings of Europe. 

The hesitation of America to commit herself 
to the repugnant policy of entangling alliances 
has given the European reactionaries the chance 
to say that there is to be a renewal of the old 
alliances, and that it will be "the consecration 
of a new ( !) policy bom of American hesita- 
tion". It is plainly '"Europe for the Europ- 
eans". Starting with the Anglo-French Alliance 
other "SUiances will ba added, and notice is 
served that Europe intends to perpetuate "the 
direction of the policies of our Europe". Amer- 
ica is left out not merely because of her delay, 
but becaaise she is not wanted. America is 
wanted, nowefver, but only to furnish money, 
credits, iBunitions and troops, as needed; but 
American ideals find an extremely narrow mar- 
ket among the controllers of European policies. 

The importance of the French pronounce- 



ment is that it is the unmasking of Ewopsaft 
diplomacy. During th« preaance of President 
Wilson at the Peace Conference no op«n bre««h 
of eoartesy was committod. There was no overt 
act of opposition to liiin, though tha news of a 
year ago, road between tha linos, indleate^ Out 
deep undercurrent of determined opposition ta 
the ideals of liberty of speech, prem and 
religion for which t^e real Amerioa stands. 
Savage attacks on President Wileoa have takra 
the place of the studied eotirtesy of a year ago. 
The half-hearted cooperation of stt^sxoen and 
diplomats is replaced by a general Hnins up 
against what the American President stood for 
among them. Thus was it ever with Knxope, 
concerning which Washington said 134 years 
ago: 

"Again.st the ioBidious wiles of foreign infliMaai^ I 
oonjajTC you to believe m», fellov citizeat, i^ jaalmny 
of a free p«opl« ought to ba cosstantiy sirskB; since 
history and experienoe prove th«t foreiga inflBenre is 
one of tke ntOBt bMieful io^ of T^ubUcu gorwoBunt. 

"Europe ha« » set of primary interert*, which to «a 
have aozifli, or a very remote Tel»tioo. Hence she mmt 
be engaced in frequent controTeniei, the causes of which 
are eBsantiaUy^ foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, 
it must be unwise in \i3 to implicate ourselves by artificial 
ties, in the ordioaiy vicisKitiides of ber politics, or the 
ordinary combinatioas and collisions of her friendidiipe 
or enmities. 

"if we remain one people under an ^fSdeet gowm- 
vn?nt, w» may defy material injury front ffictemal aiaacf- 
anrn ; when \re may take such an attitade aa will eavM 
the neutrality we may at any time raaolve upon, to be 
scrupoloitsly respected ; when belligerent nations, under 
the Impassibility of making; a£quiaitioDa upon ua, will 
rot lightly hazard th« giving us provocation; when we 
may ch.oos'! pace or war, as our interest, guided by 
justice sliall counsel. 

''Why forego the adraata^es of so peculiar a aituation? 
Why quit oux own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, 
by iatcxweaving our destiny with that of any part of 
Kurope, entangle our peace and prosperity in tho toils 
01 European ambition, rivabhip, int«e?t, httmor, or 
caprice? 

"'Tia our tiue policy to steer clear of permanent 
alliances with any portion of tho foreign world." 

What has been the mental attitude of Etirop- 
p-an diplomats is becoming that of Europe. 
Postered by carefully camouflaged anti-Wilson 
propaganda the people of the CoBtineBt an 



MS 



The Golden Age- for January 7. ig20 



becoming. at one, with the sentiments expressed 
that the American' Senate "is in favor of Amer- 
ica's not meddling* in Earopean affairs. Well, 
so are ■we". The beneficent aspirationa of 
Ameiiea's President, which might have inter- 
fered 'with the designs of the European politic- 
ians, are tnming against him. It was in Europe 
that the term '^achiavelian". -was attached to 
statecraft— alias "diplomacy" — and the Europ- 
ean politician needs no tutor in the use of 
propaganda to paint -white black. 

Doidttleas the best Ameidcan.poUcy is to pay 
no heed to Tories' and Bourbons, but to ob- 
serve the admonitions of Washington and those 
less kno-WTi ones of Panl and Peter "That ye 
study to beqniet, an^ to do yonr own bnsiness," 
(1 Qliessalonians 4: 11), and '"liet none of yon 
suffer a.s a bnf?ybody in other men's affairs". 
—1 Peter 4: IH. 

- .■ ^ . . . . ■ . ^ ■ 

Daet'Americanisaiion Americanize ? . 

STARTING more noti(jeably in 1917 came a 
movement to Americanize the "poor, ignor- 
ant foreigner" by means of teaching him & 
reading and -writing knowledge of the American 
language. Chambers of Commerce seemed to 
be acting as godfathers, bat who- the real par- 
ent wa2 is not so certain. Some thought it was 
a part of a vast British propagandia wort, and 
that the word "American" Avas Msed in such con- 
nections to represent things American as the 
British foreign office is supposed to think that 
word should mean if America were a properly 
dutiful daughter — to represent culture for the 
few and genteel servility for the majority; 

Certainly no one living in tliis land can hon- 
estly doubt the propriety of helping everyone 
who is desirous to be helped to a better under- 
standing of the principles for which the word 
American hns stood and should stand — life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. But it is 
difficult to understand hoy/ foreign-born persons 
inojr Diidst are to be attracted to those prin- 
ciples' when such threatening and buU-doang 
tactics as have come within our knowledge are 
employed to "•Americanize'. Any system which 
does not encourage tie self-respect of the 
foreign({r cannot succeed; any system which 
does not leave him the power of choice as to 
whether ne will become an American citizen or 
not, cannot succeed ; for if he is to be a slave he 
may just pref-er to be a slave among relativee 
aad. acquaintances of his own native ton^nat 



Thousands of our foreign-bom population in 
several of the larger cities have eagerly availed 
themselves of the opportunity to attend night 
schools where dramatic methods of teaching the 
American language are employed and Avhere 
they can quickly grasp a working acquaintance- 
ship with that difficult, though very useful 
speech. Many librarians and teachers have 
cheerfully carried extra work to render assist- 
ance in this comparatively new field. Becanso 
of the individual and true AmericanLsm of the 
teachers some foreigners have doubtless come 
into a knowledge not only of the American 
language but aJ.so of the American principlci'. 
I'his is surely commrndable, and worthy of 
encouragement regardless of what motive may 
have been back of the starting of the movement. 

Tour Feet and Your Eyes 

MA.TOR General LconjU"d TVood said some 
good things to the students of Williams 
College in an address delivered there Septem- 
ber seventeenth. He urged them, '^eep your 
feet on the ground and your eyes on God". The 
Major did well to urge ^ese young men to keep 
their eyes on God. He need not worry about 
their feet There are very few young men in 
tills generation that do not have their feet on 
the ground. But he meant to say that no young 
man can be of real benefit to his country in the 
trying times in which we live unless he seeks 
to be guided by heavenly wisdom. And he is 
quite right. 

The Major urged too, and we think with 
■wisdom, that we should "support the Constitu- 
tion and those principles by which our country 
has been made" to the end that we might have 
"an Americanism -with a national conscience". 
We certainly do not want an Americanism that 
has no conscience ; and it is to the credit of the 
■American people and the American Govern- 
ment that they have never taken advantage of 
the weak and helpless, except in the territory 
taken from Mexico coincident with the discov- 
ery- of gold in California, and we are suffering 
the displeasure of the Mexican people to this 
day because of that act. 

It pays for nation to deal justly -with n&tdon, 
as man ■with man. Too many nations seem to 
do rig^t from fear of reprisal, but the time is 
at hand when the nations shall practice and 
learn ■war no more, and became not pirates, hut 
peace-maken, luinding their owii husisesa. 



X 



The Golden Age for January 7, /92a 



la 




Czecho-Slovakian Farming sy jasep\ p. samek 

MY INTEBEST has Been aroused by yoiir 
recent article, entitled "Wiat Rotation of 
Crops Accomplishes", to tell yoa something of 
fanning eondiaons in tlie country of my birth, 
the new state of Caeeho-Slovakia, which lies 
between Germany and what was formerly 
Aastro-Hungarj'. Rotation oc enopa hns be^n 
practiced there for generations, and with ex«l- 
lant repuitf?. 

'Hie farmers of C^ieeho-Slovalriado'-Vtrossin,?" 
xrork also. Once I remember they obtained un- 
usually large potatoes, fifteen or twenty from 
one seed; but bij? as they were they proved unfic 
for hiunan beiogs and were used to feed animals. 
They were hybrids — nothing else; and although 
Ihey were large in size iJio middle of tlie potato 
was empty or filled with bad-smelling water. 
From my experience with these liybrids I be- 
lieve that when '-the earth siiaJl yield its in- 
crease" it will come along different linos than 
the "ero|sing' of plants. Large fruits can be 
raised by crossing, bnt not always of vaJr.e. 
Even in the case of the human fanuly, if die 
fatlier and mother are of different races the 
children are sometimes unfit for brain work. 
Wonderful are the Ikcd laws of God. 

The Czecho-Slavokians are close students of 
hygiene. The towns are repei-ved exclusively 
for the residence of human bcin,^;!, the stables 
for cows, horses, etc., bcins built at a distance 
of fifteen to thirty minutes' vralk. People from 
seventy to ninety years of age are in robust 
health, while mm of sixty to seventy have red 
eheeks and black hair, arid v,r.ilc and act like 
young people. Gray hair is seldom scon. 

The food consists principally of potntce?, 
black com bread, a palatable vegetable oil made 
from fiax, sour milk or buitonni'k, and a little 
meat once a week. Doctors are seldom seen 
except at the bedside of the dyin^:. Eheumaiism, 
gout, headaches, indi^^c.-^tion and other stomach 
troubles, are absolutely unlcnown. The farmers 
make their own alcoliolic drink from plums. 
Four ounces of this "Sliwcvitz"' would make a 
man so drunk that he cotild not raise his head. 
It Ls used not a.s a beverajje, however, but as 
a stiratJani, a tcappoontul in the momin* and 



another during the later working hours. In 
the district of which I writ* they had very 
little wine. 

At the time I left my native land, twenty 
years ago, wooden plows, wooden axles and 
Avagons, Avooden spoons, forks, etc., were still 
in vogue. There were no stoves. The cooking 
v.as done oa something resembling an altar, 
-Avith wood as the fuel, and pots of eaiihenware. 
The houses were lighted with fat or harz wood. 
It was not aneommon to find soup plates and 
other plates in use that had been tised constant- 
ly for hundreds of years. I have seen soup 
plates .said to be five hundred y*ars old. 

The bread is baked but four or five times a 
year, immens/i loaves, ten to sixteen at one time. 
Before thi? bread is consumed the outside of 
it will be all covered with green mold; bat the 
inside of the last loaf will be as sweet and 
palatable as the first loaf, and as soft and juicy. 
I have often wondered at this. 

In harvest time the farmers are accustomed 
to sleep several hours during the heat of the 
day and to make up for it by woridng early in 
the morning and late at night. This makes it 
easier on the animals ; and thus these Htnigar- 
ians, as they were formerly called, show their 
intelligence and sympathy for men and beasts. 

In the town from which I came, the -whole 
village, and the vicinity, is filled with acacia 
troop, the same as mentioned in the description 
of iloses' Tabernacle in the WOdemess. The 
people make their furniture of this wood; and 
oven when not painted or varnished it is 
e;j:cpedingly beautiful. The color is greenish 
mixed with yellow and brown stripes. A char- 
acteristic of the wood is tliat it is neither soft 
nor hard. It does not decay as does soft wood, 
nor will it split, nor is it given to wood worms, 
as is the case with so many hard woods. It la 
light to handle and easy to work. 

A\lieu I was a child I tised to eat the blossoma 
of this tree. These are good to eat, sweet to 
The taste, but with a peculiar flavor. The tree 
is full of thorns in the last two or three years 
of its growth, so that in plucking the flowers 
one must be careful or he will be injtired by 
the sharp points. When the se^d gets dry it 
looks like peas in their pods. 



Mt 



The Qolden Age for January 7, 1920 




HOUSEWIFERY AND HYGIENE 



HOZP to Keep Well By a. W. Pktnam, M. D. 

FITIW people are a^vare ol ihe multitude of 
everyday diaagreeable sjinptoms and ail- 
ments of mankijid due to autointoxication, tie 
absorption into the system of poisons formed 
by putrefaction and fermentation of food-stuffs 
in tlie bowels. Among these we mijht mention 
periodic headaches, drowsiness during the day, 
insomnia at night, and many cases of general 
debility, nervousness, shortness of breath re- 
gardless of exercise, pain about the heart, rheu- 
matism and neuralgias. 

Many say tlxat they have passages from the 
bowel daily, and therefore their tronble cannot 
be intestinal indigestion causing autointoxica- 
tion; but it is possible to Imve a passage every 
day and not have a free empt>-ing of tlie bowel. 
Many are contented with a. passage each day, 
however small, ^vith an occasional miss, and 
accredit their ailments in other causes. Loaded 
bowels with gas formation and absorption of 
poisons from the sluggish germ-infected masses 
is often the condition existing in spite of the 
daily movements ; and a cure can generally be 
obtained by proper dietetics, which arc sug- 
gested below: 

Get a small grist mill and some wheat. Grind 
it v«ry coarse for Ijreakfast food, whj(.-h may he 
prepared by stirring it into sli;?htly salted 
boiling water and rooking for twonty minnies. 
Set tlie mill tighter and make rathor coarse 
flour, whicli maJces drliciou.s gema and bread, 
when used half and half witli white flour. I so 
no white bread at all. If you do not balce bread 
or gems, bny coarse bran or graham bread. 
Eat plenty of coarse vogotables; suf-h as 
turnips, rutabagas, celery, asparagus, beets, 
oniona, spinach, rhubarb and cabbage, also 
plenty of fruit, especially apples, figs, and un- 
seeded raisins. Drink a glassful of watnr aftor 
each meal. Cut the meat to three times a week, 
and enbstitnte millr and eggs. Fish, bacon, and 
chicken ai-e the least harmful meats for any one 
in tMs dondijtion. 

_ _Sec fliftt you get suSiftient exercise along with 
the above mentioned diet. Many who have not 
had a normal passage for years v.-ill be gratiHed 
to &id themselves doing so, and the ailments 



caused by the sluggish bowel condition disaj)- 
paaring. ^Yhy not use cathartics^ BecauBC they 
irritate the walls of the bowel and produce raw 
or catarrhal areas, which pennit the even freer 
absorption into the system of poisons. This is 
the reason why many of the symptoms are 
aggravated by the strenaous use of cathartios 
in an effort to remove intestinal trouble. 

More Remedial Foods 

APPLES for neri-ous dyspepsia, to correct 
the aciditj' of the stomach, for rheumatism, 
insomnia and liver trouble. 

Grapes dissolve and dislodge gravel and bring 
the stomach and bowels to a healthy condition. 
Pieplant, or rhubarb, is an aperient, is excel- 
lent for rheumati.sm and for purifying the blood- 
Peanuts for indigestion and corpulent diabetes. 
Piiieapples are good for indigestion. The 
juice of a ripe pineapple is an almost invaluable 
remedy for diphtheria, the acid seeming to dis- 
solve the groT\'th in the throat. ^ 

Swiss Steak 

IV pounds thick round steak; i cup barley 
flour. Score meat and roll in flour. Brown an 
onion in a tablespoon of fat. Put steak (whole) 
into th.o aaniQ pan, place in oven at 450 degrees 
and soar uncovered for 13 mi nates. Cover the 
jmn while sleak is cooking. 

Stuffed Sleah 

1 pound round steak ; 2 tablespoons chopped 
pai'.sley; 2 cups boiled rice; 1 teaspoon onion 
juice; salt; Paprika: Blend tlie rice with tlae 
se2.souing. Pound iha steak until thin. Spread 
iho steak with a layer oi" rice stuffed about \ of, 
an inch thick. l^oU and tie in shape or fasten 
^^'itl^ skewers. Put into a covered pan with 
enough water to keep from burning, aixd cook 
in tiie ovon for thirty minutes Take off the 
cover and brown before removing from the 
oven. Thicken the stock left in tlie pan for 
gravy. Or, if preferred, make individual serv- 
ings. Cut a 3-inch square of steak, place a table- 
s!poon of the dressing in the center, roll the 
iUoak around it and fasten. Place in a pan with 
a little water, and cook as the roast was cooked. 
These are very good served with a tomato sauce. 



The Golden Age for January 7, /920 



ta 




The Philosophy of Art By Vewtmt T. Barttlutra * 
A RT may be defined as the visible picture 
-Ci. or articulate expression of the ideal of 
mentality. 

The Universe is the visible, expressed mater- 
ial picture, of the ideal of the Supreme Mind— 
the masterpiece of masterpieces— 375,000,000 
solar sTstems sospended in space. "The heavens 
declare the glory of God: day unto day uttereth 
speech and night unto night showeth know- 
ledge; there is no speech nor language where 
their voice is not heard."— Psalm 19:1-3. 

The characteristics of men are invariably 
expressed in their works, in the houses they 
build, the pictures they paint on canvas, or the 
social, religious, economic or political systems 
they form. They are all ideal pictures, created 
in the invisible mind and visibly expressed. 

Harmony or discord in color, tint, tone, 
grouping or accent, bespeaks a sense of the 
fitness of things, op the lack of it, ia the mind 
that creates the ideaL By their works, and only 
by their works, may all be known. The social, 
political, religious and economic world we have 
known, and see about us now, is the ideal, 
expressed visibly, of an invisible mind. 

Jesus said that Satan is the prince (ruler) 
of this world (not the physical world). This 
explains the riddle of confusion which we see 
about us. In a broader perspective, however, 
we note a greater picture, Tvhieh the Master is 
painting. We recognize this present low, dark 
ideal of war and hate as merely the dark pig- 
ment with which, obsessing men's minds, Satan 
is permitted to lay in the shadows, to accent 
by conti'ast the brilliant golden sunlit high- 
lights of the color scheme in the painting which 
the Master is preparing for the delight of a 
weary world, when Satan's rule is set aside. 
Without shadows there could be no picture, no 
relief, but dull monotony — a blank canvas. 

• Cnptala Hartshorn was !n aeveral of the hardest fought 
battles io the Civil War. After tixe wur was oTer he reaigned 
ta take Q3|he PFolession of art, and for fifty ;e&rs has beoo 
ooe of the most 'kmccessful of portrait painters. Anions W3 
patrons weie President Grant, who sat for him at Uie White 
Uou3^ anil Aiany other men and women occnpTin^ promi- 
nent posUions in the United States and in England. One ot 
Mr. Hartshorn's pupils, who paid him $^.00 an hour for 
Instractions, Is now the most succesafol portrait painter In 
Boston. 



Satan is merely a hog-bristle brush, so to 
speak, dipped in black, and applied over the 
yellow (sunlight) undertone painting on the 
canvas, to represent the shadows. In the little 
individual pictures that are being painted by 
every person, if the highest light — the accent — 
be placed on some insignificant aeeesBory, or if 
the picture lacks the bright, clear colors of sm>- 
llght (truth), but is sombre with the muddy 
effects of error, hate or pride, it will be cast 
into the scrap heap! Every one paints his 
picture, his ideal 

In literal pictorial art, the colors form a 
chromatic scale, similar to the scale in instru- 
mental or vocal music, having harmonious 
chords ; and when the accent in the harmonious 
color-tones agrees with the accent of light and 
shadow and the accent of sentiment, a delightful 
ideal results, that rests, refreshes and inspires, 
an ideal that speaks as a living personality — a 
masterpiece. By their works they are known. 

A few hints to an amateur may Ulnatrate the 
literal process: 

Suppose we are painting a full-lefugth por- 
trait of a man. The strongest light should rest 
on the head and shoulders. This locates the 
accent; all other things are accessoriea — sub- 
sidiary to the main effect — the accent. The 
character of the man is what we seek to portray. 
This we find in his fac'al expression, the 
visible picture of his invisible self — his color, 
the expression of his eyes and mouth; there ia 
the accent of the picture. His hands, his clothes, 
the bookcase behind him, the chair we see dim- 
ly suggested — a few touches are sxiffieient to 
indicate them. They are only the accessories. 

A rather dark gray canvas is the best ground 
on which to peiint. After making the sketch 
and locating tlie lights, cover them with white, 
and leave to dry. French brilliant yeUow or 
Xaples vellow, laid on thinly -with oil that will 
dn- quickly, must be applied first before each 
painting. Don't paint color over the same color, 
when dry, without first covering it with yellow. 
Yellow is very luminous and represents sun- 
light even in the darkest shadows (applied 
under them). Most artists fail to use yellow 
enough under all their work. Get back to sun- 
light effect back of every fresh paintinj^ Us« 



m 



The QoLLm Age for January 7, 1920 



retonc'nirg vnrni=h on the oanvas before paiiU- 
JTiJr, and u-fi^lj aiioi each cont of paint fiiir . 

'I'hr' panofama oi' liio great d:iy of mniiFrm 
CJT-ation oovors. 4D.000 vfiars — a picture to hr- 
completed in less than 1.000 yoar.s u-oni now. 

Satan put a very tlark shadow, covering: (5,000 
years into the mighty picture. It is the roil, the 
contrasting: shadow that is to ,ndd brilliancy to 
the high Light, the accent to the great picture 
that Jesus Christ ■^■111 put in nnder the direction 
01 the Supreme iVlind, It will be the completion, 
not of another pliysioal masterpiece, the solar 
systems, but a new creation, 144,000 divine 
beings, a stiE greater masterpiece — the Irinp- 
dom of heaven on earth — glorious beyond any- 
tliing ever dreainfd of 1)y mortal man. WLat 
an ideoll 

Sleep Si/ Viji. .T(ix:ne Xcsh 

WHAT a peculiar phase of nature is sleep! 
We lie down upon oar beds at night, in full 
possession of all our mental faculties, and know 
that we are going to lose consciousnes.s. And 
yet the thoug-ht gives us no uneasinoss, because 
we are familiar with that condition. All oui* 
lives we have witnessed sleep in others. We 
have experienced it ourselves. We know tliat 
when asleep, we laiow nothing. We are not even 
cognizant of our existence, or of the existence 
of anything in all this great universe. And so 
we fall Jisleep in perfect security. Wo awake 
in the morning, and at once otir mental faculties 
resume their ftmetions. We are able to take 
np the threads of business where y7B laid them 
down at night. Oar joys and our sorrows 
again live in our memories. We are awalfe. 
Onr friends know us, and we know them. 

What a beautiful picture of df^ath is sleep. 
When we come to the end of this brief mortal 
life, we lay it down just as we fail asleep at 
nigit Yet how many do it fearfully and ^vith 
apprehension, with reluctance. Why? Beeanse 
they fear for what the awakening may be. They 
do noi^know. They fear. Job .'^aid. Tor nov/ 
shall I sleep in the dust; and thou shalt seek 
me in the morning and I shall not be"', (.lob 7; 
21) Again we read: '-Tor in death thcr.? 1= no 
n=nienibrance of thee, in tiie grave \vlio .-hall 
give tlteeV thanks ?" — Psalm ii-.'j. 

And sa4Jien wlien a man die.-, lie has fallen 
asleep. It ia true his sleep is of longer duration 
than the sleep with which we are all so familiar. 
ICan mouldeis back into dost from which be 



was in&uo; but ho y-liall Ju-t n; -nrely nwake as 
hfl goe.s [0 jlcrp. .It'-ii.s Kal<!: ""uaivfl ilol at 
ifiJs; for the liocir is comin..;- in tiie which all 
that are in thoir grrtvf'.^ >h:isl Ik^ai' liis voire, 
and ahaU. c»imc forrtf. (John 0:28, 29) the 
Bible tells us that the patriarchs and the 
prophets died and uere gathered to their 
fathers (in the grave), that ihoy have not yet 
repeivod tlieir Tf^warda. Do you not tJiink that 
it they were ooiif^i/lou^ily waiting through all 
those centuries ihoy would begin to feel im- 
patient at the long delay? But you see they are 
not conscious of the lap.«o of time; and when 
they are awakened, it will be to them as if they 
had slept but a few h<iiu-3. 

Other Inhabited Worlds 

IF THERI*^ are other inhabited worlds out- 
side of our solar system we can never find 
out anj'thing abotit them except by revelation. 
It is well known that all planets are dark 
objects, the light we get from the planets of oar 
own solar system being stmlight reflected from 
their dark surfaces. It would never be possible 
to manufacture inatruiaents which would enable 
tis to see the dark planets revolving about other 
suns. The most that has been done in that 
direction is to determine by the spcetioseope 
that there are dark objects revolving about 
some of those suns ; and this is as far as science 
will ever be able to go. 

The Scriptures seem to indicate that this 
world is unique in God's Tiniverse in that "all 
we like sheep have gone astray''. (Isaiah 53:6) 
Some have held the thought that the "ninety 
and nine" which went not astray (Luke 15 : 3-6) 
mnst refer to the happy denizens outside of our 
globe that never knew the sorrows of our fall 
into pin, and vrill never Ivnow the joys of restor- 
ation and the heights and lengths and Ijreadths 
of rerloeming love. 

Moiintaina Slipping 

OX THE we.'Jtern coast, according to Pro- 
fessor Morrill, ot Colorado Agrir-ultural 
CoUoge, many of tbe moantains are slipping, 
produein.^ ground movement;? of Feveral feet a 
yt^ar. 'J hr- juovemeiu oviiii^aily is not danger- 
ous; for no eajrliqitdicr-s rerult. It Ls most 
nolieeabie in iht .SptLng, whon the .^oil is wet. 
Oiher "moiiDtain.^'" are slipping. nui'"ia, as 
a kingdom (mountain) clipped two year.^ ago. 
Austria, too, had a bad ?lin, and more are said 
to be in danger. 



TJu Golden Age for January 7, rgzo 



RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY 



AMNESTY FOR DEATH'S PRISONERS 

WHAT IS THE PRISON ? WHO ARE THE PRISONERS ? WHO IS THE CAPTOR ? WHO THE DBUVEKER 7 

"TTie Spirit of the L<trd Qod ii upm me; leca'Me tJte Lord hcth anointed me to preacA good tiiinsn unto th-e meekl 

he hath sent me Jo iirid up the iroken- hearted, to proclaim Wterty to ttie captiues, 

and the opejiir^p of the prison to thfm tlutt are iound." — Isaiah S1:L 



THE Bible is a took very rich in pictures; 
and the picture of a prison-houFe as repre- 
senting death is one frequently matie use of in 
Holy Writ. Not only does Isaiah repeatetUy 
employ this illustration or allegory, but the 
Frophet Ezeldel indisputably refers to death 
under the word captivity. (Ezddel 16:53) In 
the foregoing verses the Prophet had spoken of 
the blessings which fleshly Israel had received, 
and whieh she had not rightly appreciated. As 
also the Apostle says, Israel had many advan- 
tages : chieily in that unto them were committed 
the oracles of God. (Romans 3 : 1, 2 ) Therefore, 
when their conduct was less to be approved 
than that of the surrounding heathen nations, 
God's people were more reprehensible than 
those peoples. Nevertheless the Prophet holds 
forth a ray of hope for them all, when he says : 
■■"Wlien I shall bring again [or cause them to 
return from] their captivity, the captivity of 
Sodom and her daughters [inhabitants] and the 
captivity of Samaria and her daughters, then 
■nviJl I brin,'!: ayr.in the captivity of thy captives 
in the midst of thorn''. We are certain that this 
reference is to the captivity of death; for 
Sodom had long lain in ashes before these 
words were ever uttered, and tlie only captivity 
from wliich Sodom and her daughters could be 
brought would be thA great captivity of death. 

TLs Prisoi'. Not Liberal 

Likewise ilie Propl-.f-t Ipaiah speaks not of 
some lireral captivit;!- or some literal pri?on, 
into which rlie .]>v,isli ppople may or may not 
have gone, hut };? r-pr-iics in pictorial languasrc 
of the pri«or,-hc.u-<-> oi' d«-ath; when ho mpntions 
tbe 'prn.laiming of lihorty to the captives anri 
the opening of ili^; pri.-on to ihem (hat are 
bound". (iVaiah 01 : 1 ) SVe wiiiild be only pn<:?- 
infh'1nicrr>?tpd if ibe Lord"?; jrreat Prophet 
verp spoating merely cf somi^ liistorical occur- 
reuce belongiiig to Uie s.^c^ long p3?t. 



This proclamation of Isaiah suggests four 
main thoughts: (1) that of a prison; a plaee 
or condition of bondage or cooiinement; (2) 
■prisoners; those in snch a place or condition of 
bondage ; (3) the two foregoing thonghtB imply 
the presence of a capt»r; and (4) a great de- 
liverer, who is here described as both proclaim? 
ing liberty and also fulfilling his own proclama- 
tion by opening tbe prison doors to the poor 
prisoners. 

Assuming for the moment that death is the 
prison referred to by the Prophet Isaiah, let ns 
look back at the very beginning of maiiMnd's 
experience with death, by examining the Genesis 
account. \Ye find that God made man perfect, 
a glorious being, richly endowed with happi- 
ness, since God had made every provision for 
his well-being. Though made perfect, man was 
at best a dependent creature, and there was 
provided for his bodily needs the fruit of cer- 
tain trees in the garden of Eden. Solely for 
man's own good did God forbid him the use of 
o:ie tree, saying, "Of every tree of the garden 
thou mayst freely eat, but of the tree of the 
Imowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat 
of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof 
thou shalt surely die". — Genesis 2:16, 17. 

Supreme Court Defines Decision 

Xo doubt Adam, who had a fuller apprecia- 
tion of life than any of us has, knew what wa.<« 
meant by the word dfath. Even though he had 
110 experience with death, his perfect mind 
uonJd enable him to see that death would mean 
thp taking away of life, the life which Ms Maker 
had given him as a boon and as a favor. Proba- 
bly, therefore, more for our own benefit did 
Jehovah give something of an elaboration of 
the thntight of death. (Genesis 3:19) Surely 
we have here the highest authority in the uni- 
verse giriug Bs an e.spIanatioa of the death 
sentence. He describes it as a retom to ihs 



%4» 



The QoUen Age for Januarf 7, 1920 



dust of the ground or, in otker words, to the 
elements of the eartli from which man was 
made. He describes it as destruction, eitinc- 
tion, as a blotting out, oblivion ; as a condition 
in which man is deprived of all his life rights. 
We are quite well acquainted with the objec- 
tion which some people raise to this text when 
they say: Tes, certainly. Everyone knows that 
Adam'.s hodv returned to the dust, but that did 
not affect in any way liis soul, his real self, 
which continued to live'. But how do we know 
tliat anything about Adam continued to live 
after the death sentence was carried out on 
himt Where do we find authorization for such 
a thought in God's Word? Jehovah deals Tvith 
the responsible part of an individual, not mere- 
ly with his body. Addressing himself to Adam 
as a responsible being, he said: "In the sweat 
of thy fac« shalt thou eat bread, until thou re- 
turn tmto the groutid; for out of it wast thou 
taken; for dust thmi axt, and unto dust shalt 
thou return". Evidently the whole individual 
was to be involved in the death sentence; and 
all of this indicates that the prison-house of 
death is a condition of lifelessness, is a condi- 
tion, in which one's life rights and privileges 
are entirely removed. 

But someone interposes the objection : 'Surely 
It cannot be that the whole world of mankind 
is mistaken upon thts subject! Surely the pro- 
position of the heathen, that the dead are not 
dead but that they are more alive than they 
ever were before, must be correct, because so 
generally believed'. But, we answer, it should 
not surprise us to find that there is general 
confusion and lack of authoritative information 
in the minds of human beings in general on 
these points; for tiie Apostle John ijiforms us 
that "the whole world licth in the wicked one". 
(1 John 5: 19) And if the whole world lietli in 
the wicked one, lies in or is dominated by the 
spirit of the great adversary of God and man. 
we could hai'dly expect to find them on terms of 
intrrftate aoiuaintanceship with God, lus teach- 
ings and his purposes, since we are el.=i\Yliere 
informed of the fact that '"the secret of the Lord 
is with them that fear him''. (Psalm 25:14) 
Those ^ho are estranged from God would hard- 
ly be tamiEar with his plans and purposes; 
and theugh we find widespread error on this 
, subject of the state of death there is no reason 
-■' why that should turn us aside from tlie oidy 
•ource of accurate information, God's Word. 



Dead Know Not Anything 
In further substantiation of the Scriptural 
teaching on this point we cite Ecdesiaatea 
9: J. 6, 10. Part of the fifth verse reads: "The 
living know tlaat they shall die, but the dead 
hnow net anything". Verse six: "Also their 
love, and their hatred, and their envy is now 
perished". Surely these words are suggestive 
of complete constriction of one's life activities. 
If the dead laiow iiothing, if they love not, hate 
not, and especially if they env>- not, there sure- 
ly cannot be much going on in death. 

The subject is made equally plain in the tenth 
verse. One often hears the first half of this 
verse quoted, but very seldom the last half, for 
the reason that it does not happen to harmonize 
with the popular view on the subject of death. 
The first half reads: "Whatsoever thy hand 
findeth to do, do it with thy might^'. That ifl 
excellent advice for any one; but it becomes 
even more forceful when the whole verse is 
read: "Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do 
it with thy might; for there is no work, nor 
device, nor knowledge, nor ■wisdom, in the grave, 
whither thou goest". Thrown into modem par- 
lance, this stoiply means : If you ever expect to 
accomplish anything, you had better be busy 
doing it now ; for after a while you will be dead 
and unable to accomplish anything. 

We turn back to the testimony of the Psalm- 
ist: "Put not your trust in princes, nor in the 
son of man [in htmian beings], in whom there 
is no help. His breath goetli forth', he retumeth 
to his earth; in that very day his thoughts 
perish." (Psalm 146:3, 4) Then again to the 
Prophet Isaiah : "The grave cannot praise thee, 
deaUi eaunot celebrate thee: they that go down 
into tlie pit cannot hope for thy truth". (Isaiah » 
08: 18) "'In death there is no remembrance of 
thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks t" 
—Psalm 6:5. 

Prison a Fitting Figure 

Do not those tenets show conclusively that the 
dead are dead ? They show how appropriate is 
the designation "prison" to the state of death. 
If earth's dead were more alive than they were 
in tlieir lifetimes, then surely the Prophet 
Isaiah went sadly astray in choosing the figure 
of a prison to represent death. But our safe 
giound is in accepting the words of the Apostle: 
"The prophecy came not in old time by the will 
of man: but holy men of God spake as they 



Ths Golden Agt for January 7, /920 



M? 



were moved hj the Holy Spirit". (2 Pptor 1 : 21) 
J>palli is th^ pri?nn ret'errci to; and d<»a!h is a 
prison ?tat(?, a i^xato of bontlagc or oonnneineht 
iO extreme as to pretlade the thonfht 0? any 
activity there. 

Xow that wo have seen what the prison k, it 
Avill not be especially difficalt to dcteraaine rrko 
the prisoners are. Tic Apostle says: "Death 
passed npon all men" (Romans 5: 1'2), aad "in 
Adam qU die". (1 Corinthians 15: 22) Onr own 
observation substantiates these statements ; for 
we see eTer>'one cl>ing on every hand. Death is 
working in all, and gradually all sink into the 
gri-TG. As one also of oar ovm poets has said: 

"As the long train 

Of ages glide awiy, the sons of men, 
The youth ia iif«'s green spring, and he who goes 
In the full strengih of years, matron and maid. 
The speechless bab«, dcd the gray-hetded nan — 
Sh«U one by one be gotheied to thy side. 
By those who ia thek rui-n ehall follow them." 

That is a sad picture of hnman experienee, 
but a true one. This prison or death sentence 
inclndes all those in whom death is working in 
any manner or degree, all those who are under 
■the "bondage of corruption". (Bomajis 8:21) 
All the members of the hnman fanuly are there- 
fore prisoners. God has inolnded all in the sin 
and under its sentence, death, that he rai^t 
hare mercy upon all in the most effectual and 
economic manner. The most of these prisoners 
are locked np, so to speak, down in the darlr 
cells of complete death. Othprs, mth some 
companitivv m«>a.=rare of life and liberty may be 
said to be walking around in the pri.-^on yard, or 
engaged in its variovts duties. Bnt non* of them 
is oat in the glorions liberty of the children of 
God {Romans 8: 21), save those few who have 
]}een lii)erated in response to their faith dnring 
ihis Gospel ag? for the purpose of walking in 
the footsteps of Christ Jesus their Lord. Of 
the twentj- billions or so of people who have 
livecl since Adam's day the majority "sleep in 
the dnst of the earth". — Daniel 12 : 2. 
••All thftt tread 

Tlie globe ars but a handful lo th" -trjlvd 

That ^h'.rahpr in it« bosom." 

' Who is the Captorf 

Now ?hat we know what the prison is and 
who the prisoners are, it would be an easy 
matter to identify the eaptor. The Scriptures 
tell tts tb%t it is "a« that hath the pow«r of 



death, that is, the dcril" (nebreT,-3 2:14); he 
who from the very daY.-n ol' htiman experionca 
has opposed the best interests of the race. 
Many pt»ople consider the dcvii to Ijc merely a 
mythic or wholly lmnf?inary personage; others 
acknowledge his existeni.'* but do not attribute 
to him mxieh power. Neither view is supported 
by tho BeriDtore testimony. On the contrary, 
the Lord Jesus twice n-noaks of him as th« 
'prince of this world". (.John 12:iU: 14:30); 
and the Apostle Paul calls him the "god of thiB 
world". (2 Corintliiana 4:4) '"God" means a 
mighty one; an<d "prince" means & promhteiit 
ane. Accordine to ibe best aat};iorit7 in tlie 
Bible, thAzefore (that of Jesus, the head of ih9 
church, and that of tbe Apostle Paul, the moat 
honored apostle in the church), Satan is a 
migiity one and a dominant figure in human 
society as now constituted. He "ruleth in tha 
children of disobedience" (Ephesians 2: 2); 
and the chiidran of obedience are precious fe-w, 
when they are once sought out. 

Our Lord speaks again of Satan in a little 
parable which ho gave, saying: "How lan ona 
enter into a strong man's house, and spoil hia 
goods, except he iirst bind the strong mant 
and then he will spoil his honse". (Matthew 12: 
29) He here refers to the work which ha hini* 
self would do at the time of his second advent. 
He would come as a thief (1 Thessaloniaos 5: 
2 ; 2 Peter S : 10) , quietly, stealthily, unobserved 
by the most of people, and would ^propriats 
nnto himself the "spoil" of death's great prison- 
liouse, really his ov/n; for he would have bought 
it with his own precioTis blood. 

The Scriptures inform us that it was ambi- 
tion that prompted Satan to assume his attitude 
of oppoF.ition against the divine law and wilL 
We read in Isaiah, first, concerning Satan's 
erstwhile glor>- and honor, tlien concerning his 
ambition, his fall, and liis destruction: "How 
art Uiou falle;i from heaven, O Lucifer, son of 
the morning! How ari; thou come down to the 
ground which didst weaken the nations! For 
thou hast said in thine heart [he was not tempted 
Cromwithout],! Avill ascend into heaven [occupy 
A more prominent position in respect to heaven- 
ly matters], I will exalt my throne above the 
.stars of God [the angelic hosts] : I will sit also 
npon the mount of the congregation, in the 
sides of the north: I wUl ascend above the 
heights of the clouds: / tcill be like ike Most- 
Uiijh:' (Isaiah 14:12-14) This waa Satan'a' 



24S 



The Qolden Age for Januar) 7, 1920 



nmbiiion, to have at least a portion of the uni- 
verse in which his Avord woiiJd be abHoluce law, 
his will the last roconrsa or authority. •Yet 
thou shalt he brought down to hell [to sLeol, to 
d'^ath, to i!ie very prisou-touse into TihS.ch. he 
has been instramentai in leading so icany 
otl'.ers — "ne that leadetfa into capitirity, shall 
50 into captivity — ReTelation 13:10], to the 
sidos [or limits] of the pif — to tlie uttermost 
ppnaltv of death, the socoad death. — Ksvelation 

t;o:m,'i-i. 

Captor JTim.^i'lf Caplured 
"Thoy that si?o thr-e [historically, ia the a,<?p.^ 
to comoj shall £iarTov.-ly look tipon Uif<ft [siiall 
d.rvolo only an oct^a.^'ionai reLrospectivo glance 
at ihe miserable and futile carrer of Satan] 
and consldor thee, sayiag, is this the man that 
rnado the earth [human sooiety] co tromble, 
that did Fhako kini^doms; that made ihc world 
as a v>il(!orne.5.=? [robbing manldnd ol" (he rn- 
ifOfhing influoncc" oi! the water of truth], ixnd 
doMtroyt^d t)it> citic^s tlicreof [IJiose cardinal 
principles, which, like citadel?, kenp guard ovor 
the happine.ss of perfect creaturesl ; that open- 
ed not the house of his prisoners?" (Ipaiali 14: 
12-17) Not one of death's prisoners has been 
released by Satan for the very sufficient reason 
that, though he has tlie power of death, he has 
not the power over death. Satan has been able 
merely to carry out ihe .sentence of death al- 
ready pronounced by Jehovah against inan on 
accomit of disobedience, bat he has no autliority 
to set aside or in any manner to nullify that 
sentence. So for nearly dx tliousand years it 
has continued to he true that '"there tlie prir;oa- 
(•rs rest together; they liear not the voice of 
t'ln oppressoi*". — Job o: 17-19. 

AVe imow now what the prison is, wlio the 
prisoner.'? are, and who the great capxor is, and 
aro therefore in a popition to appreciate pro- 
perly ihe Avori: of llio deliverer. We are abso- 
hitely certain vho this deiivrrer is; for Josus 
idcntii^ips himself with LKat oQips in hi"; words 
in the 'Nazareth s^^!agogue. Ju^t afc.'r or.r 
l^ord's special consccrr.tion at Jorcia-i. ai'cor hi? 
spirit-begetting and forty days of refi'^'.'tion r.nd 
tomptation in the v.-ildernes5, he proceetlpd to 
Galilee. '^ 

''".\nd be came to XazareLh, where h-s ]:nd been 
brought u^: and, as his custom wa5, he went 
into the synagogue on tlie Sabbath day and 
Ftood np for to read.^ .^d therp v,-a.s dpLivcred 
unto him the bool: of the Proph^^t E.eala.'?. .\.nd 



when he had opened the book, he found the 
place where it was written. The Spirit of the 
Lord is upon me because he hath anointed 
cie to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath 
rent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach 
deliverance to the captives and the recovering 
of sight to the blind, to set at liberty thexD 
that are braised, to preach the acceptable year 
of the Lord. And he closed the book and he 
gave it again to the mini.'ter and sat down. 
And the eyes of all them that were in the syna- 
gogne were fastened on hiin. And he began to 
say unto them, This day ir, this Scripture ful- 
fiUed in your ears. And all bare him -witness, 
and wondered at Ihn gracious words that pro- 
ceodiHl out of his mouth."' — Lnke 4:16-22. 

Liberlii Dapends on Jesu3 

Here is Jesiii?' own assuranc* that in him 
inhered the fulfillment of this wondei-ffll pro- 
phecy of I.'aiali. He was even then fairdiing 
such parts of the prophecy as were dno to be 
fulfillod. He had bw^n anointed with the holy 
Spirit; he was proclaiming the good news, to 
the effect that sia and death shotild not always 
reign, Ijut that deatlis prisoners were to Ise set 
free. This message had the effect c^ re-encour- 
aging those v.ho were discouraged, or broken' 
hearted, because of the great odds which sia 
and imperfection seem to have against the 
human family. 

But just here we remember a qtiostion pro- 
pounded by the Prophet Lsaiah himself : '•'Shall 
the prev be taken from the mightv, or the law- 
fiU captive delivered?"' (.Isaiah 49:24) "Wbile 
this question has something to do with the Jew- 
ish dispersion, the Jews wore in tome respeciis 
pictorial of mankind in general. The race of 
Adam is a laT\-fnl captive; shall it he set free? 
'■Thus saith the Lord, Even the captives of the 
mighry shall bo taken r.way."' But. if they are 
Iiiwrul captives, how can God be just and yet 
Ci'.o justifier or liberator of any of tlicmt Only 
in the' Scriptures do we find an answer to ibis 
c[i'.r-.<!tio:i. 

God made maii nerfeet and in Yds ovra morr.l 
image. This made man a respon-iblo creature, 
rr.ihoi- than one living mcrei].' along the lines 
01 instinct. 'God made man upright"' (.Eccb''- 
in.^tos T: 29), "VGry good". (.Genesis 1:31) 
I'^vcrj' thing that ho possessed of lif.^ and bless- 
in.g had com<* to him a^ a favor Trom hi.s heiiven- 
ly Fatlier. God had owed hiai cotbLig. I'-ver- 



TRc Qoldcn Age far January 7, 1920 



Mf 



lasting human life spread itself enticingly be- 
fore him; he had onlv to he obedient to 
Jehovah's laws, to God's perfect vrill. In this 
Jehovah required nolhins more of man than lio 
requires of himself — ujiawer^ing coviformily to 
the set principles of w-isdom, justice, lo%'c and 
po\rer. 

Adam a Lawful Captive 

Fnrtlierxnore. Adam TiUS -nfamed as to tlie 
result of any potaible dibobedience. He had tlie 
ability to resist any tempLatlon and was dis- 
tinctly informed what the penally woald be, if 
he should disobey. Again, wc have the trsti- 
mony of the divma "Word that "Adam Mas not 
deceived". (1 Timothy l':14) If, then, Adam 
had the ftdl capacity for obedience: if he was 
forewarned of the dangers oi disobedience; if 
he was not deceived, the case against him seems 
to be clear — he was a wilful sinner. And if a 
■wilful sinner, he was justly condemned and 
became a lawful captive. The condemnation 
•gainst Adam T^'^ll be understood and seconded 
by the moat of people, but tlie participation of 
his posterity in the sentence is not so generally 
miderstood. What had Adam to do with us? 

yurcly ho had a great deal to do with us. 
All the life which we ever liad as human beings 
came to U'i from him as the father of the tslzq. 
Suppose for a moment Liiat it had been a liloral 
prison into which Adam and his consort. Eve, 
w?re cast at the time of thsir transgression; 
they had no children prior to their incarcera- 
tion. Tt goes without argmncnt of any kind, 
that if thoy ever wore to have any diildrcn, 
thote children must be born in prison, mcrciy 
because both piirenlri -^ere tbcre. Such birtli in 
prison would not ho because of any moral delin- 
quency on tiie part oi' the children, but would 
be duo simply to the fact that their only oppor- 
tunity for being born at ail was under condi- 
tions of condemnation and conliuement. 

This picture iits the facts exactly. All are 
prisoners, ail condemned ones, not because of 
their o'wTi tr£.':sgpessiona. bat because of t]:e 
fact thtit they v/ere bom unclor tlie one original 
ser.tcr.c?. .As tho Apoitlc sayj: "As throuarii 
one man sin entered ij:to the v.orld [in whom 
all siimc'ti] a,nd through sin, dcatli: so abo 
death passed upon ail men' . . . ''through cr,'! 
offense tontenec can;? on aM men to conccmria- 
tion'' . . ."througli the di.iobcdicnce of one man, 
the rioany were consuiited sinners.' (Komuns 
5:1L', 18, rJ, Diagioit) Or, in the terse, well 



put wording of Uie Shorter Westminster Calc- 
dilarn: "The co\-cnant [of continued obedience 
on man's part and of a conditional gnarantea 
of life on God's part] being made with ^dam, 
not only i'or himself, but for his posterity, all 
maiilcind, de.Htending from him by ordinary 
generation, sinned in him, and fell with him, ia 
his (irst transgression." 

This is exactly the Scriptural proposi,tioin. 
Xo unfair advantace has been talcen of Adam'a 
posterity, for God did not o^vo them life in the 
first place: and when Jehovah's plan for thoir 
blessing shall Iiave been worked out, none can 
be found with any appreciation of God's good- 
ness who will not he filled ■witli a sense of deep- 
est gratitutc for God's pro^T-sion for his eternal 
welfare. All are, therefore, lawful captiTcs. 
The Prophet Isaiah annomices that these are 
to be set free. But how? 

Ths Just the Jusiificr 

Two ways are imaginable : one is for God to 
change his mind respecting the original sen- 
tence ; and the other is for a substitute to b« 
-found for Adam under the imchanging sentence. 
"We can Itc sure that no one will be liberated 
from death because God ■will haTe dutnged his 
mind as to tlic justice of the sentence. Jnsdee 
is the foundation of his throne, and tie slight- 
est deviation from justice would caqae Ms 
throne to totter and the Tini verse to tr<£tnble, 
not knowning what to expect next, Bxit "with 
him 'there is no variableness, neither ahadow 
of turning"' (James 1:17); "he cannot lie" 
(Titus 1:2): and "he cannot deny himselP. 
(2 Timothy 2 : IG) Adam violated justice, an 
etsrnal principle. Adam's sin will always be 
wroi-.g: it will never be right: Wilful sin de- 
mands an eternal penalty. Therefore God will 
not change his mind respecting the righteous- 
ness or appropriateness of the sentence. This 
ima.ginable ^\ay of release is quicldy shut off. 

'ifi-.cre is only one way of salvation, the way 
which divine ■'.risdom has chosen. God purposes 
to hold the sentence inviolate but to find a s^ub- 
stitute for Adam -nnder the scntcaco, a substi- 
tute who would be botli tv-ilUnff and able to 
aiis^wcr to the demands of divine justice: for 
since a peri'cct man sinned, only a perfect man 
could act aa bubstitute for the condemned sin- 
ner. No one who is imperfect can take over 
tins everlasting death imprisonment ■with a 
view to libei"ating manicind. A peri'cct man had 
sinned; a perfect man must pay the penalt;*. 



zzo 



The Golden Age for January 7. igzo 



No cliild of Adam can Bcrrc in this riearioos 
death, because all of Adam's children arc im- 
IJerl'ect. all born in prison and cannot libeiate 
themselves, mufh kss the ■^vhole human Tacr. 
"Mono can by any means Tedeem his brother, 
nor give to God a ransom for him." -Psalm 49 .'7. 

Therefoi-e to Jehcvah, the Almighty One, we 
must pray: "Let the sighing of the prisoner 
eome before thee"'. (Psalm 79:11} And in re- 
sponse to Ills need, -whether uttered or unex- 
pressed, we are given the assurance : "He hath 
looked down from the height of his sanctuary; 
from hcaren did the Lord behold the earth ; to 
hear the groaning of the prisoner, to loose those 
that are appointed to death".-Psalm 102:19,20. 

Jehovah Brivgs Salvaticn 

So when there ^vas no other eye to pity, 
effectually, and no other arm to save, then God's 
own arm brought salvation. Because there was 
no one else to accompU^h this redemption God 
annoanced through the Prophet Hosea his own 
intention of taldiig a haiid in the matter: "/ 
Hill ranaora them from the power of the grave; 
/ wRl redeem them from deatli : O death, / TvilJ 
be thy plagaes ; gtav«, 1 will l»e thy destruc- 
tion". (Hoscft 13:14) In fuidliment of this 
pui-pose God sent the promised deliverer. "God 
sent aot hib Son i>ito the world to cendemji tivi 
werid; Imt that the world throu^ him rai^t 
be saved"— or delivered from prison. (John i>: 
17) TIm Apostle adds his confirmatory ^^xird: 
"We see Jesus, who was made a little lower 
than the atigcls, for the suffering of death. 
cro^^'Dcd mtli glory and honor [of perfect and 
mature manhood] : that he by tho grace of God 
might taste death for cveiy maii''.-Hebrcws 2 :9. 

Jcsas was born on the hmnan plane, became 
.1 luan^ altlwugh he had been a glorious spirit 
being ivith the l^'atlier before the world was. 
•"The Word was made flesh and dwelt among 
us". (John 1:14), Math the express purpose of 
suffe&ig death for fallen man- '•The Son of 
Man came not to be ministered unto, but to 
minister, and to give his life a ransom for 
many." (Matthew 20:28) To any one who 
believes the Bible to be God's Word there conld 
be no question about God's purpoL-G to end the 
reign of'tin and death. Bat if our Lord has 
come and has given himself in death ou Calvary 
more than eighteen hundred years ago, hov is 
it that people are jtill dyinj; at tlio rate of eotue 



hundred thousand every dayT liThy are net 
the prison doors open? 

That is a proper question ; and the answer to 
it is a secret. But it is a secret which the 
Lord's ambassadors are noAv allowed to telL 
Yes, blessed and honored for telling. (Epie- 
aians G:19; Colossians 4:3) Christ Jesus hsw 
given himself a ransom for all, but the testi- 
mony thereof is to be given only in due tiiae. 
It is not God's design to let all these thousands 
of millions of death's prisoners loose in a ^eat 
peli-meil, helter-skelter. Far fromt it. Jehovah 
has laid far-readiisg plans for the orderly 
dealing with and providing for the wants of 
that vast horde of people. His plans axe so well 
laid that every phase of the process of liber- 
ation will proceed with smoothness and to the 
advantage of all. With this purpose in view, 
the heavenly Father has been quietly gathering 
ont from among hnmaoity a class of individueb 
who are to serve in the capacity of in^rBotors. 
These are not chosen in an arbitrary masmsr; 
bat the Lord has issued an invitation that ail, 
within s limited time, who are wiiliBg to p^y 
the price, shall be granted the privikge <rf a 
share in this grand wrstk for Qumkind. 

Preparalian of Instructors 

In our own school system instraetion is 
general, but no one is compelled to becrano a 
teatihi^. If, however, he %icishe3 to faeceme a 
teacher, then there arc certain requzTeuKiits 
■which h'e must meet So with the church of this 
Gospel age; it is to be made up of volonteer* 
i\-bo faithfnih' fulfil that ^vl^ich they agree to do. 
TlicstC conditions are perfectly plain: "If any 
mar will come after ntr, lot him (1) deny liim- 
seif. and (2) talic up his cross, and (3) follow 
mt'"'. (Matthew 16:24) Those Vxho appreciate 
tliia privilege of being Christ's discipks more 
tliaii they appreciate anytltiug else "follow the 
Lamb \rhithersoever he gocth" and "love not 
their lives unto death'', f Revelation 14:4; 12: 
11) These have never iaecn, nor were they in- 
tended of the Lord to be, uumerous, prominent, 
or inHu»?ntiai in the affairs of the world as now 
constituted. They arc 3:ranted some liberties, 
are made ■'trusties"', with a view to being made 
more u.scful to the Lord ab annonnoera of his 
messase of good cheer. The Scriptures speak 
of this temporary bl tossing as being justified by 
or in response to faith. (Eomans 5:1) Tfa« 
prtGoa rait is titill w«ra; vad tka prisoQisxs ia 



The Qolden A.ge far larmarj 7, 1920 



m 



general, the world of men, do not recognize 
that these are much if any different from the 
rest, iiat they are happy in the oonscionsness 
of cooperation with God (2 Corinthians 6:1) 
and their reward lies beyond their present trial 
time, when they are not only to be liberated in 
the fullest sense from death and all its effects, 
but are to be made deputy parole ofileera under 
Christ Jesus, the chief officer, and in full har- 
mony with the divine department of justice. 
(1 Corinthians 6: 2) For such responsible and 
exalted positions Jehovah has arranged for 
them to have the superior powers and capacities 
of the divine nature, the highest of natures. 
—2 Peter 1:4. 

The invitation of this Gospel age appeals 
only to those who are unsatisfied with the pres- 
ent conditions and who long for higher, nobler, 
and better things. The most of mankind stiB 
prefer the prison conditions, though the first 
rays of the oncoming Golden Age day stream- 
ing in through the bars at the windows serve 
to emphasize those bars and to make the in- 
mates less satisfied with their conditions than 
bfefore. It is for this reason that dissatisfaction 
is so rife in the world today. Selfishness, theft, 
aind various forms of lying abound in this 
]E^son; things are not what they seem. The 
niost of those who respond to the light are of 
stnaU or very ordinary powers, and they are 
TOry conscious of their lacks. Perhaps a few 
have more than ordinary endowments, but, if 
so, they realize that the host thif world has to 
offer is fleeting and that "the paths of [earthly] 
glory lead but to the grave". 

Some Liberated iy Faith 

But whether high or lowly, according to the 
flesh, all the Master's true followers earnestly 
desire the divine help and blessing. Since they 
cannot serve him properly without being free, 
he liberates them in advance of the world, in 
fulfillment of the prophecy, "The just shall live 
by faith". (IXaljakloik 2:4) Ever since his re- 
surrection oar Ijord has in bis hands "the keys 
of death and the grave". (Rovflation 1:18) A 
key means authority plus technical ability to 
open a ffiven door. So Jesus has in his hands, 
or at his dLsposal, the merit of his ransom sacri- 
fice witlrwhich he satisfies the sentence of death 
first against his followers of this age, and soon 
he will use it to make the balance of the prison- 
era free. (1 John 2 : 2) Concerning the church 



it is written : "There is, therefore, now no con- 
demnation to them which are in Christ Jesiis, 
who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit 
For the law of ttie spirit of life in Christ Jesus 
hath made me free from the law of sm and 
death."— iiomans 8 : 1, 2. 

When this specially chosen and prepared 
class is complete, then will come the time for 
the opening of the prison for the residue of 
men, (Acts 15 : 17) But how can those who sleep 
in their graves, those who arc shut up in the 
dark cells of the prison, be set free? The 
Master replies: "All that are in the graves 
shall hear his voice and shall come forth ; they 
that have done good, unto the life resurrection 
[to immediate and perfect spiritual life for the 
saints of this present age ; to human perfection 
for the Old Testament saints, who had the testi- 
mony that they pleased God — Hebrews 11:5]: 
and they that have done evil [the vast majority 
of mankind who have done evil in the sense of 
being imperfect and unjustified] to the judg- 
ment resurrection". (John 5: 28, 29, B.V.) This 
is the judgment tune concerning which the 
Prophet speaks: "When thy judgments are in 
the earth, the inhabitants of the world will 
learn righteousness". — ^Isaiah 26 : 9. 

At the end of this Gospel age (which is now 
at hand), when the great anti typical Priest shall 
appear before the mercy seat for the sins of all 
the people, then the sentence of death against 
manldnd will be canceled, completely trans- 
ferred to the account of Jesus, and the openiiig 
of the prison on behalf of the world can take 
place. Since the Jewish nation was peculiarly 
condemned Ijecause of their relationship to the 
Law Covenant, they may be described aa being 
in a separate cell house, though really no mora 
dead than the rest of mankind. But all these 
OS-convicts, Jews and GentUea, wUl be let out 
on a general amnesty and under the care of the 
Orpat Deliverer — an amnesty which has some 
of the aspects of a parole. If, when liljerated 
from death, the individual still prefers sin to 
God's holy and righteous laws, lie will he re- 
manded to prison ; but in such a case he will go 
bat'k under a sentence of his o-wn. "In those 
du\-s they shall stiy no more, The fathers have 
eaten a sour grape and the children's teeth are 
set on edge. But everyone [who dies] shall die 
for his own iniquity." (Jeremiah 31 : 29, 30) 
John the Baptist expresses the thought in other 
words, when he says ; 1S.e that believeth on tha 



tsa 



The Golden Age for January 7. 192.0 



Son hath life : and he that believeth not the Son 
[after full light and opportmuty] shall not see 
life; hat the wralh of God abideth on him". 
— John 3; 36. 

No Change In Death 

The Messiah, the great antitypical Prophet- 
Priest-King (Deateronomy 18:15), will not only 
bo the deliTerer "to brine out the prisoners 
from the prison, and they that sit in darkness 
out of the prison-house" (Isaiah 42:7; 49:9), 
but '"the government -will be upon his shoulder 
and he shall be the Prince of Peace"^ (Isaiah 
1) : 6) One of the first acts of this new Prince 
vdU be the exercise of complete restraint over 
r5ataii, tho prince of darkness (Ephesians 6:12), 
tliat he may deceive and mislead no more those 
who were his captives throughout all the Mes- 
sianic thousand-year reign. — Bevelation 20:1-3. 

And will death's prisoners know and be knoTv"n 
of their friends when they come forth in the 
rosarrection, graduaUy, every man in his o^\-n 
orderl To this question we have the Soiptural 
assurance that they shall return to their former 
estate (Ezekiel IG: 5a), or to the same state or 
condition of character which they possessed at 
the time of complete death- If they were wise, 
just, loving at death, they will bo ■wise, just, 
loving in the same measure when brought forth 
from death. If thoy Arcr© unwise, unjust, un- 
loving at death, tliey T,-iII be uu-wise, unjust, 
unloving in the same measure when they arc 
called forth from tlie tomb; for there is no 
c-bange in death. ""\Vh'^rf> the tree [man] fallcth. 
there it shall be" — until outside power raise 
it. — Ecclesiastes 11 : .". 

An illustration: At tho close of the Civil 
War, Southern prisoiicrH were released from 
tlie war prison at Coluiiibns and other places. 
Those were tlie same men that had been put 
there, some of thpni almost four years before. 
There were certain changes in body, but they 
were the same individuals, able to recognize 
tliems%lves and be r;"eognized by others outside. 
Thoy returned to (.heir homes in the South and 
v;rrc recognized by uequainta.nccs there. Bat 
qreat <hang-c.- !iad tiJken place in tbcir home- 
land. When tlipy Ii^ft, it •was in a state ot' 
turmoil and the issue was undcindcd as to wViat 
\TiTe to "fto I lie dominant governmental prin- 
eiples in the land. When they rctumpd. li^gal 
peace had beea established; the quehtion of 
governmeut had been determined, though there 



were great needs in reconstruction. So will it 
be when death's prisoners are released. 

Prison's Blight to Disappear' 
Tho tendency of imprisonment is to deterior- 
ate body, mind, morals. So the effect of the 
sentence of death upon manlnnd has been de- 
terioration in every way. It has affected man-'s 
mind until his once lordly intellect is pitiably 
unbalanced: it has worked upon his body until 
he has a mere semblance of his once noble 
organism; it has dulled his moral faculties 
until he actually thinks right is wrong and 
ivrong is right. It is for these reasons that the 
Scriptures state that darkness, or obscuritT, 
covers the earth — human society. (Isaiah 60:2) 
This darkness is in the minds of jwople respect- 
ing the true character of Jehovah God. Tlie 
Lord Je.«us intimated that any dearth of this 
darkness should be considered a great and 
special blessing: 'Blessed arc your eyes for they 
see: and 3-our ears, for they hear'. (Matthew 
13: 16) Those who experience now the enlight- 
cniiig of the eyes of their understanding (Eph- 
enians 1 : IS) arc but a handful, a "little flock" 
(Luke 12:32), in comparison with the tmnmn- 
bered liosts which are to have the same blessing 
ing the future ; "l^'or the earth shaU be fall of 
tho knowledge of the Lord as tho waters cover 
the sea''. (Isaiali 11:9) Man's poor discern- 
ment of, disinterest in, and universal want of 
confonnity to the standards of righteousness, 
which Jehovali originally established for him, 
•vill then be done away with. "Then the eyes of 
the [spiritually] blind shall be opened, and the 
cars of the [morally] deaf shall be unstopped: 
then shall the lame man [now unable to walk 
well in the ways of righteousness] leap as an 
hart and the tongue of thj dumb [those who now 
have no word of praise for .TehovaJi] shall sing: 
for in the wilderness [the barren state of human 
society] shall waters [of refreshing truth] 
break ont, and streams [coordinate proclama- 
tion of truth] in the desert."^— Toaiah 35:5, C. 
It will be a happy time v. lien tho great pri.soa 
doors swing out. They opened In more than six 
thousand ^ears a^o to if^-ccivc the first pair; 
tliey yav,n(-d again on Calvary to ri-ceive our 
Lord Jcsua as he gave hia pcrfct life as a 
ransom price. But it nas not possible that "he 
[ay a now cruaturi'l ^'lould be bolder of death'' 
(Acts 2:i:^). ^"> iiK' jlrT^o^ doors opened out 
for Ihe iircl timt; oa that joyful roaurrection 



The Qolden Age for Jctnuary 7, rp^o 



morning when tho angels aimonnc(?d, '^0 is 
risen". (Matthew 28: G) Thft promii:e was also 
made to the chnrch that "the gates of death" 
shooid not prevail against ier. (Matthew 16:18) 
Thongh the followers of Christ have died ap- 
parently Uke the rest of people, this promise 
was fulfilled to them who had slept in uncon- 
sciousness throughout the Gospel age when, in 
1878, the sleeping saints were called forth into 
the first rcsnrreetion to glorv, honor and im- 
mortality; and since then each saint at his 
change has entered into glory. Having been 
sown in weakness, they were there raised in 
glory; having been sown animal, or human, 
bodies, they were then raised with wonderful 
spirit bodies, that they might more effectually 
serve God and bless mankind. 

•^ Comfort and Guidance Needed 

Those are therefore the first-fruits of them 
that slept; Christ Jesuts being the first of the 
first-frnits (1 Corinthians 15 ; 20 ; Colossians 1 : 
18), but when mankind, the after-fruits, shall 
be gradnally called forth from the tomb they 
will be in need of the st,rong, paternal gnidance 
and the tender, maternal interest of the Christ, 
Head and body, who shall then occupy power- 
ful positions as spirit beings. Instead of the 
darkness which now prefvails in the minds of 
the pe<yple, the glorious Sun of Eighteousness 
with healing in his beams will be shining; and 
into that blaze of warmth and light shall come 
the blinking, somewhat bewildered prisoners of 
d^alk, to be instructed, helped, and blessed up 
the highway of holiness then open until, if they 
will, not only all traces of, the sentence of death 
will be gone, but also all effects of the sentence, 
all imperfection- A perfect mind, a perfect 
body,a perfect environment, perfect life, and, 
last of all, perfect dominion will be restored to 
those of the now benig-hted prisoners of liope 
ivho wnl] then be v.illiiij,' and obedient toward 
God's laws. Tlius it is that ''the Lord Ioo;.-oth 
(ho prisoners". — Psalm 14*3:7. 

"Rui time for the deliverance of the prisonors 
is at liawJ. The t^^rriblc slorm of the World 
VTar \rhii;h ha.-i ju>:l sTtept tho rations Jesus de- 
clared wou]d be tho bo.t^nning of the tearing 
a^'^ay of tho old order of tliingf, preparatory 
to the inaujm-ation of the new order, under 
>^-hi<Ji ail the prisonprs ^vill come forth from tie 
prison-house. Another spasm of trouble must 
come, and then another, cvca greater thaa ti« 



preceding ones; and then the still small voioe 
of comfort and consolation to aH that mourn. 
These wiE foUow quickly one upon the other. 
Let all the prisoners who yet have a meaifurc of 
life take courage; for notmtlistanding tho 
trouble and suffering on every hand, the Golden 
Ago is at the doors. Let them rejoice for them- 
selves and for their fellow-prisoners who aT« 
resting silently in the prison-house of death, 
that shortly now the testimony concerning the 
love of God through Christ to the redemption 
and deliverance of mankind shall be given to alL 

"There's a widoness in God's mercy. 
Like the wideness of th'i sea; 

There's a Irindness in his justies. 
Though severe his judgments be. 

roT the love of QoA is broader 
Than the measure of ra&n'g mind; 

And the heart of the Eternal 
Is most wondcrfnUy kind." 



JUVENILE BIBLE STUDY 

On? question ftrr esch day Is provided tiy thf* Jonmal. 
TUo parea( will tind it interestin; and beliifiil te bat* 
the child tuke up tbs question each day and aM It In 
flnding the Liis\rer in Um Scriptures, Urns dereli^lnK 
a ImofTledge at the Blbto and when to find IB It Om 
tilings desired. 



1. Q. How should tee inierpret the pamblea^ 
syniiol-s and dark sayings of the Biblef 

A. A parable is a word picture intended ts 
teach, a lesson and to illnstrate some plain truth 
taught by the Bible. Parables and symbols 
should bo interpreted in harmony with the plain 
statements.— 2 Peter 1:20; 2 Timothy 3:16; 
Psalm 97 : IL 

2. Q. How did Jesus speak to the mttHHudea 
and tvky coidd th^ not wideTstand Mm9 

A. Jesus always spoke in parables to the mul- 
titude. (Matthew 13:34) He spoke plainly to 
his disciples. (Matthew 13 : 10-16) It was Glod'a 
due time for thf; disciples to understand, but 
not for tlie multitude. Jesus was hiding the 
divine secrets from the worldly wise and pru- 
dent. He explained his parables to the disciples, 
thaiiking the heavenly Father that others, with- 
out faith, could not understand the mysteries 
o;' his cnmiiig kingdom. But God has a due time 
IVir all to understand.— John 5 : 28, 29: Matthew 
11 : 25 : Zr^phaniah 3 : 8, 9 : Psalm 25 : 14 j 1 Cor- 
i nthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 4 : 4. 

7. Q. How did God give «.>• thf Bihlef 

A. He inspired men to write it, his sptrit 



254 



The Golden Age for January 7; tgio 



operating upon ihc minds of men. The spirit 
ot" God is iu\Hsi]3l'.'. yet all-poworful. No other 
booli vv'Ks evar inspii-od by God. — 2 Peter 1:20, 
21; 1 Peter 1:10-12; Habakktik 2:2; Heb. 1:1. 

•i. Q. What is ilte general teaching of the 
Bihlef 

A. Genesis, the first boot, tells us about the 
creation, how sin entered the world and how 
man lost the blessin.qs of life. Revelation, the 
last book, tells as that sin, sickness, sorroTv, 
pain and death chaii some day all puss away. 
Other books .show Jehovah's program, contain- 
ii!g promises of comfort and good ehoer, a.s well 
as many historical narratives of men and 
•nationd, — Genesis, chaptei's 1-3; 1 Corinthians 
15 :22 ; Romans 5 :12 ; 1 Timothy 2 :4-6 ; Hebrews 
2 : 14; 1 Timotliy 2 : U; Revelation 21 : 1-G. 

.5. Q. IVkat is th^ difference betrceen the Old 
and Ncif Testaments? 

A. Briefly stated, the New Testament is 
concealed in the Old, and the Old Testament is 
revealed in the New. — 1 Coriutliiaus 10:11; 
Liike 24: 27 ; Isaiah 61: 1. 

G. Q. Why is so much history of the Jewish 
nation found in the Bible? 

A. The Jews were the only nation under a 
law covenant with God, and the things of their 
history were recorded to foreshadow g'ood 
things to come. (Hebrews 10:1; Amos 3:2; 
1 Corinthians 10: 11) This history also furnish- 
es a wonderful Mme table, enabling us to deter- 
mine where we are on the stream of time. — 
Romans 5:6; Acts 17:26; 1 Timothy 2:6. 

7. Q. Does the Bible teach anytlhinj concern- 
ing the future? 

A. Jesus said the holy Spirit wDl guide us 
into all truth and show us things to come. — 
John 16 : 13 ; Eovehttion 2 : 2, 3 ; Isaiah 3ij : 1-3 ; 
Eevelation 21 : 4 ; Isaiah 55 : 13 ; 11 : 6, 9. 



S. Q. Is the Bible true? 

A. Yes, when properly translated. If we take 
an auto trip and have a guide book which points 
out everything along the road, that we would 
say is a true book. The Bible is a lamp unto 
onr feet and a light unto our pathway.— Psalm 
119 : 105 ; Isaiah 35 :11 ; Hebrews 6 : 18; 2 Tim- 
othy 2:13. 

9. Q. Why do so many persons say the Bible 
is not true? 

A. Because ihej' do not understand it. They 
may not desire to study it, nor be honest enough 
to ijelievc it, or humble enough to accept it. — 
Isaiah 55 : 8, 9 ; Psalm 25 : 9 ; 2 Corinthians 4 : 
4; Zephaniah 2:3; Psalm 97:11. 

10. Q. Is the Bible "an old fiddle upon which 
any tune can be played"? 

A. No. The Bible when understood is like a 
beautiful harp, which yields sweet melody when 
rightly played. It is filled with good tiding^ 
of great joy which some day will come to all 
people.— Luke 2:9-11; Psahn30:5; Isaiah 1: 
IS; Isaiah 60:2, 3; 2 Peter 1:19. 

11. Q. Does the Bible contradict itseiff 
A. No, not if we use the key to the BiUe. 

The key is this : "In due time" — ^"rightly divide 
the word of truth,"— Proverbs 4: 18 ; I Timothy 
2: 6; 2 Timothy 2: 15; 1 Peter 3: 15. 
13. Q, Did one man tcrite the all Biblef 
A. No, it was written by many writers. These 
men lived hundreds of years apart, yet their 
messages are in perfect harmony. The four 
Gospels were written by four different men and 
agree in all substantial parts. 

13. Q. Who KTote the first five books of thi 
Biblef 

A. Moses. 

14. Q. How many hooks are in the Biblef 
A. Sixtv-six. 



Te ShaU Not Sleep 



Sle<T) on, ye brare, in Fl.intlpr? I'teld: 
Sleep on nnd rest, where poppies grow 

and fr.i5i-ance j-ieUl. 
Sleep o;t till Satiiu j< race is ran. 
Arwl st!llt»d are hurrp)!, grceil ;:ih1 gur;. 

■^ Sie^ on, ye (l*ad, wUere poppies poir 
Eet\veen th^ crossaw, row ud niw, 

-V For Cltr'it has come with us to dTrpIl. 
"He hnth tbe keys to D«>-,ith aud HeU". 

Sleep on. de«r hearts, 

Cut not fotevar sboO ]• dweU. 



Tn Flanclcr'.s Fields, 

.Saltli lie, v.ho con<iu«red De.ith and Bell; 

fcaiili He, who iloetli all things well. 

Ye nhcU not sleep where popples blow 

Befnean the crosses, row on row, 

>ijiy, out Cor long, 

I'or that great ila.r, so long foretold, 

liy Sage, and Boob, and Prophets old — Is come. 

Aad soon TIi« Christ, tlw pre!<eot Ckrlvt, 

Win say. "Come forth, Arise! 

1^ Bartfa's giad Day, God'i PamttaB." 



■£^ 



The Qolden Age for January 7y 1920 



vi 




Iguazu to be Put to Work 

"U^ OBTY million dollars are nothing after an 
J- OTgy of sjwnding in •which forty hDlion tvob 
''"blown in" mthout a thonght. j\iid debts no 
longer disturb anyone, when they run into 
hundreds of billions. 

Forty million is the sum which it is estimated 
will be necessary to go into debt to put Iguazu 
to work. Iguazu is to be found about 800 miles 
from Buenos Ayres on the border between 
Argentine and Brazil, and is a series of water- 
falls, 275 in number, some of which rival the 
Niagara Falls. 

The world scarcity of coal is particularly felt 
in South America, where coal is not abundant ; 
and the Yankees of the South hav« long looked 
forward to the time when the cities, railways 
and mdxtstnes of Argentijie might get their 
lig^t, heat and power from Iguosu. 
The plan provides, for a two or three-year 

' buildmg operation, producing ISOiOOO horse- 
power at first, and ultimately 300,000. Some of 
the wiater povj^r is m Brazil, and that country 

, is likely to follow the example sot by Argentine. 
On* of the greatest treasures a country oan 
have is its waterfalls. That the phenomena 
which produce these sources <yf beneficent power 
are among the treasures of the Almighty may 
be infelrred from the statement that "when he 
nttereth his voice, there is a multitude of rain 
in th« heavens, and ha causeth the vapors to 
ascend from the ends of the earth; he maketh 
lightnings wLtli rain, and bringeth forth tho 
wind out of his treasures".— Jeremiah 10:13. 

Millions for the Chinese 

FOE a traveler to fall sick in China prior to 
the advent of Western civilization meant 
that nothing but nature would come to the 
rescue to get him well. It is getting better, as 
BcienoSHakes the place of superstition, and the 
American-taught practitioner helps the sick to 
recovery. 

In this work the Bockefeller Foundation is 
doing son^etMng snbstantiaL Over $2,000,000 
have been expended in the establisimiGnt of 
medical iBstitutions to teach the Chinese 
modern medical practice. ISxisting medical 
•ohools and hospitals have been aided by the 



Foundation, but the two principal institufions %[ 
are the PekLn Union Medical College under °^ 
construction, and the Shanghai Mei^cal College 
buildings for which are to go up as soon a» • J 
there is a sufficiency of building materials. '■ ' 

This id on excellent use of wealth. No lover 
of humanity would begrudge the millions of 
American money flowing to the help of th« 
Chinese. In a way it is owed to them to mak* 
a sort of restitution for the untold damage done 
by the long encouragement of opium by "dvil. 
ized" nations making money out of tite viee^ 
The more millions that can be sent to help 
people that are worse off than we are, the 
better; for such manifestatioBs of interest go 
far toward promoting good feeling between Vb» 
races. 

This, however, is nothing to tba gigantia 
benefits that will flow to the xaore llaekwar^ -. 
peoples when the Golden Age is tslfy ti^^red. : -^ 
in. Not minions, but billions, wi3i,%e oMuMezcd - '*■ 
the proper thing, when the great soottTe in the 
hearts of the people will be^ not greedy tknt. thi. ^ 
genuine brotherly love that we are assayed irSi ^* ' 
prevail throoghoat the whole world imder the " .. 
auspices of the better day, abottt to dswa. *r' 

And Stia They Leaee Ck 

TWO boys read of a lucky stonis to be fomid 
only in swallows' nests. They looked for - 
the nests on top of a bam, and one of tkem fell 
forty feet and wae nearly lolled. 

An autoist was preparing to replace a puno* 
tared tire, and dropped an inflated tire to the. 
ground. It exploded with such force that it * 
shattered both his legs. 

A big copperhead snake crept into the wooden 
box that holds the bell at a, railroad crossing, 
and put the bell out of commission. A party 
of autoists drove over the erossisg and two 
were killed. 

On Long Ldand a storm blew down tat elec- 
tric wire across the road. An army officer 
passing in his automobile stinick <ie wire and 
A\as instantly kUled by the current 

In Ohio a man w^aa assisting the local volun- 
teer fire department to put out a fina. An eleo- "^ 
trie feed wire fell against the hose, and the 
electric current, passing through the metal 
nozzle which the man had hold of, killed htm 4 



GOLDEN AGE (CALENDAR 



JANUARY 7 TO 20, 19i0 



1,1'.: c**? ''I'.'ft C"C1L 5'l : 66S© .Tr.Tlsh Em ; "572 of Ro.ti«; ^;'^r»5 of C.rwJr <i!.Tmp.4:( fcJra ; i'-Zlfi «f 
• i;i^nLs.a i:.a ; ISa^ Aluiuiiuiiodan i^ra,; i-*4tJi ;'car o£ inUc:::::Uefl':c l'S Th3 L'siicd ijUtLs:;. 






i p. m. : 



1*11 -'.*▼■. SfT.rT^a ; 
l-ti-ilishl begins 
!' : 101 Jv, U. H. 



wntouii'jCH eie v,*ii brine BriUJil troops cjt of nu:;ai« 
25 taoo as {.";— i^rli 

HarL'e-<M' "■>'/ 0:*!-.irt.-t Un:-. L?^;.SiaJia : :^*C'^f1tJ *"ir:.::- 

pi" *ialtii>oLi ; i^'H, 11^1/ r'-J'^i>'Jld cake, confe^^tionery 
naxi p»itr; : «*J Nor; Xc-rii scWw.io cloaifil for lack of eoiil ; 

"srfrilfc. na.j proenifw : l'.^niirp.l< killwi in Ufrrlia 
4 ; vU ^^•ar : Buenos A vi-t.s p:LriiJy-v,u hy 3:«aeral strike ; 
Can^res'MnaD Uerjer cua^icte<i or coIl-^■piraey t» vlelat* 

Jar-fitry f, Pri-deyr 

Tbinl CIi-LsUnart Pay. r.u!sar>., n-.triiiai-T : Xt'^. ^'.^i-r 
ToHt rcntrid njiiiroaU *!'Jts ill' t.-iiiu-' i'> savp cral : 

in T^Edoo «>■!; I'or I3t).0fl0 ArieJ troor"--; ('> Ti.''i T^nl- 
•vhpvt.i.a in si:. iuonLli»; Ne» loiic Uiu-tor ;LLra.l.--eJ i*S 
■trii;e of lli,QCO liariror vo'/'Miyr^-. 

•TaffUffry tf. Satf.rday 

!91T. Al'led |!overr4ind{s etatft the;- :»rTis e'' nwi'**; 
I!)''*, ,'l*>ii';« paa^fei Kcderai ■VVoiojid iiuum^* ,^Tr»eu^xeill : 
"•DTQ. Cl^ateaceau ami I-In^rt 'ieorfc "acft-e « -'"W.i. !*'J'- 

vtolatfcl Lr'^ 1>H»I'' prlntMrla ot a beii*vft>nt f.erijri:;^ t^t 
Nattors ; T,-j,:cinburf declared a f„'puhi; ■.. ;:ril ' e'L.-.ia.H 
©n? for j-'t hours : >'.■!{ lonnt f^r'viri'.v F^riju-! % iilie- 
.Tftpiidd b* raE;;res.;ioiiaJ Cor:m.;>'e of ii:c L-ac-if* «f 
bp-a; 'i'rL'<.fi:/ tiauicad by W^ i:'tre«t mid tnuiiiUoa 
manufa-jlurLi--;-. 

January ". E-in^nv 

fli'iioD : r<---!in SpujiaWooH coiiipi-Le'r Cf^Ats-t; A rani- 
to ILJ ulica iuhubitaaCa'*. 

I ir*"*^. I'.i:-:.;^-::, t '- to J^T ftffjcreea belor- tct^ : miS. T^rst 
fr»->tir»- oi ^^ .!i'"fiine Co'i^ffl of the Pc£i'!> <''oni>.-aace ; 
"V'r <■•.■: •*■ r"' -va" cliiirltj*3 lorctd to ^;op ^eratise 
>l, miMixan-i :;ri, or '."ratiduicn'" i T.aho.' 
ork proolairci radica) rer.cL-! (IcniantiinK 



' '-OTU'J 

Vvr\ 



•'jrcat'jr t»0\-u-:a.l, economii: acd induatrial u-:liocrav;y" 

Tjrall T^h' V-n*fll ^.olEdtr, C(*t!(io : i;*t:T. F-ftr?t 
fat;-, post.-i i::--" ;r':esi-ar»h sen-l''« *UdO*f inilitAry contrni ; 
Tormcr rr-^i^^'c**- *.';-.iIlau.T arrteted fer tjVsson : Soir'Ji 

WiLion rAT-. "I'ood '.5 ths kc?- lo l'"a 
'■?; Bolt-he .■■.<'n r.;nno* be *U>o*>ed 1>T 

; ■; ba sfo^jpo^ by Si^ns fPO<i ' : ^'■ 
?ic.<-A Lu.Teicbtsry :i-:-f»iPtJ in Fer'lr : 

»- a-d frei-ht ratfe-. 






rL«^':». £?•-■ •-. Tt-''!.'';.', t'livrc.:: Ci»';;:'.:..r Lru. I .'l-- 
U-caX-"^ b^ 'tJ !-^ Paris; ICtS, As.^aasinauon a(.L*i:iciKi 



Ciiitufo; t.^eicocratir- l.v. 









'.y>Rffl of ore norivjs t'-i:;> ch' h s«^~ 

^ii.Te-ccT plans rar a f "ajua o:" 'atloiiT, arc ;»r?CMteri. 

ttuudrad Je^-a kUIad ia L'lki-aias i^ccrosu 

103S. r:. d. x*ti'o.-i:l Wf-r T.i^cr BoitT'l err.: :ad : IBIJ, 
Fticfl CouUL'il douiries Mpna or-^a coTCJUtnti* .-.tcittlj" 
arrtveC at. iLCd ftr u.th rnd Axtericaa journaJiitii ediar 
vrftte--t : ftsvo.'u:jfta fcftsu:» 'O J'ortijraJ ; K'5"6l.:S.»na]7 
Hirike corUuufrs '■ .\ Arj^aiinc ; ^'atioaal Wiwaan'ji I^artj- 
cables l'rQ)M4ie:)t \Vi:;i&Q lo coait to aid «£ Itledtral 
Vk't^inan 8Uitn>j;« smcndntcaC 

1018, Ff.el AdmiuUtratiAn orden aaanfaetarinir p2aati 
rloscU ir(^.-if J;ir„ .'v-i io C2. and 9 *<Ioa<ia73 vftilor-i&C! 
10'fl, At Mfii:rj!aifftLo. Calli'., -tt; T, V. W.'a H'ft louad 
Sij:i;y oi' i'(»as^';)-.;iv under i^« jl^iioaafie Act; Saaati 
u:ijius>ej cJiuxcft "il dujioyciltj a;ain:$t {Senator £^«£l9tt& 

'.:jiu. 'i'ht T»fface C-sunrn 5«-ery r^e ts mo41f!«d t» 
3!ia:\' tl:r?4 ;?^A^,put]i>* cf rre^iiooua.'.iA at all but GAecutira 
(s(?pr2t> TD^-iinR:-! ; lIuKrt!aa BoLfciieviaai offer lo ceaM 
TtirlU nro^asan*^H ir .Mile:* Till eaUr p«ate necroUatloaa 
Ti*Ji t)erj: Dr. LieU'^necbt aAd Itosa Liixemburf ar« 
iui»:;i-t(iniitcd in [lerliu ; V.'It]idr«7al of Avterieui b«Ta 
t'Voa' [;i.s::ta har.t^LC^'f^I to b« ocJ; a matLor of a chart 
lint; rrencfi Cjcn«i-a! Ju.nin t« haT^ avri;-en;9 cob 
oi' v.ll AUlcJ tro'jii.s In Uu>:»;a; tbe Frecuh ha-.o ' " 
ln^c»:lnr•;^u L*t nu>tRiHii t.-o::c-4: Four pucktnx rampaaiM 

*0\.X proiini oC -tlS.; 15.1)00 ; l-^ctr t;iatcs ratUr Ftdetti 
Frotiiolaoo Amuavect. 

^cxcary /8, £;u?!e^ey 

c.Tolu.-r>e I'siiL of i>.Kl:;er Lo mala wiir «f paacft; Lloyd 
fi«»r5'^ aa,".i ;3 Tj^bof. ""Wo nu^ eitter $o in or s* 
t'liue-" : L'. 6. li«!;-i»i«J >V;u;a Cotnmlbstop appoialtd ; 
TOii>, s-'Toiur;- JCciIiieid iiUs- 3 tpeedy ra:.*inj ct caial* 

ninhrtsT of (;nno;*:i! Lse '■o:u;ar. .Ma.. >-V., '".n., Gfc., 
Vi-.!.. >;.*;.. :.■. C. '\;i. : 'i'h,pop::uJi;' iflL''pti:iay} du.r, 
7!ii'*:j*n. ti'^a*»re. noiiidu.ifa, KerT^la, Turk*i^ ; TJplphdA.' 
(!;;>■. UufsiH. >siir!; re: ; »9i3. Ori!v the "1*1; 5" natlotu 

of fii-i'i-.^ 'ii.-.ui;=. Zr.inL*. U. i'., Italj aoU Japrui ma^ 
aUc-.il uil I'c;-.i.-o Cop'o-cnc^ se3«;oc:<, tj'Jl others mr.y 
iUlenii v:iep !: ii «:ac:decl tftat discuasloas arJcct c*-.an! ; 
T^iaiT\'H.r \Vufi< n.iard .tdvlrtes SlOO.i^OO.OO*) wise 'tcrecwi 
for Palflstla; n^sioration I'linc ; J«wL-<h I-'iuor Con.r.-**!S 
fir raLiw-a3' rai.Tlo;. ck ; ^.roai^ts purt to TuXa-^ 53,000,000 
voifii a^cijisL Jeiri^ii £ovcramest ia Palestine. 

ffcr.uarff U, ^sfoCap 

■y^on.-t u-7 '^' a^»nhar.T. Tz's'-'^s., "ocma-.> : ST. 
Joiiri I:''! BviT:;*r r»n-. '.J ■•*--»«• : Vr*u«"?. ■ I'm. ■bit.9R 

r']«Ji-K -or ^:u>^iu, Hnwcl ■Ct'-ri*e.''tio£. ^:'*en2l?iBai-.» 
«riij-Rc ";:''-v;' '".iti>f ,-. '^ ' :i 'iOrMis KT Taniepf, '^'.'i 

a.1 iBdepeaccni "ai.'ofl.;; C«niRB >«Lor.„l Aoieaib'/ 

fleetpvl -wUh "('O :-'V;ji.lisN inn f**; *^0:••^*■_i ti.i4 16-* 
(Sppoaiiads ; \r\f\r:::- troopj to coajol li.O'Vl rni'ea ea:<C 

a£4 ea^icts Cxcui Us C. S. 




JaBaaiy21, 1920,VoLl.NoL 9 

PuhJished fvery clker 
ieek a.t 1365 BnMtdvcf. 
Sew York. y.Y.. USA. 

Ten Centa a Copy— ILM » Ycv 

ForeigA ^aubscrliuiaa ITice 9&0Q 



^ 



TOLimi I VrEDHESUAX. JANTTABT 21, 1920 »DKm • 

CONTENTS of the GOLDEN AGE 

POUTICAI. SOHXSTIC ud FOKZIGM 
S«tf ftlmaJtetiKa 2M preach Wodmo 



■ and St^ 



200 



BUnM7 rnH« 



-309 
-3«3 



BMpw and StQpaa 
Fnliud tbt World Wu. J«3 

LABOK (iKl ecoKomct 

WuUas aa aGnnd 8e«l«..283 ^« Sl*-B<J>w Hwmt M 

SOeiAI. mt EsaCATIOHAL 

A Lugnujn UoMnm. 233 Rockcfeilar'ii Fortan* 2<M 

EtzMorailtr 265 O CTarity Wliat Slnj. 206 

EoicriM Wiiited .. - _...2(15 Prohibition at Woik. 2«7 

VANUFACTVBINO «ad MININO 
ra« Wlilta Coat nia ..loB silver Co : 270 

VIKANCai COU MERCS, TKAM3POSTATIOII 

Aftir t&« PQbUe'i Maa»-271 Euaineai Otrtaameiit 

Aramd ttw World by b2l.2T2 Predlctad 373 

n^Bd .__. 273 Ford's aatoUlM StMW-Car J-t* 

5Sai!lS*«n :Z.273 n™ Jei wTrU. A,alm._-a74 

AGSICUI.TURE and UVSBAKDXT 

TtaaJUra of Brbrida 2TS Th« Plaeappla 2r« 

KdS* W»it^"S"^'.u"':r.':6 CoaperatlTt Fans 8eUUi*-276 

SCrENCS Md INVENTION 
Aatroaanan Cpla tlMAlr..2T7 «;«— Add-Boiatlsc AItay_STT 
A. CaUoIoid Sobatltota 277 ^"^ Aoii-«»»a=» *i»,-. 

HOVSSWIFEXT tad HTGIZNC 

awwiag Mather and Baba..27S Vegatariani! 

I^ w d awd MUk and Eg«»._37S W« Eat Crew t 279 

Saeeborla tw Snsar S'9 And Other Meata 250 

KELICIQN aad PHILOSOPHT 

Ttaa w»»a at Spirltlit Proni w«t'i HUtoir 2S2 

Utarator* 281 BIW« .Kcrontle 2S3 

X«w Way 282 JovMlla BlbU Stody- 

TKATBL >d4 MISCEZ.LANT 



Waalth rateld 2?S 

^ttttte Bath Chamw 2&9 

To Uafca Nawtoand- 

laad Wanaw 2»B 

T^ibartr \n Canada.- 2SS 

Kaxlood Baa Kaoocn 289 

Athletlca at Batrard. 364 



Jodse Cootey on 

ReUcloxia I>anectttlon-2M 

nianar Caatla Aasez 2Sd 

Tha CaU Path (oMm) 2^ 

The £la«d<n> »<»« iUaO-^l 



Staazaa for tha Timi 
Still Fi«a (poaoi) 



-287 
.237 



Caldan Aca Calendar, Jasnary 31 «« rebniary 3, 1820 284 



WQODwonra'. hudgimgs Hi tiAitiR. 






> 



cunrroN j. woodwobih .... 

ROBEBT I. UAKTIN BoiiiM 

WM. r. HUDGIMCa Bm-y ■ 

Tati CKIT8 A Copt— 41.90 a Yco. 
Hake roatlttancaa to The QoMeti. Ac« 



N 



<rt(? Golden Age 



VoL I 



New York. Wedntad^r, Janiury 21, 1920 



No. » 



POLITICAL, DOMESTIC and FOREIGN 



Real Prison Reform 

A FEW persons are interested in prison re- 
form, some of them on humanitarian and 
others on political grounds. The very few who 
are roally interested on humanitarian grounds 
are usually woefully lacking in knowledge of 
actual prison conditions. Under the leadei'ship 

f' o'f an affable and entertaining guide, picked 
from the guards with a view to making a favor- 
ahle impression on visitoi's, they have heen 
swished deftly around the more public parts of 
the prison and often have the idea that it is a 
very nice place. True, even to those who Imow 
the inside life of a prison, it is possible to imag- 
ine worse conditions ; but that is beside the ques- 
tion of real reform. 

Of those who are periodically interested in 
prisons on political grounds there is much occa- 
sion for questioning their entire sincerity; for 
they deliberate!)' overlook the most truthful and 
most accurate source of information — the pris- 
oners themselves. There are some difficulties in 
the way of securing complete information from 

V-- men while they are actually under sentence, but 
there is no great difficulty involved in gathering 
it from men who liave served sentences and are 
out. Of what eartldy use is it to ask Judge So- 
and-So or Senator Tliis-and-That his views on 
prison reform, when he has no idea of what a 
prison is. like? 

There woiild be minor differences of opinion 
even among prisoner* and ex-prisoners as to 
what could; be ijiost advantageously introduced 
in the shape of Reforms; but most of them, we 
believe, wouTd agree on these, named in the order 
of their importance : 

( 1) Jndgpfi ^l:oiild be obliged by law to spend 
thirty days in ail jails to which they are likely 



to hav6 to sentence men (or at least in one of the 
jails) and sixty days in the penitentiary to 
which they expect to commit prisoners. This 
should be as necessary to qualification for a 
judge's commission as a diploma from a law 
school. For obvious reasons it is not likely that 
such a reform as this will ever be suggested by 
the judiciary itself, but we believe that the bet- 
ter-minded of them would agree to its reason- 
ablciuess and would submit to its requirements. 
The idea has the approval of God Almighty; for 
lie sent his Son, an entirely innocent person, into 
the world and allow^ed him to suffer almost un- 
thinkable indignities "that lie might be a merci- 
ful and faithful high priest in things pertaining 
to God". (Hebrews 2:17) Such judges wotdd 
have to serve under a bona fide sentence, un- 
known to the prison officials. Sfety days would 
not injure them, and it would actually pay; for 
they would increase in "wisdom never learned at 
schools". It is a serious matter for one human 
being to deprive another human being of Ms 
liberty for long periods of time. 

(2) Separate absolutely and entirely all 
prisons from state or federal departments of 
justice. Why should a prison be under the con- 
trol of the very department which was instru- 
mental in having the prisoner indicted and sen- 
tenced? Has not that department done enough 
when it has turned him over to the prison offi- 
cials 1 Is there any adequate reason why prisons 
sliould not be managed by prison commissions, 
only one member of which could be of the legal 
or judicial professions f 

(3) Establish a parole board that paroles — 
one that has some regard for the evident intent 
of the parole laws. This board sliould be abso- 
lutely separate from the departments of justice 



360 



The Golden Age for January 21. /920 



^nd from judges and district attomeys, -who 
usnally are employes of such departments. 
A^Tiy not have wiich a board composed of civil- 
ians, not professional politicians? Under pres- 
ent parole arrangements it frequently occurs 
that a prisoner \\\l\ secure a recoinmeudation 
from the olficials of tlie prison, but fail to got 
ratification from the judge or district attorney 
who had to do with sentencing him to prison. 

Take this actual example: An Italian -svas 
convict-ed of complicity in a counterfeiting 
scheme and sentenced by a judge to three years' 
imprisonment. The man was guilty and the 
sentence was probably not excessive, as such 
sentences go. But note now what happens. The 
man knew not over a dozen words of English 
and in disappointment he employed four of 

them, sajing, "Aw, go to h ". The judge 

promptly added five more years to his sentence, 
making, eight, ostensibly to impress the man 
with the dignity and majesty of the law. But 
was it the dignity of the law or his own dignity 
of which he was more conscious ? Surely the law 
was not magnified by such an outburst. If six 
raontlis had been added, the majesty of the law 
would really have been revealed. "Wliat chance 
would that man have for a parole, even if he 
were a model prisoner* What cliance did he 
have? Xone, while that judge lived or was in 
office. The man sei"ved his time, barring a few 
weeks cut ofi: by presidential commutation, v 

(4) Abolition of limi ted outgoing mail. There 
is no earthly or heavenly reason why a man 
should -not be allowed to write all he wants to. 
The limits have been removed on incoming mail 
in most prisons. Kemo^'ing the limitations on 
outgoing mail would not materially increase the 
burdens of the prison postoffice. There would 
be- an increase for the first few weeks,, then it 
would drop back to something near normal. 
Among one thousand prisoners there would 
probably be not over fifty who would write more 
than otj^e letter a week. There is no real reason 
M'hy eitlTer incoming or outgoing mail should be 
read, though almost tjo prisoner will object to 
having the envelope opened so that the manage- 
ment could be sure no harmful narcotics or 
saws, etc.,\came in. Tf a prisoner's outgoing 
mail rose above a certain number per month, 
let hun pay" the postage. 

(0) Absolute and unequivocal abolition oL' 
compulsory attendance at religious services. To 



force attendance at religious scr^-ice of any kind 
is uu-Christiau, un-American, unconstitutional, 
and inhuman. It works hardship to Christians, 
to the irreligious, and to Jews, and could do 
no good to any one. Have the religious services 
if desired, make them as attractive as possible, 
but let the men go on their oven volition. 

(6) Select the major officials from es-prison,* 
ers — surely there are enough in all walks of life 
and in all the varying degrees of capacity. By 
the most hardened and disinterested prison ofli- 
eial it will Ijc admitted that a certain percentage 
of the prisoners are innocent. Those who have 
the best opportmiity of Imowing aver that these 
innocent run somewhat near ten per cent of the 
whole number. If the courts are nine-tenths effi- 
cient, that is not a bad average for imperfect 
and often biased human beings, even though it 
is hard on the tenth-tenth. Among those who 
are guilty there is probably a good forty per 
cent who have sentences cut of all proportion to 
the crime committed. Even if some of these 
men became wardens or deputy wardens they 
could not mitigate the sentences, but they could 
approach the problems of the men with sympa- 
thetic hearts and understanding minds — a thing 
which feiv outsiders, even though well-inten- 
tioned, can do. The men do not want to be cod- 
died or toadied to; many of them played tlie 
game and lost and they are willing to take their 
medicine in a manly way ; but they^do want and 
are entitled to talk to officers a^man to man and 
not as caged beasts to man. 

Stripes and Stripes 

STKIPF^S for prisoners' clothing have been 
abolished in the better-ordered prisons of 
this country, but the stripes which attach to the 
man's reputation are a.s difficult to eradicate as 
though they were actual stripes in his skin. The 
old idea, -«'hich was generally accepted in Jean 
Val jean's day, 'once a convict always a convict", 
has no foundation in reason, justice, or fact. 
Tliei'e are a few professional flirters with prison 
colls; these take their chances, give no quarter 
and ask none. But these do not make up the 
bulk of prison inmates. 

The most of them are men who have either 
(1) violated the law in some purely technical 
sense, unacquainted with the multitudinous 
statutes on the law books, or (2) succumbed to 
various kinds of allurements midcr heavy stress. 



The Golden Age for January 21. igzo 



161 



and (3) a few otliers who have set out to beat 
the state or government in some manner that 
docs not involve the lives or happiness of other 
citizens but merely property, and (4) political 
prisoners — those who have committed some 
statutory offense against tlie state as such, as 
distinguished from offenses against life or 
i property of the state's citizens. 

Added to these is a small fifth class of inno- 
cent men, and a sixth class, also of minor pro- 
portions, who are guilty in both intent and fact. 
But whatever the occasion for their incarcera- 
tion, it is surely an incontrovertible proposition 
that, when a man has been convicted by self or 
by jury, been sentenced by an authorized judge, 
and has served his sentence, he has paid ail that 
the law demanded of him as a penalty for his 
misdeed. It not infrequently happens that with 
his discharge the one-time prisoners greatest 
difficulties begin. If he is a man of affluence he 
may not need to worry; but if he was well 
cleaned up financially by the expense of his de- 
/ fense fight and by his expense while in prison, 
he may experience grave difficulty. His position 
is somewhat recognized by the law when it re- 
quires the prison officials to provide him with 
an outfit of clothing and a ticket back to the 
point from wliich he was sentenced. But this 
docs not get him a job. 

It must be admitted that there are certain 
philanthropic agencies which help in securing 
wage jobs for men that are not experienced in 
clerical, professional, or executive positions. It 
is seldom that such agencies have anything to 
offer for professional men. The lawyer cannot 
return to his profession. His own fellows bar 
him. The doctor can seldom return to his prac- 
lice: no opportunity is given him to profit from 
'^ his lesson. Occasionally a former employer will 
take a man back for sake of the man's family. 

But why should there be any charity, why any 
patronizing at all! If the penalty- has been paid, 
why make the man continue to pay it for the 
rest of""his life? Wliv is he barred from civD 
service positions, though his services may be 
most exijert! Is it not because of the old idea, 
such aa voiced by Emmanuel Kant, that the 
s^tate Ls aVnysde being \vith a sonl and that tliis 
soul has had its dignity offended? All right, 
suppose tliat wove true. The state by its prop- 
erly conctitutcd agents has prescribed what is 
assumed to be a just retribution for Euch 



offense. Does the government profess to be sat- 
isfied in the matter and at the same time dissat- 
isfied? If the ex-prisoner happens to be a man 
of means the government will gladly let him 
invest his money in bonds or other government 
securities. Fine, perfectly proper. Btit why 
discriminate against the man who has only time, 
skill and experience to invest in government, 
activities? There are no statistics to show that 
a man is less reliable as an employe after he 
has been a prisoner than before. 

Furthermore, why should there be no recourse 
against the state for one who has suffered false 
imprisonment ? Do we still believe that the king 
can do no wrong t Government agents with 
almost unlimited legal machinery and means at 
their disposal can, if they wish, make a Tery 
sorry time for a man of meager xieciiniary back- 
ing. He may not be able to stand the expftnsA 
of a fight long enough to prove himself innocent. 
He is put into prison for one, three, five years, 
until his ease worries around to where he is 
shoi\Ti to be not guUty. The man, if in middle 
age, is financially ruined for life. His family 
has suffered great hardship; yet there is no 
practical means of redress. He caimot sue the 
government for the mistakes of its agents, 
though in every other kind of business it is a 
Avell-established rule of action that principals 
are responsible for the acts of their agents. If 
the judge and prosecuting attorney responstide 
tor his incarceration are still alive, he mif^t 
proceed against them individually or under a 
conspiracy charge, if there seemed to be any 
clement of conspiracy. But what prosecuting 
attorney would show zeal in presenting such a 
ease to the grand jury and in carrying it 
through the courts ? AVhat judge could be found 
who would be willing to pronounce sentence 
against a fellow judge? Then possibly there 
was no evil design whatever on the part of the 
officials, but the unjust imprisonment 'vaa sim- 
ply due to human imperfection and frailty. 
What then ! Even if an ei-prisoner had peconi- 
a.T\ means with which to etury on litigatioa he 
has no statutory gi-ounds for so doing. 

It has been left for heatlien Japan to take the 
lead in improvement in some of these matters. 
There, if a man is disoriminatcd against in the 
social or commercial world simply because he 
has served a srntence in prison, the parson who 
discriminates against him is subject to fine and 



363 



The Golden Age for January 2/. igzo 



imprisonment; and the law is enforced. Fur- 
thermore, a man falsely or "wrongly imprisoned 
can gt!t full financial redress, not from individ- 
uals hat from the government. The people hy 
its representatives made the mistake ; the people 
should pay for its mistakes, just as any indi- 
vidual is required to do. 

Persia and the World War 

LIKE the nations, of South America, and all 
other nations that were able to keep out of 
the conflict, Persia was benefited in some ways 
by the world war. Its capital and trade have 
doubled. 

The country is a high plateau, 2,000 to 6,000 
feet high, ^v^th no railways, few roads, only one 
navigable rivor, and is cut off from easy com- 
munication with the rest of the world by moun- 
tain chains on the north and south. 

The rains of ages have washed tho soil from 
the hillsides, seaming them v.-\th gullies, and 
making travel difficult and expensive. It may 
be said that virtually the whole trade of Persia 
is carried on the back of beasts of burden such 
as traversed the country twenty-live hundred 
or more years ago. 

These conditions have largely cut Persia off 
from the rest of tho world, although the culture 
of its inhabitants has not greatly suffered be- 
cause of this; and it ia kno-wn as the most 
enlightened of the Mohammedan nations, the 
Pfcv.^tp.n lieing styled the Frenchman of the east. 

The first noteworthy appearance of Persia 
on tlie pages of histary is as a part of the Xledo- 
Persian empire, established by Cyrus the Great, 
the second empire in history that bore sway 
over the whole civilized earth. 

When the third world empire made its ap- 
pearance, Alexander the Great invaded Persia 
and traversed it with his conquering hosts 
from one end to the other, going on through 
-;lfghanistan and the Khyber Pass into India, 
and returning to Babylon by Baluchistan and 
the -sijore route along the Persian Gulf. 

The priests of Persia teach the boys and men 
to disregard and despise everything said to 
them by the women, and as a consequence the 
Persian has no home life worthy of the name. 
Insolence ftpm her twelve-year-old son is ex- 
pected h^ the Persian mother as inevitable. 

^Vhen the Shah of Persia visited Paris some 
years ago he shocked the hotel patrons by 
throA\ing his chop bones under the table after 



he had finished his meal. ETe probably thought 
there was no reason why he should not feel 
at home and act accordingly. 

Before the war the finances of Persia were 
under the control of an American, Morgan 
Schuster. He managed these so efficiently, and 
protected the Shah so effectively from the im- 
positions of the financiers of more highly'civil- 
ized nations, that Schuster was compelled to 
resign his position. The diplomatic presstlte 
became too strong. 

The pearl fisheries of the Persian Gulf have 
an annual output of about $1,000,000 per year. 
Koses flourish so profusely that they are cul- 
tivated in fields for the purpose of mannfacture 
into perfumes. The population is estimated at 
about 9,500,000. 

It is certain that the kingdom of Persia is 
the second part, the breast and arms of silver, 
of the great image which Nebuchadnezzar saw 
in his dreams, and which the Prophet Daniel 
explained to him ; and it is equally certain that 
the kingdom which is to replace the Persian 
kingdom, and all the other kingdoms seen in 
that vision, is the Jdngdom of the Lord, Mes- 
siah's kingdom, which brings with it the dawn 
of hope for the Persians and for all the other 
peoples of the earth. — Daniel 2 : 1-49. 

Frerteh Women 

Page 141 contained a reflecfion on French 
women which would better ilave been omitted. 
We are not perfect in judgment — yet — ^bnt try- 
ing to be — and do not wish to do an injustice 
to anybody. 

Blarney Cattle 

"The Golden Age magawne is good, full of truth,, 
hope and fact. Keep the good work up," 

— W. D. g., PiUshurgh. Px 

"The Golden Age exceeds my expectations. It cer- 
tainly does contain a message of hope for the beTrildered 
world." — D. S. W., Clarkshurg. W. Vet. 

"We received our first copy yesterday and ire are well 
pleased with same. How easy it ia to readl I suppos* 
that is partly due to the dull paper used and partly to 
the large print." — R. M., St. Louis, .Vo. 

"Perusal of one copy demonstrated the desirability 
of having your publication. The Golden Age, in my 
fajnily circle of four sons, four daughters, wife and 
nyself. It is dean and newsy, with a good trend." 

— G. E. J., Tarrt/town, N. Y. 



The Golden Age for January 2/. 1920 



:c3 




Thrifl Supremely Needed 

ALL the nations oi' the world are today like 
• the prodigal son. They have borrowed 
their future inheritances; and after a drunlien 
debauch lasting I'rom August 1, 1014, to Novem- 
ber 11, 1918, they are now engaged in feeding 
the hogs — the profiteers — in a v.ay that Tvas 
never before true. 

The average worldng man is liraite<l in educa- 
tion and has no knov/Iedga whatever of political 
economy. With the outbreak of the war many 
of these men suddenly discovered as munition 
workers or ship riveters that they could get 
three times as much money as they had ever 
canicd before in their lives. Myriads of these 
men knew so little of economics that it would 
be folly even to try to tell them that all the 
a. wages paid to them during the war had to come 
out of somebody's sa\anss. And having flirted 
for a time vrXh wages of $10 to $20 per day, 
lots of them have concluded that the world has 
changed; and that instead of having to work 
liard for a living hereafter, and to be careful 
of the dimes, nickels and pennies, they can 
safely spend every cent they earn, without any 
reckoning day ever arriving. 

No heresy could be worse. If there was need 
for these men to save during the war so that 
tJiey could participate in ihe various loans, it 
is still mors necessary now; for the interest on 
all the loans must be paid, and the running ex- 
penses of the governments must be paid, and 
there is no way in which these expenses can 
be met except by the savings of the people. 
Whether these savings of the people are obtain- 
ed indirectly by loans or directly by taxation, 
it is certain that these obligations must be met, 
and it is self-evident that the governments can- 
not ljO|;row from him who has saved nothing. 

Canada Labor Conference 

AN^ INDTJSTELiL conference was recently 
■ assembled in Canada, attended by one-third 
employes, one-third employers and one-third 
represenRLtives of the public Besolutions were 
adoptsd looking toward legislation on nnem- 
ployment, sickne?s. old-age insurance, minimum 
wage laws, better pay for school teachers, better 



housing conditions, compulsory education up to 
fourteen years of age, liberty of press, freedom 
of speech, eight-hoiir days, and union recogni- 
tion and collective bargaining. The conference, 
was divided on several, points, but put the 
questions up to the federal and provincial prime 
ministers for consideration and action. 

The commission said in part : 

"TTie commission bslierca that the day has passed 
when an employer should deny his employes the right 
to org'aD.ize — a, right claimed by employers themselves 
aad not denied by the workers. Employers gain nothing 
by opposition; for the emjiloyes orgajiize anyway, and 
refusal only leaves in their minds a rankling sense of 
injustice. The prudent employer will recognized such 
organization and deal with its duly accredited repro- 
santatives." 

Wcating on a Grand Scale 

AS illustrating the fact that some people 
. have no regard whatever for the conserva- 
tion of the products of human toil. Chairman 
William J. Graham, of the House Committee 
investigating war expenditures, reports that 
72,000 bales of cotton were left lying uncovered 
for months on the grounds at Nitro, "W. Va. 
He also reports that hundreds df millions of 
dollars were paid to concerns ihat never deliver- 
ed a dollar's worth of property to the Govern- 
ment, to cover profits which they fignred they 
would have made on contracts signed before the 
armistice went into effect, provided they \saA 
fulfilled those contracts. 

She Saved for Her Boy* 

CAPITAL and labor are not the only elements 
of the population that exact profits vdthont 
rendering compensating service. A. woman in 
New York city lived on seventy-five cents per 
day so that she might leave a f oi-tune of $250,000 
unimpaired, to be divided between her two sons. 
One of her sons, a doctor, she appointed execu- 
tor. The doctor paid a lawyer $35,000 to settle 
the estate, and then divided what was left be- 
tween himself and his brother. His brother 
thinks that somebody exacted too much profit 
and 13 trying to tiud out "^ho is at fault. 



JW 



The Golden Age for January 21. igzo 



TIte Six-Hour Heresy 

ET£NEy FORD startled tlie indTistrial world 
J- -vvlien he announced liis policy of a mini- 
innm wage of $5.00 a day and he has recently 
raised that to $8.00, It could not be done, was 
the "Durden of the press that represents the re- 
actionary sector of the manufacturing front; it 
would disturb relations between employer and 
labor in an ever-widening circle. Bat it was 
done ; for Ford profited by attracting the ereani 
of the workers; and other concerns still paid 
what they chose. Ford produced "Fords"' bet- 
ter and cheaper because the men were more con- 
tent to work under conditions prevailing' in his 
great shops than in the establishments of others 
less democratic than himself. 

Time was ^\hen the twelve-hour day was im- 
possible; yet it worked out all riprht. Then in 
succession the industrial impossibilities were 
the ten-liour. the nine-hour and the eight-hour 
day; but no concern that was up to date in its 
methods ever lost anything by the better work- 
ing conditions spelled by the shorter Avork-day. 

Now the impossible thing is the six-hour day. 
Xot merely impossible, but absolutely, to the 
nth degree, impossible, unthinkable, unbeliev- 
able, ^Tsionary, absurd, insane, is this latest in- 
dustrial heresy! 

Why! 

Because it hath not been so received from 
the fatlier;'. 

Cut Baron Leverhulme. than whom no one in 
the world, at least in the British world, knows 
lietter how tf> make money out of soap, comes 
and says that tl;p six-hour work-day is perfectly 
feasible. The baron says that it is easy in a 
basiiif'ss \\!i(M"p t!io ovrrhead expenses, including 
interest on <--;ipital, salaries of partners and 
mana.i^ers. repaiis and rencwalF!, depreciation, 
rent and ordinary taxes, are togclhcr equal the 
pay-roll cost. 

Here are his iisuros : Number of articles pro- 
duced under the right-hour day and forty-eight- 
honr'^'eek, 1000; pay-roll. $5000: overhead ex- 
penses, $.'5000; yjroduction cost per article or 
unit produced, .$10.00. The raw material cost 
would be the same per unit unless reduced by a 
less coi^t foj a larger quantit3^ 

If the^ working hours were reduced to a sLs- 
Iiour day and a thirty-six-hour week, and two 
shifts worked in the plant, the baron figures the 
cost S.S follows, the same v.-ago being paid for 



the six as for the eight-hour day : Articles pro- 
duced, 1500: pay-roll $10,000; overhead, $5000; 
total, $15,000 ; unit cost, $10.00. In other words, 
the impossible has been done — the men work 
six instead of eight hours, and the goods cost no 
more to produce apiece. Work is given to hvo 
men, where it had Ijeen available for but one ! 

To this the objection is raised that Ijefore the 
war the pay-roll in billions of dollars in Amel-i- 
can factories was 4.5 billions, and overhead only 
2.5 billions. On this basis a factory producing' 
.'^ay 1000 articles would cost $4i500 pay-roll and 
$2500 overhead; total $7000, with unit cost of 
$7.00 per article. The liai'on did not allow for 
any increase in overhead, but more salary must 
be paid managers for longer hours ; and allow- 
ing for an increase also in overhead, the figures 
would be: Articles produced, 1500: pay-roll, 
$9000; overhead $3500; total cost, $12,500; unit 
cost, $8.33. It looks as though it couldn't lie 
done, and get the goods out as eheaplj'' as Irefore. 

The factor that Avill produce goods as inex- 
pensively as before and yet permit the six-hour 
day is the attitude of the worker. He A^-ill feel 
better about his work and work a little faster 
if he is to have a 25 per cent shorter worldng- 
day. Suppose the worker works one-fifth or 20 
per cent faster than he did under the eight-hour 
day; that this is readily possible may be seen 
from the rate of work of tho average worker, 
who feels that any increased speed on his part 
may result in his having to mee* that speed at 
all times. i 

With production one-fifth, or 20 per cent, 
faster than in an eight-hour day the figures 
would be: Pay-roll. $9000; overhead, $3500: 
total $12,500; articles produced ISOO; unit cost, 
$6.94 per article. The miracle is quite feasible, 
but it takes the cordial cooperation of the 
woriicr to accomplish it. 

It is certain, however, that in the Golden Age, 
when the motto of trades unionism, "One for all, 
and all for one", becomes a living reality with 
every one, including both employer and eni- 
2)loye, the possibilities of the worker drawnng 
on his untouched latent powers will cause indns- 
trj' and production to jump foi-ward. Wlien for 
the principle of self-iuterost is sxibstituted that 
of real love of man for man. the incentive to do 
everything reasonably i^ossible for one another 
will actuate men and result in great benefits for 
the whole people. 



TTie Golden Age for January 21. igzo 



2C3 




r 



A Language Museum 
'NSTITUTE o£ Phonetics is the official title 

of the new language museum which the 
British Government is about to stapt in London, 
so that it can furnish its traders with better 
means of dealing with natives than have hither- 
to existed. Some idea of the need for such an 
Institute may be gathered from the fact that 
in many portions of Southeastern Asia a dif- 
ferent language prevails in every 500 square 
miles of territory; in other words one can not 
go twenty-five miles in any direction Avithout 
running into a new language. 

Methods for making records of all languages 
are approaching precision. By means of the 
X-ray, photographs are obtained of the exact 
position of the vocal organs necessary to pro- 
duce any sounds, and the sounds themselves are 
photographed or transcribed by a needle into 
/ phonetic curves on smoked paper. Studying 
these records the linguists are able to convert 
any language into English sounds and thus to 
reduce it to writing. By means of this Institute 
it is hoped that the traders %vill hereafter be 
able to do business with the natives without the 
aid of interpreters. Arrangements are also 
under way for the preservation of current dia- 
lects and an attempt will be made to restore the 
languages spoken in Chaucer's and Shake- 
speare's times. Similar institutes have long 
existed in France and Germany. 

Kecalling tJie scattering of hamanldnd and 
the confusion of their tongues at the Tower of 
Babel (Genesis 11:1-9), we are impressed with 
the thought that the means now being taken to 
preserve records of all languages indicates that 
they have sei-ved their pni-po.se and that now, 
in the dawn of the Golden Age, wp are approach- 
ing a time when there Anil be but one language 
in getforal use, as was the case at ilrst. 

Lax Morality 

CHRISTIAX citizenship in the Uuitod States 
is sAid to be iq a bad way. Instead of thu 
"unpaisilltjldd moral nmi spjjiuial uplift" ex- 
pected by unpraeticaL dccuitiairtrS fromtlie war, 
tho same theorists report that opportunities 
are multiplying rapidly for ?cxual temptation 
ai'd liceiiic; marriage is lioLiis deferred until 



middle life ; divorce is increasing; abortions aro 
on the increase; the sex appeal is universal, 
everj'where, in the newspapers, at the tlieater, 
the movie, the street carnival, the dance, thfi 
fair; society reeks with it, the home is steeps<-|.. 
in it, schools condone and often encourage^- it, 
professional life wallows in it and the Govern- 
ment is often influenced by it — so says President 
B. S. Steadwell of the National Purity Federa- 
tioii. At the rate the people are traveling, it 
is feared that America will strike bottom on 
the level of the ancient pagan orgies of the 
worship of licentiousness. One of the greatest 
agencies for moral decline is said to be the 
automobile, wliich supplies opportunities for 
secret association and puts the country road 
house practically at the city limits. 

Is America approaching the condition pro- 
phetically spoken of in the Bible when the Good 
Book spoke of a civilization to come "which 
spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt"? — Rev- 
elation 11 : 8. 

Luxuries Wanted 

AMERICANS have a well-earned reputation 
• as good spenders. An uaipreeedented de- 
mand exists for every kind of luxury at any 
price. On the twenty-seven kinds of luxuries 
listed by the Government the 1919 import tax 
exceeds' that for 1918 by l25%. Imports of 
necessities show no particular increase; but in 
such articles for women as feathers, furs, jewels 
and perfumery the value in 1919 is about six 
times tliat in 1918. Now that the saloon has 
gone, fair woman is getting more of her share 
of the money and i.s showing herself a spender 
of the first order. Money is Iwtter spent than 
hoarded, but better still mvested where it may 
produce more wealth. The present prosperity 
is not likely to eontinuo indefinitely ; and when 
it ends, the spenders will wish they had saved 
or invested what they have been so lavishly 
^rasting. 

High living i.s fun — until the bill.'; pour im- 
Habits of Itixury demand continuance, and des- 
troy all tendericy to thf traits that succeed. 
Not merely will tlic spetuii^rs !)(» I'orcod to ct'on- 
oray and tlirift. bat they are liable to swell the 
hosts of discontent. 



iUG 



The Golden Age for January zi. igzo 



Rockefeller's Fortune 

Mil. JOHN D. KOCKEFELLEfJ, Sr., is long 
, since out of business. He has jast added 
$100,000,000 to liis vast gifts for education and 
pliilantiiropy. At present lie is devoting his 
Lime and 'nmch ot his laoncy to the question oi' 
the prcsei'vntion of health and the prevention 
of diseasi'. 

We do not l;no\v how much ifr. Eockefeller is 
worth, and it does not seem to be our business 
to make him tell, but he is said to be "worth about 
$1,000,000,000. Supposing that he is wonh that 
amotmt ; and that it was all invested in freight 
cars at the old -pvice oi $500 each. We got to 
figuring on that and I'ound out something. SiK'h 
a fortiTne Avonid buy a string of 2,000,000 stand- 
ard cars. 

And how long a train vi'ould that malce? Sup- 
pose the train was niade up in Jersey Citv, and 
the cars Tvere each forty feet long and added one 
by one as the train progressed on its way. Be- 
fore the caboooe let't the yards at Jersey City 
the engine would liave traversed the route indi- 
cated by the follovdng cities, and in the order 
named : 

Ner^ark, Trenton, Philadelpliia, Wilmington 
(Del.), Baltimore, Wasliingtou, Riclunond, Nor- 
folk, AVilmington (N. C.)» Charleston, Savan- 
nah, Jacksonville, Miami, Key West (the jump- 
ing off place for Cuba), Tampa, Pensacola, Mo- 
bile, New Oriean?, Galveston, Houston, San An- 
tonio, El Paso (on the edge of Mexico), Tucson, 
Los Angeles, National City (on the edge of 
Lower Califorma), .Santa Barbara, San Jose, 
Oakland, Stockton, Sacramento, AsWand, 
Salera, Portland (Ore.), Tacom.a, Seattle, Bell- 
ingham, Vancouver, Prince Rupert (on the edge 
of Alaska), Edmonton, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, 
Port Arthur, Sudbury, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Quebec, Moiictoii. Halifax, New Glasgow, Syd- 
ney (the jumping oft' place for Newfoundland), 
Truro, St. John, Bangor. Portland (Me.), Bos- 
ton, Providence. 'Se'ff Haven and New York, 
with enough more to go almo.st \o Chicago and 

rl).'»efc-v ' 

The train would ))o 15,152 miles long, sufficient 
to cross the continent five times, or to reach in 
a straight lino three-fifths of the way around 
the world. 

Mr. Brick^foUer made some of his money in 
the oil lHjsiui,'hd. "jid there is still some money in 
(he oil busiiKv-. upparentiy, for wo notice that 
Mr. T'iiii'Ci-. \\i>? !)c-v.- President of the Standard 



Oil Company, not long ago paid $100,000 for 
one little book seven inches long, live and a 
quarter inches wide and half an in»;h thick, pub- 
lished in London in Itil!); the only known copy 
of the lirst edition of Shakespeare's works. 

O Charity, What Sins! 

CHARITY, what sins have been committed 
in thy name ! In ihe Army and Na\'y Bazaai;, . 
iu the autumn of 1917 a net sum of $645 was 
raised for "relief "' at a cost of over $71,000. At 
most, charit\- is a plaster which covers up a sore 
that had better be exposed to the sunlight and 
the air. 

We do not see anytliing very charitable in the 
founding of an orphan asyltmi by a man who 
has made his money by the use of child labor, 
or the founding of an old folks' home by a roan 
who has overworked and underpaid men and 
Avomen until tliey have broken doAvn before their 
lime. Ho is trying to discharge a just debt in 
a poor v/ay. 

We do not see anything very charitable in a 
gift of old clothes to the poor on the part of 
those who have such large incomes that they do 
not know what to do with the surplus revenues 
continually pouring in upon them. A real 
charity was that of a landlord in Wakefield, 
Mas.s., who recently made to a tenant the gift 
of a house in which he had lived for twenty-six 
years and had paid rent continually and faith- 
fully during all that time. The^man who did 
tliis is worthy of a statue in Ihc^public square 
of Ms city. *. 

The indiscriminate giving to beggars puts a 
premium upon beggary. Not long ago a one- 
legged beggar refused a permanent job at $18 
per v/eek because, he said, he could make $40 
per week at begging. Another one-legged man 
sits in his old clothes on the sidewalk during 
"working hours'', but on Sundays and holidays 
puts on an artificial leg and a Sunday suit and 
moves about with as much ease as anybody. 

So-called ''organized charity'' is for tbe most 
part a disorganized and inatiicient way of trying 
to patch up a situation which makes it possible 
that in the same city there should be some peo- 
ple worth hundreds of millions of dollars, and 
others equally honest, and perhaps even more 
industrious, who cannot earn enough to keep 
their children properly fed and clothed. Three 
of Philadelphia's recent charity drives were 
failures. 



The Golden Age for January 2/. igzo 



267 



In two European countries, one of wMch no- 
body dares to name, it has been recognized i'or 
a generation that a citizen u'ho has produced 
things for his fellows for tiiirty or forty years 
has earned the right to live; and he is given an 
old-age pension. 

A form of charity has been started in Toledo 
which gives promise of doing real good. Iho 
Social Service Federation is trying to improve 
the furniture in the homes of the poor, and iias 
invited and received gifts of almost everytluiig 
ithbe found in any home, ranging all the way 
from rocking-horses to violoncellos. The Fed- 
eration is trying to give the touch of personal 
interest without -which charity is a detestable 
thing. It niakea a point of having a visiting 
housekeeper prepare and serve a meal on a din- 
ing table in the way in wliich a meal should be 
prepared and served, thus to elevate the home 
ideals. We ■\\'ish this effort well. If contiiued 
in the spirit in which it is being started, it can 
hardly fail to be a real blessing to both its 
founders and its beneficiaries. 

Not a few people are interested in charities 
after the manner of Geha/.i, the servant of 
Elisha. The Lord, at Elisha's request, had jnst 
healed Naaman, the Syrian general, of his lep- 
rosy, but refused to accept anything at hi-s 
hands. Gebazi coveted the gifts which Naaman 
had ejchibited and ran after him witJi a great 
"drive" for money for the theologians, "the sons 
of the prophets". He got the money, about 
$2000, and valuable gifts of clothing. Upon his 
return to Elisha, the prophet asked him Vi-htr^e 
he had been. Gehazi denied having been aay- 
where; whereupon Elisha rebuked him for ap- 
propriating to himself gifts asked in the name 
of religion and said, '"The leprosy of Naaman 
shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for- 
ever. And he went out from his presence a 
leper as white as snow". — 2 Kings 5 : 27. 

Prohibition at Work 

Oi\\E of the effects of prohibition came to 
liglit the other day when $25,000 was offered 
for a $100 share of the stock of Huyler's, whose 
$15,000 capital stock is worth $3,750,000. 
Lowney's stock has advanced from $75 a share 
to $185.-^ Page & Shaw stock goes at $200. Con- 
tinental Candy started at about $7 and now is 
$14. Loot's was $12.50, but now seUs for $26. 

Back of the boom in candy is national prohi- 
bition. The prediction has come true that mil- 



lions accustomed to liquor woiiid turn to candy. 
The cotfee industry, too, is having a big boom 
on account of the domand for a good beverage 
in liou of the defunct alcoholics. The establLsli- 
men- o? coffee houses is not far off, to take the 
place of saloons. 

But the backers of the great reform realize 
that their work is not Gnished ; for they say that 
there is "tern business ahead. The obtaining <Si 
national prohibition is chiefly the work of the 
Protestant elergj^; and as the Protestant 
churches enroU only 25,000,000 of the popula- 
tion, or 23 per cent, of whom fully 5,000,000 do 
not actively favor prohibition, there are bat 
20,000,000 Protestants behind the militaiit re- 
formers, or 19 per cent of the population. Thu 
clerical leaders of the movement, who have gone 
to great lengths politically and wielded their 
lobby with such telling effect in the state legis- 
latures to bring about the prohibition miracle, 
are concerned over what confronts them. 

One of the former leaders of the political 
Anti - Saloon League of Virginia, Methodist 
Bishop James Cannon of Texas, expresses his 
apprehension : "^Uthough the liquor trafBc has 
been outlawed in this country, it is still alive, 
not asleep, nor dead, but alive and openly defi- 
ant. During the next year you may look for 
some progress by the liquor people; and this 
win continue until the people are aroused to ihe 
realization that this traffic is really an outlaw, 
which needs chaining, and until, it is chained 
permanently, it will endeavo^ta institute an era 
of lawlessness and murder. ' There is danger 
ahead!" 

'The liquor traffic," continues Bishop Cannon, 
"will defy the law, and will shoot do^ii men who 
go out to enforce your law. This has already 
been done in Virginia. You should not allow 
your state to be honeycombed with such outlaws, 
to continue ^rithout punishment, any more than 
you would allow thieves and other lawbreakens 
to go without their just deserts". Bishop Can- 
non appreciates how difficult it will be for a 
minority to enforce their will upon an indiffer- 
ent majority, in the face of an active, unscrupu- 
lous and tlioroughly organized body such as the 
saloonmen will liave in the field. 

To intimidate violators of the FederalAmend- ' 
ment many laws of great stringency have been 
proposed, on the theory that the more terriblo 
the legal penalties, the less will olfenders he 
inclined to break the law. As a matter of fact 



:s3 



The Golden Age for January 2/. /920 



tfap oiJy effectual preventive of crime is the ab- 
solute cerraiuty of immediate piinislimenc even 
undei- 1'ath.er mild penalties ; and witli a large 
body of the people iadifferent orhostile to prohi- 
bition, the Bareness of punishment is very 
doubtful In far the greater portion of the viola- 
tions of the law. This is evidenced bv the great 
increase in drnnkenness as an offense in most of 
the cities. 

The new reform by Christian America has 
elicited the warm approval of the head of the 
Moslem Church. Abraham Effendi, spiritual 
head of the Mohammedans, was ^eatly pleased 
M'hen the newa came to him of how America had 
turaed over a leaf. He said: '"It is with pride 
that we observe America's adoption of prolubi- 
tion after trjing drunkenness. Our law regards 
drink as the worst evil, because it breeds other 
evils, whereas other habits may hot do this. 
Sobriety was the secret of Islam's success as the 
liuilder of empires. But drinking brought ruin. 
It came from contact with Christian Europe, 
whose other had habits we acquired, at least in 
our cities, for the country is still sober. Our 
women do not drink. If ever Islam recovers, it 
will be because prohibition is restored to make 
men strong, clean and intellectual. I am de- 
liglited to observe that America is realizing 
God'a command as spoken io our prophet". 
Chri^ian Boston has just sent a shipload of its 
outlawed rum to Constantinople in the hope that 
the benighted total abstainers of Moslem heath- 
endom Avill ttim the rum into funds for the 
spread of the gospel. 

Some of the saloonkeepers are turning their 
planrs into intellectual centers. One of Them 
hoisted the slogan. '"AVhile you can't get booze, 
"frink of the Pierian Spi-ingr", and he is doing a 
rushing business in books, with the sign, "Good 
hooks, -^ cents each. Improve your time". The 
reason was given by the bartender: '•'I noticed 
all the men who were in the habit of getting 
rlnink at night sitting around having nothing to 
do. They were qidte lost for a means of spend- 
ing ttteir time. The rliing was a sncees.s as soon 
as the crowds got used to the strange-looking 
things aero:?.<! the bar. Here they feel at home, 
and not embaras?ed while they look for the book 
they w^sh. , Philosophy and sociolog}- are most 
flesired. V^ry little firtion is wanted; they leave 
that for the women". Xot a few saloons are 
turned into restaurants, and furnish the best 
meals for the monev to be had in town. 



It is the argument of tlie liquor men that most 
of the people want at least a little to drink, and 
that the best interests of the community are 
.served by permitting the serving of intoxicating 
beverages through a system of orderly and •'re- 
spectable" saloons; otherwise the people will 
make their drink at home, the total of drunk- 
enness will be increased, and the liquor dnipk 
will be of the worst description. This eoiiten- 
tion seems to be borne out fay the alleged 
doubling of arrests for disorderly conduct due 
to intoxication, siiice war-time prohibition went 
into effect; but we doubt the truth of the state- 
ment. The difficulty has been that in the past 
the respectable saloons were far outnumbered 
by the drinking places of a low type where 
drtmkenness, drugs and women were the vogue; 
and this condition was attributable to the com- 
mercializing of the trade by the great breweries. 

Every effort at reform is commendable; but 
reformers must not forget that they are oppos- 
ing insuperable odds in the fallen condition of 
humanity, on account of which every good work 
has to be incessantly fought for against powers 
of evil that at any instant may bring about the 
destruction of the achievement of decades. The 
builders of the prohibition structure must not 
feel too bitterly disappointed if the next few 
years, in the prevailing spirit of tmrest, should 
behold a partial failure of their well-meant 
plans. It is too soon to expect Millennial condi- 
tions through any reform that may yet be under- 
taken; but the reforms are *pming soon, under 
the auspices of the approaching Golden Age, 
when such efforts will not be in vain, but will 
have back of them not merely a majority senti- 
ment hnt a power for good which notliing can 
successfully withstand. 

For tlie world is yet in the night time. The 
Golden Age will be the day time, the era of 
light, and the people then -will become children 
of light. Xow ■'they that sleep, sleep in the 
night; and they that be drunlNen are drunken 
in the night". Then the sentiment will be: ''Yi.- 
are the children of light, and the children of 
the day, not of the night nor of darkness ; there- 
fore, let us uot sleep; but let ns watch and be 
sober. Let us who are of the day, be sober, put- 
ting on the breastplate of faith and love; and 
for an helmet, the hope [in the mind] of salva- 
tion". And world-wide the hope will grow into 
certaint>- that "God hath not appointed us to 
wrath, but to obtain sal vatiou'". — 1 Thess. 5 : j-9. 



The Golden Age for January 21, ig20 



389 




Tlie mate Coal Pile 

^ ^ nPHE white coal pile is as large as ever. The 

■^. * streams rvm as full as erer they did; and 

f millions of horse po^ver that -wonld do the work 

of the nation, and possibly of the world, are 

running to waste eveiy day in. the United States 

as they have done for centuries. 

Most of these white coal piles are In the far 
"West, many of them on Government land, al- 
though there are many in the eastern states. 

Water power is expensive to develop, because 
the whole plant must be completed before there 
is any return. Hence large capital i.s required; 
'^ and as the Governraont is not engaged in the 
business of selling power or lights, it must 
enti'ust this development to others. 

The coal shortage is making lots of people 

think about these water powers, and what a 

■^ lot of good could be done by the current that 

could be generated if we had our streams all 

harnessed. 

Congress has the matter up now and is en- 
deavoring to find some way to attract capital 
to these fields, and save the nation's coal and oil, 
develop new industries, buiJid up new communi- 
ties, provide employment for labor, and increas- 
ed markets for agricultural products. 

It is not as easy a task as coold be desired. 
Many of the common people are fearful of 
seeing these great heritages of the nation fall 
into the maw of the combinations of capital 
tliat now control so many of the necessities 
and accessories of life. 

It seems to us that if the Government could 
bnild water powers by employing soldiers for 
the task, it could rent the completed plants to 
operating companies, municipalities, coopera- 
tive societie.s or other entities that could oper- 
ateifiera advantageously for all concerned, with- 
out bringing any great groups of capital into 
the problem. 

We are sure that the development of these 
water powers is one of the blessings that await 
maoidmi in^he Golden Age, and perhaps it is 
just as "Veil that the development has been de- 
ferred so that the people will be the ones to 
i-eceive the benefits instead of the few who just 
now are eastiiig longing looks in that direction. 



The Mining of Sulphur 

THE supply of sulphur for the world former- 
ly came from Sicily, and wad obtaued with 
difficulty, not only because about fifty per ceiTt 
of the sulphur mined was wasted, hut because 
the noxious fumes generated in its purifieatioc 
or smelting were extremely destructive of plant 
and animal life f or mileS aroitnd. 

Within the past quarter century, the solphar 
supply has come almost entirely from the vast 
beds of it which lie far down under the subsoil 
of Louisiana, covered with an impenetrable bed 
of quicksand. Fortunes were expended in var- 
ious plans to find a way through this oil-satu- 
rated quicksand, and finally a method was 
perfected. The sulphur is now obtained by 
melting it with hot water forced down one pipe, 
transforming it into a yeast by forcing com- 
pressed air throLgli. another pipe, and letting 
it boil up to the surface out of a third pipe. 
It comes oitt pure and, after b«ing cooled. and 
solidified, is blasted into small pieces which can 
be loaded on cars. 

Besides being used in the manufacture of 
powder and the vulcanizing of rubber, sulphur 
is largely used in germicides. It is the most 
efiicient constituent of many of the sprays used 
lor killing parasites on tree* and vines. 

In the Valley of Hinnom, or Valley of 
Geheima, or VaUey of Tophet, as it was vari- 
ouslytermed, which lay on the southwestern edge 
of Jerusalem, the Jews were accustomed to burn 
the garbage of the city, using sulphur (or brim- 
stone as it is sometimes called) to complete the 
work of destruction. To a person standing upon 
the edge of tius valley at night, and looking out 
over its dull fires. glowing here and there, it 
had the appearance of a "lalce of fire and brim- 
stone", and was a fit representation of complete 
destruction. Its fires represented the complete 
destruction in the Golden Age of everything that 
is nnelean, impure pr in any maimer injtirioas 
to life and happiness. 

Among things that will be destroyed are the 
perverted thirst that creates the brewery and 
distOlery, and the selfishness that. makes the 
high financier and the thief ; for these and other 
evils will be ended by making men better. 



^0 



The Golden Age for January zi, 1920 



Silver Up 

CHINA wants silver; and in response to the 
law of supply and demand the price is climb- 
ing. Up to May 6, 1919, the export of silver had 
been prohibited since the summer of 1918, and 
the normal demand for silver for China simply 
could not be met. Since May the greatest sUver- 
consoming eomitry of the world — China — has 
had nearly twenty million dollars worth of sil- 
ver. Still the Chinese demand is not satisfied, 
and the Chinese merchants and authorities are 
outbidding the rest of the world for all the silver 
that is obtainable. The Oriental republic wants 
more silver and yet more, and is expected to ask 
for it at the rate of $120,000,000 a year, 

France and England have had to prohibit the 
export of the white metal. Silver has gone so 
high that it pays to melt the coin and sell it as 
bullion for the Chinese market. In the United 
States the silver dollar is worth about a cent or 
two oyer the gold dollar, but not enough to 
tempt much turning of coin into bullion ; but if 
the unrestricted export of silver were permitted, 
the price might rise to a height where the de- 
mand for silver bullion would cause much of the 
silver coin of the country to be melted and the 
country be stripped of its small change. Fortu- 
nately, however, the value of the smaller coins 
is so much lower than their face value that it 
would require a rise that is entirely unlikely, 
to deprive us of our small coins. Most of tlie 
silver dollars are worn and their light weight 
renders them unprofitable as bullion. 

Mexico is profiting by the situation; for the 
peso has gone from 50 cents to 99 cents, and the 
peon can get about tlie saane wage as before in 
Mexican money and is enabled to keep up ■with 
the cost of living without a raise in wages. 

An interesting feature of the existing condi- 
tion is that hundreds are taking their silver 
heirlooms to the melting-pot. Old knives, forlis, 
spoons, silver plate, jewelry and silver orna- 
ments are daily coming out of their hiding 
pla^se^. All such articles are paid for only after 
they have been assayed to ascertain the propor- 
tion of silver, and a small charge of about a 
htiif per cent, is deducted for the operation of 
melting into bars. 

China's appetite for silver is reported to have 
almost -paralyzcil the retaU trade of Paris. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of tive-frano, two-franc, one- 
franc and haii-lranc pieces have gone to the pot, 



and there is not enough coin to do business with. 
For days at a time department stores could do 
little business, because there was not enough 
coin. Waiters are in desperation; for there are 
no tips. Barbers, chauffeurs, and attendants in 
public buildings are suffering a "short" period. 
One of the big stores made its own money out 
of cardboard circles stamped as good for certain 
amounts in trade at the store, and the other 
stores followed suit, and then arranged to- ex- 
change the new "mone/'. Now many are issu- 
ing and using cardboard coin. The sitaation is 
aggravated by the fact that everybody is hoard- 
ing silver coin, which takes still more out of cir- 
culation. The prospect of getting enough silver 
ia not improved by the circumstance that 60 per 
cent of the Mexican silver mines are shut down 
because of revolutionary conditions. 

The world has stuck its hand down into its 
pocket and found that it is short of change. 

Besides the phenomenal demand in India and 
China, one reason for the limited supply of sil- 
ver is the falling off in production. In 1911 the 
world production of silver was 226,192,000 fine 
ounces; in 1916 this had faUen to 136,626,000 
fine ounces. Mexico produces about one-third 
of the silver of the world; in 1913 its production 
was 70,000,000 ounces ; in 1916 it was only 22,- 
000,000 ounces, but it is estimated that it was 
45,000,000 ounces in 1919. As a result of the 
great demand, old silver mines are being worked 
over and new districts opened up in the coun- 
tries on both sides of the Rio Grande. 

This illustrates what a dfelicately balanced 
fabric civilzation is, Wlio would think that 
so slight a circumstance as a somewhat in- 
creased demand from a remote coimtry for a 
metal would tend to upset the trade of whole 
cities and put the retail trade of the world ia 
jeopardy! And how carefully ought the men in 
charge of the affairs of nations to have stepped 
in the matter of plunging the world into a strife 
whose evil effects seem only begun ! If a little 
matter, like a little fire, starts appreciable trou- 
bles, how great are the world difficulties that 
may be looked for from so tremendous an act of 
\ioience an the World War! It would be far 
better that imperial ambitions had never begun 
the great cataclysm, were it not that it was 
foreknown by the Creator and evidently was 
permitted in order to work out better and 
greater things, leading eventually to the groat- 
est possible blesaings — those of tlie Golden Age. 



The Golden Age for January '. x, igio 



!71 




After the Public's Money 

SOMP] color is given to the report that ui sonio 
recent conferences the electric railways de- 
termined on ne>v vrays and means for getting 
more money out of the public. Unprecedented 
methods are Ijeing resorted to by these public 
''servants" to bulldoze the people into compli- 
ance vAth their demands. 

In Toledo the electric railway company was 
ousted from the streets on account of a variety 
of complaints, including an exorbitant fare for 
the privilege of riding on the street cars. In- 
stead of waiting to be put out in conventional 
fashion, the street railv.ay company quit the city 
by quietly removing its ears at midnight wilh- 
out warning to the city officials, partly l>ecdnse 
the company expected the city to seize and run 
the street cai-s. 

The Toledo mayor charged the company with 
breach of faith, Avith doing an act typical of the 
hour selected for its performance, ■with bad 
treatment of the carmen, who consider them- 
selves innocent victims of a condition that has 
forced tliem out of work, and with a variety of 
other offences. The street railway company said 
that they could not afford to run the cars at a 
loss, that they would not permit the interurban 
cars to run in over their tracks, that they might 
pull down the wires and tear up the tracks, that 
they might put the ears on sale, that they could 
not possibly meet the unreasonable exactions of 
the city management, that they could waive 
their position under the ouster ordinance, that 
'"Toledo would have to beg hard to get her cars 
back", and that 'the cars would be for sale un- 
less they could make Toledo see our point". 

The Toledo public, for whose benefit sup- 
posedly the street cars wore originally per- 
mitted^ upon the streets, resented the company's 
attitude by voting six to one against repeal of 
the ouster, negotiated with other street car 
companies for cars to run on the tracks, looked 
for other means of lighting the city than the 
electricity stbpplied by the company, paid 10 
to 50 cents to ride in all kinds of vehicles, ar- 
ranged free motor truck transportation for em- 
ployes and for people coming in on the inter- 
urban lines-, sacriMced comfort, time and money 



rather than give in t-i the autocratic attitude of 
the company, and displayed a genuinely Ameri- 
can spirit against U\e uUegod Bourlwnism of the 
street-car officials. 

The attitude of the press in other cities 
ranged from a friendly interest in the piobkm 
the conamon people had to meet to that of 
papers conamitted to corporation interests no 
matter what corporations may do. The hean- 
less comment of one such publication was in 
part as follows : 

"As the people of Toledo had for their street-car 
camnony the enthiisiastie lack of nifection which, it 
swms to be tlm fete oi such corporatioEs ererywhep* to 
e.\-cito, there was no difficiilty in getting the iiih«bit«Bt» 
of the city to vota their company's caia off it* nreets 
until it stopped charging six cents fara and two cent! 
for transfers. That vote, however, was cast on an undo 
standing, by the voters, not that the company wotild 
remove its cars from the streets, bat that it -would return 
to a straight five-cent fare. Instead, with truly malig- 
nant docility and between two days, it deported all its 
cars into the State of Michigan; and the Tolcdaaa 
found themselves the winners of a most iBConvenieat 
victory against the hated foe. They were confronted 
with a painful alternative — that of riding in automobilea 
at a cost considerably greater than ths rates they hfld 
intolerable, or of walking. The warning to be found in 
Toledo's attempt at compulaion by esdusion should b* 
heeded in other cities where the dAsire to ride at what 
the street-car companies declare to be less tluut cort 
might lead to action of like imwisdom." 

During the war many corporations made and 
laid away immense reserve sums; and this ex- 
pression of a corporation mouthpiece is concrete 
evidence of the arrogance Tiath which the corpo- 
rations generally "feel tlieir oats". 

The politicians of Toledo doubtless are no 
different from those of other cities having 
wealthy public utility companies, and doabtlesa 
did their share to "milk" the street railway com- 
pany, held it up with graft ordinance, and for 
private profit did the many other things well 
known to politicians as useful for extnwJting 
coin or concession from corporations, while 
seeming to act in the interests of the people. 
They waxed lond in vote-getting denunciations 
of the heartless street railway; but it waa 



isra 



The Golden Age for January 2/, igzo 



always possible that after the proper amount 
of "oil" had been applied by the corporation 
interests the politicians talk would again be 
smooth as butter, because, iorsooth, had not the 
"nnlk" pipe-line been re-established between 
corporations and politicians? 

One of the good political statements for mak- 
ing the people feel right and help get the milk- 
line in operation •was that the politicians 
•Vonld not repeal the ouster nor give tlie street 
railway company a franchise". It was quite 
possible, of course, that ''judicions concession"' 
would canse enough politicians to "find a suit- 
able solution" to bring the cars back on terms 
mntnally satisfactory to corporation and poli- 
ticians. It is a great political game, not letting 
the left hand know what the right hand does. 

Everybody lost through the brawl. The com- 
pany claimed a daily loss in fares of $7800. Tlie 
1400 employes lost their wages, perhaps total- 
ling between $4000 and $.5000 a day. The mer- 
('hants reported business very dull. iManufac- 
tories were unable to keep their pay rolls txi3l. 
The common people paid double or more for 
transportation, representing perhaps $6000 a 
day loss, besides the loss of wages. As it was 
a strike by a company, no troops were called to 
keep the striking officials in order, lock them up 
in bull-pens or enjoin them from interfering 
with a commodity of first rank as a neces- 
sity. Nothing that took place was calculated to 
allay unrest or to make the people feel that 
in some way the arrogant power of corporations 
ought to be curbed. 

But bettor limes are coining. "A better day 
is coming, a morning promised long, when truth 
and right with holy might shall overthrow the 
wrong; when Christ the Lord will listen to every 
plaintive sigh, and •■■tretch liis hand o'er sea 
and land. Avith justice, by and by. The boast of 
haughty tyrants no more shall fill the air, but 
age and youth .«hall love the truth and speed 
it eyerywheie. No more from want and sorrow 
shaU. eopie the hopeless cry, but war ahall cease, 
and perfect peace will flourish by and by. The 
tidal wave is coming, the year of jubilee; with 
shout and song it sweeps along, like billows 01 
the sea.. The jubilee of nations shall ring 
thj-ough ^arth and s*lv>- ; the dawn of grace draws 
on apace---'tis cominij; by and by.' 

It does one good to realize that when per- 
plexity fills many minds, the tnith is that the 
best days ever known are at hancL 



Around the World by Rail 

INTEREST in the Dover-Calais tube has been 
renewed, Avith fair prospects of work being 
started in the ypring. Lord Fisher now comes 
out with the proposal that Europe's principal 
port of entry be made at the great Blacksod 
Bay, on the west coast of Ireland, and that 
regular train service be inaugurated between 
that point and Japan, via tube under the North- 
Channel to Scotland, across England through 
the Dover-Calais tube, across Europe, through 
the Bosporus tube, thence via the Bagdad rail- 
^vay around the Persian Gulf, across India, 
China and Korea, and through anotlser tube 
under the Korea Strait to Japan. 

Might as well make a good job of it, while 
he is at it, and go on up the coa.st of Asia to 
Behring Strait, under that by another tu»)0, and 
then across Alaska and the Yukon Di^^trict to 
Edmonton, and s'o on to New York. Then we 
would have to have three big SAvitches to com- 
plete the job. One would be the Pan-American 
line down through Central and South America 
to Buenos Ayres, another wonld be the Cape to 
Cairo line through Africa and the third is our 
own invention. This line starts at Singapore, 
and by a succession of connecting tubes trav- 
erses Sumatra, Minitok Banka, Billiton, Cari- 
mata, Borneo, Celebes, Peling Cay, Xnlla, Xnlla 
Bessey, Buro, Ceram, New Guinea, Australia 
and Tasmania. 

Personally we could not reconnpend a rail- 
road trip from Tasmania or South .\frica to 
South America, as we think the*passenger wouhl 
stand far more chance of reaching his destina- 
tion alive if he went direct by ocean carrier. 
But such a trip would be possible, and it Is quite 
possible that in the Golden Age sttch a highway 
as we have described might be built, even to the 
one connecting Australia with the mainland. 
The longest tmmel would be only about one hun- 
dred miles in length. Such a line could he matle 
a standard t'o\xr-line railway for much less than 
the cost of the World "War. 

Finland 

WHERE is it? is a question some of us 
might have to ask. Yet Finland was saved 
from famine by American money. The country 
is not backward. There are few illiterates. 
There was a university there before PhTnouth 
Kock was heard of. Men and women vote in a 
republican government. 



The Golden Age for January 2r, igio 



STS 



Germany's New Trade System 

ONE ot' the greatest internal clangers faced 
by European nations is depreciation of cur- 
rency by the sending ot' coin out ol; the country. 
This has taken place in Austria; and France is 
grappling xvith the problem. England has for- 
bidden the export of silver. Every country faces 
this grave condition. Tlie United States has 
not come up to it, because nothing except th'? 
Chinese demand for silver has tended thither; 
for thus far this is the moat fortunate nation in 
the world, respecting evil effects from the World 
War. 

In foreign trade, if imports exceed exports, 
the balance, called the balance of trade, has to 
lie settled eventually Avith currency, or witli 
bonds, vhieh serve to defer the evil day when 
the cun"ency must be paid. A large excess of 
imports drains the money out of a country, and 
no nation seems to have devised a successful 
system for keeping the currency at home and 
averting the disastrous effects of an unfavor- 
able trade balance so well as Germany has done. 

For the Teutons siimply refuse to let go their 
currency or their gold. They propose to accom- 
plish this by not allowing an unfavorable trade 
balance to come into existence. A foreign mer- 
chant, for e.Kample, who n^ishes to import into 
Gremmny a million dollars worth of cotton, can- 
not take his pay in coin, but must take it in the 
shape of a million dollars worth of manufactured 
cotton goods, or of some other manufactured 
goods, of a kind that the country is willing to 
export. The matter is closely regulated by the 
govenmient. The effect is that there cannot 
arise an excess of imports over exports, to be 
settled in the u.-nal mamier with gold. 

A further effect of this new policy is tliat every 
million dollars worth of goods brought into tlie 
c-ountry brings a million dollars worth of work 
to the workers, or at least that portion of the 
million that goes as wages to labor. It is pro- 
]Josed that labor shall not suffer enforced idle- 
ness on account of the country's becoming flood- 
ed witB: imports that would drive horae-manu- 
i'actuxed goods out of the domestic markets. 

The need of the hour everywhere is w-o-r-k. 
The country that works the most, keeps its peo- 
]ile the busiest, gives them the most pay and has 
the most ^oods to distribute among the work- 
ers, is, other things being equal, the least likely 
to suffer from popular unrest and its train of 
evil?:. Th^r'' ai' • -^Ir-'^'-v nf otht>r I'Tin'^'es v.'or'ri''"? 



in Germany to bring ti-ouble to the people, very 
serious tronble.ehief of them the poverty caused 
liy the War: but, if reports are to be trusted, it 
will not be from not working that the German 
people Avill get their worst trouble. All the 
people liave gone to work, it is said, and their 
principal stock iti trade is work, not money, nor 
bonds to be floated elsewhere and bring trouble 
in the future. It is considered a real peril to the « 
rest of the world that Germany has adopted 'a 
policy tending to pat herself relatively, and in- 
creasingly as time goes on, in an advantageous 
position for recouping the economic disasters of 
the War. Other peoples, especially this country, 
should not lose a moment in getting down to 
work, for 'lie becometh poor that dealeth with a 
slack hand, but the hand of the diligent mafceth 
rich".— Proverbs 10:4. 

Business Curtailment Predicted , 

ACCORDING to the Wall street Journal, A. 
Barton Hepburn, chairman of the Advisory 
Board of the Chase National Bank of NevrTork, 
one of the country's most reliable authorities on 
business conditions, says that we are headed for 
a curtailment of business. 

The average business man or banker in publio 
expression takes the role of a booster, in order 
not to disturb the eommon people with the truth, 
no matter what his real ideas may be ; but Mr. 
Hepburn frankly admits that business cannot 
continue at its present rate. He^says: 

"We cannot continue to reduce the houxa of labor aad 
still supply the quantity of goods Which the world de- 
man<ls. We cannot continue to increase the cost of pro- 
duction, and still be able to compete with other nations 
in the markets of the world. These causes will operate 
to curtail business. Men will not make goods that they 
cannot seU at a profit. That there wilt be in the not 
distant future a CTirtailment of business and a recession 
in cost and prices is ineri table."' 

Concerning the business condition of Europe 
?Ir. Hepburn speaks advisedly and frankly: 

"There are individual enterprises in all European 
countries worthy of confidence and credit. These will 
be singled out, then usual credit tests applied, and their 
wants supplied; and in this way Europe will be financed 
to the extent that it ought to be. 

'•The dubt of Great Britain is still increasing. Their 
(Hirreut taxation does not equal present expenditures. 
The same is true in an emphasized degree of France 
and of Italy; and all sorts of financial schemes, ranging 
from a capital tax to repudiation, wiU lill the air and 
make the holders of certain foreign government seeuri- 
■ ;,.j n-.nvo .'" 1^-': ■,!"..■:■ V Tor -omo Time to coma. 



274 



The Golden Age for January 2/. igia 



'■'The only possible policy for the restoration of Europe 
to normal conditions is economy and thrift. Thai ?iiO!.ild 
be the slogan there and the slogan here." 

Hundreds, thou.'ands, of men of the utmost 
ability ars v/orkLiig on the stupendous \iroblem 
of restoring condition^ to wliat they v.-ere before 
the "World War. \V<> certainly vvish all right- 
ininded tnon well in tlieir honest c-.idi'avors to 
bring peace nnd prosperity to the people, but it 
is diSeult to join in the prediction that their 
efforts will r>e crowned with the success they 
seek; for their practical rejection of Christian- 
ity darinK the last few years has started condi- 
tions that the Scripttires say it will be impossi- 
ble to mend- ^Ve fear that they must finally 
realize that their position will ultimately be like 
those thousands of ye-ars ago that said: '"We 
would hare lieak-d Babylon, but she is not 
healed". (Jeremiah 51 : 9) But there is coming 
'"an afterward of peace"; and all well meaning 
men will see in the Golden Age that it was better 
for it to lia^e been thus. God is at the wheel and 
He will bring humanity safely and prosperously 
to the desired haven of rest. 

The proposed loaning of vast sums to Europ)e 
to be spent in the United States may postpone 
the depression ; but if the loans prove uncoUect- 
able, the present threatening aspect will be- 
come that much worse. 

Ford' a Gasoline Street-Car 

IS IT the sunset of the day of the electric 
street-car? Oilier inventions have had their 
T\\n, served the people v/ell, and passed out of 
existence, because .supplanted by nev/ inven- 
tions. The electric railway displaced the horse- 
dra'tvTi street-ear, to the ruin of the investment 
in the older busino.s.^. Steam railroads ousted 
canals, and destroyed the value of the invest- 
ments therein. The steamship caused whole 
fleets of gallant sailing vessels to rot at v/harves 
or to pound to pieces on rocks and shoals with- 
out being replaced, to the utter loss of iavest- 
ments in shipping. No industry' can complain, 
if science and invention devise some better way 
of (fding the work. 

The basis of the new Ford street-car is a gas- 
oline motor of a new type. It combines a motor, 
an air corapres.'ior, an electric generator and a 
heatingj and lighting plant; for all operations 
for tlie contVol of tho car are centered in tlip one 
motor. '*It do.'-s ;.v. ay with all ovcihoad equip- 
ment, wixh liugi'' pr,\vor stations, v-ith all the 



costly electrical equipment, and with half the 
weight of the ear. The car is heated Avith, the 
liot exhaust from the motor, carried throQgh 
pipes and emitted under the car. The power 
T.'lant weighs bat IIGO pounds, and the car itself 
about seven tons, for a tliirty-seven-foot car, a 
liharp ooutrasi with tlie twelve and fourtceu-ton 
cars now on tiie streets. Each car seats forty- 
two passengers, and has plenty of excess energy 
in the ninety horse-power of the motor. 

Just how soon the "Ford" \viU be on the mar- 
ket is not definitely stated, for the first cara are 
dem.onstration cars to be exhibited on the tracks 
of various cities, and on steam railroads, where 
they are expected to develop a speed of seventy 
miles an hoar. 

.Just how people will get around when the 
olden Age is well advanced no one can defi- 
nitely predict ; for under those more favorable 
ansijices there ^ill be thousands of Fords and 
Ediaoufi of abilities not approached today whoso 
inventive minds will produce new mechanisms 
for the good of the people. It is safe to say 
that, whatever may be foreseen now the actuali- 
ties will be better than that. "For since the be- 
ginning of the world men have not heard, nor 
perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen, 
O God, beside thee, what he hath prepared for 
liim tliat waiteth for liim". And in the Golden 
Ago aU men of right hearts will wait upon God. 

New Jersey Tries Again 

WHEN the electric railwiiys were first 
financed most of the <i)08sible credit was 
spoiled by "high" finance. New Jersey railways 
are no exception, and now that they have a real 
fmancial problem to meet they have no re- 
sources, for they need more money badly. First 
Ihey tried to get it by a zone fare scheme which 
doubled or tripled the passenger's outlay, but 
the people took to the jitney.s, and one system 
lost $12,000 a day. Now the railways have a 
plan to get the public out of the buses — five 
cents the first two miles and a cent a mile there- 
after. The best thing, perhaps, for the railways 
may be bankruptay ar»d a reorganization on a 
proper financial basis, where exorbitant charges 
will not be necessary. 

It is impossible to fix railway finances to start 
with in a way that they cannot succeed, and then 
expect permanent success, particularly during 
a period of such f^tartling changes as take place 
in our day. 



The Golden Age for January 2/. /920 



«T5 



AGRICULTURE AND HUSBANDRY 



The Value of Hybrids 

WE AEE not sure as to the value of 
hybrids. They may be of great value, or 
they may not; but the experiments now being 
made in the development of giant hybrids are 
well worth carrying forward to a completion, 
and we understand there is some prospect of 
the Government's establishing an experimental 
station at Kentland, California, with a view 
of ascertaining the facta about the giant planta 
which are produced there. 

There was a time upon this planet when a 
hybridization was started which threatened to 
destroy the race. The Scriptures describe the 
incidents preceding the Flood in these words : 

"And it came to pass, when men began to mul- 
tiply on the face of the earth, and daughters 
were born unto them, that the sons of God saw 
the daughters of men that they were fair; and 
they took them wives of all which they chose. 
. . . There were giants in tlie earth in those 
days ; and also after that, when the sons of God 
came in unto the daughters of men, and they 
bare cliildren to them, the same became mighty 
men which were of old, men of renown." — 
Genesis 6 : 1, 2, 4. 

There ia no doubt that these sons of God are 
those referred to by the Apostle as the "angels 
which kept not their estate, but left their ovm 
habitation, going after strange flesh" (Jude G, 
7) who became "disobedient, when once the long- 
suffering of God waited in the days of Noah". 
(1 Peter 3:20) These angels sinned against 
the law of their being in taking human form for 
the purpose of rearing human families. Their 
children were the giants, the traditions of whom 
are to be found in the mythology of all peoples. 
Had not the Flood been sent in mercy to <le- 
stroy these hybrids, the human family would 
have been reduced to slavery and destruction. 
That was the end of '"the world that was". — 
2 Peter 3:G. 

A somewhat analogous situation confronts 
us in the present passing away of "this present 
evil wej-ld" and the da>\Tiing of the new day, 
the inauguration of 'the world to come [not the 
world to go to] whorein dwelleth righteousness''. 
"We have giaut trusts and giant labor unions, 



the powers of both of which we should dread 
but for the coming establislunent of the kingdom 
of justice and peace and truth for which all 
classes of humanity yearn. .. 

Insect Leaks 

THKEE insects, though insignificant little 
things which a baby's finger can crush, cost 
the country a billion dollars a year. One is the 
cotton boll-weevU. This little giant has put 
some former cotton states out of the business, 
■ destroyed the industry of raising sea-island cot- 
ton, since 1S92 has ruined 11,000,000 bales of 
cotton — nearly a whole year's production for the 
country — and costs annually some $200,000,000. 

Another of the Lilliputian giants of insectdom 
is the tiny cattle tick. But for it, 50-cent steak 
would be unheard-of, $18 and $20 shoes would 
not exist and the whole South would excel in 
cattle raising. It takes from the country in 
direct loss some $100,000,000 and an untold 
amount indirectly. 

The third of this trio of giants too great for 
man yet to conquer is the fever-mosquito. It 
makes its summer home in 75,000,000 acres of 
swamp land which,because of it,are uninhabita- 
ble, except for people willing to drag out a life 
qf sickness ending in a premattire death. 

All told, these insect leaks are estimated to 
cost the country a bUlion and a quarter a year. 
Some day they uill be eliminated, in the Golden 
Age when humanity finds itself able to execute 
the divine commission to "subdue the earth" 
(Genesis 1:28); for the subduing of the earth 
implies the conquest of all the enemies of man. 

Modern Forestry Needed 

TO THE wasteftd American the supply of 
lumber seems inexhaustible — for have not 
iiinericans always gone to the woods and cut 
all the timber they wanted? But spendthrift 
methods find a limit. Already the supplies of 
all thp> Ea.stern timber centers are nearing ex- 
haustion, excepting in the South. Even there 
most mills can draw on their forests not more 
than ten or fifteen years longer. The country 
!u\s cone througli its natural resources like a 
drunken lipir through a fortune, ^v•^thout a 
thought for a future, which is now at hand, 



278 



The Golden Age for January 21, igio 



TJte Pineapple 

FIRST discovered in Brazil, early in the 
sixt'P(?nth century, the pineapple has beeomo 
ono of the most widely cultivated i'ruits of the 
tropical and somi-tropical resjions. In 1S94, 
4,000.000 pineapples, valued at $750,000, were 
marketed from Tlorida alone. That was twenty- 
five year« asfo- and the spread of pineapple 
fields in Florida and Hawaii since that time 
has been prodigious. 

Pineapple nMnts arc set tin-pe feet apart, 
■with occasionally double spaces between the 
rows. Ends which develop beneath the ground 
are principally relied upon for settings, al- 
though various other parts of the plant can bo 
used for the purpose. The plant thrives best 
•where the temperature averages seventy-five 
degrees, and where the air is dry. It bears for 
alwut ten years before it must bo replaced. 

The plant grows about three feet high, and 
produces fruits of ^^arying sizes and colors 
besides the size and color with whioli we are 
most familiar in the markets. The irnit grows 
to twentj' or more pounds in weight, but the 
average is about eight pounds. 

Pineapples are largely grown in the West 
Indies, Northern Africa, Queensland and the 
Azores Islands, besides Florida and Hawaii. 
In the Philippines and in Southeastern Asia 
they grow in gi-eat quantities, and are sold so 
cheaply that at times they are fed to elephants. 
The canning of the fruit in these countries is 
largely in the hands of the Chinese. The leaves 
of one of the vario'ies gro^Ti in the Philippines 
provides a fibre from wliieh is made a fabric 
much appreciated by the Filipinos. 

The best varieties of pineapples are protected 
from excesses of heat and cold by great sheds, 
built at an expense of $')00 per avre. The care 
that is found necessary to bring this Inscious 
fruit to perfection is a part of the blessing, not 
curse, that was originally inipo-Ticd upon our 
first'-parems. Ad;ini was 'nnt iiilo tlie garden 
of Eden to dress it and to kot?p if (Genesis 2: 
Ju); and wlien f'anJi'.s parndi.-^^ is restored and 
the Golden Age is a fact, nriJ ho longor a 
prophecy, rhe perfr-otion of iho L'^^lt.■;^vlth^vili^•:l 
it aboTinds,"'-. and wliich ronsiitnte man's most 
naturai-jind mosv lioalthiul and enjoyabh:* food. 
will be the pnr.--.u-i; and deligiii of tlie pprfoct 
men that •wUl then £nd their ct-jrnal home in 
thia favored spot. 



Pineapples aid digeslion. The juice of a ripo 
pineapple is an almost invaluable remedy for 
diphiheria, the acid seeming to dissolve the 
growth in the throat. 

Cooperative Farm Selling 

PROFITEERING by middlemen in farm 
products discourages the fanner, lessens 
liis interest in the farm, decreases productian, 
and raises prices. Last spring the farmers of 
the Southwest had to pay $70 a ton for sorghum 
for sale by middlemen, but in the fall they could 
get only $10 for what they had to sell. The Way 
the profit is worked against them, "coming and 
going", makes them discontented mth their oc- 
cupation, and causes some to give up their 
farms — and the more farmers quit farming, 
the nearer food rationing the rest of the people 
are. 

Cooperative buying and selling, organized by 
states, through tlie state departments of agri- 
culture, is being worked as a remedy for tho 
protiteering situation, so far as the farmer is 
concerned. A Kansas farmer wanted a carload 
of carrots, and ^^^red his want to the Kansas 
Department of Agriculture, which referred it 
(0 the Texas department, who informed a Texas 
farmer who had a carload of carrots to sell; 
the transaction was completed during tho morn- 
ing, and the carrots -were on their way as soon 
as a freight car could be furnished by the rail- 
road. The seller got 25 per cent more than he 
(;ould have obtained from a middleman, and the 
buyer paid 25 per cent less.*". Both parties are 
satisfied that interstate coiiperation is good for 
the farmer. 

If such cooperation is all right for farmers, 
v.-hy would it not he good for the other people 
that feel tlie pre.ssui-e of the cost of living? To 
a considerable extent prices are high because of 
so many middlemen, each of whom has to make 
a living on what passes through his hands. The 
less middlemen the better, and what amounts 
to a state cooperative exchange possesses at- 
tra<'tive features for all — except tlie middlemen. 
Kridenlly what was said thousands of j'ears ago 
applies to the profiteer today: ''He that is 
greedy of gain troubleth his own house". — 
Proverbs 15:117. 

However, it is not too late for the people, by 
combined coopprative notion to minimize many 
of the dlliiculties tiiat confront them. Such a 
course would be in ihe public interest. 



The Golden Age for January 21, tgio 



trr 



SCIENCE AMD INVENTION 



-»>■ 



Astronomenup in the Air 

NO! We do not mean that the astronomers 
are going up in dirigibles (cither 50,000 
miles or 50,000 feet) to try to get a better look 
at the heavens. They have Avonderiul telescopes 
for doing that, telescopes which could not pos- 
sibly be handled in any dirigible that could be 
built. The newest one, in position in California, 
has a lens 100 inches in diameter; and when it 
■was pointed at tlie heavens, instead of revealing 
125,000,000 suns, it disclosed 375,000,000. So 
sensitive are these -wonderful instruments that 
they take into consideration the trembling of 
the hilltops upon M'hieh they are mounted, due 
to the impact of horses' hoofs and even the feet 
of playing children. 

The tiling that has disturbed the astronomers 
is the discovery that none of the stars are where 
they were supposed to be, and nobody knows 
for sure where any of them are. This all came 
about in a very simple way. 

A certain man by the name of Einstein ivaited 
until there was an eclipse of the sun, a total 
eclipse caused by the moon coming between, it 
and the earth. Then he took a nimiber of pho- 
tographs of the ring of stars nearest to the edge 
of the eclipsed sun. He waited six months until 
those same stars were again visible in the night 
sky. He photographed them again, and instead 
of being the same distance apart as they w^ere 
six montlis previously they were nearer to- 
gether. The stars had not changed their rela- 
tive jjosition during tliat period. They are so 
remote that no possible changes in their loca- 
tion with respect to each other could be revealed 
in six months' time. 

Wliat had happened? Wliy were they not in 
the same places as when iirst pliotograplifd? 
The^astonislung answer is that onr sun had 
pushed those rays of light out\vard as tliey cnme 
near his majesty; and instead of moving ir: a 
straight line, as we have always snpposi.-tl. ii 
is now apparent that light wobbles and \Yr:g,!r!ei 
and t\Vi3ts^;, its way through the universe, and 
that tliare is no possibli? way oi' loiowing e>:?.i-;ly 
where any visible part of ilie universe is locat'/d. 

With what reverence ought we to anprnac-ii 
the contemplaijon of the wondi.-r? of tlie viiiljle 



universe! Jehovah has been pleased to reveal 
some of its secrets to earnest and honest in- 
quirers, but there are heights and depths of 
wisdom in the creation and movement of tjw 
heavenly bodies tliat can be but faintly guessed 
at by the wisest of eartli's philosophera. Somo 
of these wonders will never be kno^wn to liuntan- 
kijid, but it is entirely right for us to try to 
ascertain as much as may be possible. We cau 
learn nothing that Jehovali is not pleased to 
reveal to us. "The secret things belong unto the 
Lord our God: but those things which arc re- 
vealed belong unto us and to our children for 
ever." — Deuteronomy 29 : 29. 

During the Golden Age, and all the ages to 
foUow, it will be the privilege of men to know 
more and more of the wonders of Jehovah's uni- 
verse, but there will always be heights which 
they can never hope to reach. 

A Celluloid Substitute 

A CHEMIST named Baekeland took the three 
liquids, carbolic acid, formaldehyde and 
hydrochloric acid, put them together and got a 
transparent, odorless solid that cannot be af- 
fected by any chemical. It sustains a crushing 
load of three tons to the inck and makes an 
ideal substance to take the.^lace of things here- 
tofore made of celluloid and hard rubber, as 
it is cheaper and cannot burn. This substance 
is known in business as bakelite and has made 
its inventor wealthy; but in the home circles of 
the chemists, where they freely discuss such sui)- 
staneos, it goes by the more familiar name of 
oxybenzylmethylenglyeolanhydride. (Ouch !) 

New Acid-Resisting Alloy 

ANEW acid-resisting alloy called Hium ha.^ 
been discovered by a professor in the de- 
p.irtment of chemistry of llie University of 
Illittois. The new metal hj>s lx>en kept in aeid^, 
at greatly dilYerent temperatures, for a period 
of six months and shows no signs of having de- 
tfiriorated. This will make ic valuable for some 
purposes I'or which gold and platinum are now 
used; and iliese metals an st-varal hundred 
times as txpcT.sive as the r.fW alloy, v.'hidi can 
be produced for 25 cents an ounce. 



sn 



The Golden Age for January 21, igzo 



HOUSEWIFERY AND HYGIENE 



Saving Mother and Babe 

THE state is %vasting; the lives of mothers and 
babies. Everj' year some sixteen thousand 
mothers die in childbirth and nearly a quarter 
of a million babies die nndor one year of age. 
Other countries show markedly lower death 
rates than this. But Federal aid is now being 
given in a small way through the Children's 
Bareaa of the Department of Labor for the pro- 
tection of infancy and maternity. The neglect 
of maternity and infancy leads not only to thou- 
sands of preventable deaths, but to lov.-ered vi- 
tality and permanent impairment of health and 
efficiency for those women and children who 
are so fortunate as to survive. 

Lack of means to secure adequate prenatal 
care, or even care at the time of childbirth, is 
given as the most frequent cause of loss of life. 
This is just what we would expect in a world 
where possessions have been long considered 
as of greater value than life and happiness. 
Laws are much more frequently framed for the 
protection of property than for the protection 
or encouragement of happiness. The word hap- 
piness means much, and it would not be possible 
to legislate happiness onto any one or into any 
one. But there are certain foundations of hap- 
piness which have been too much overlooked, 
and one of these is the right to be as well born 
as the combined efforts of individuals and states 
can provide. At best, there will be a red and 
comparatively vigorous line of life in some, and 
a thinner, grayer line in others. This condition 
will prevail until the Life-giver begins his great 
work of the Golden Age — his work which will 
heal not only the bodies of all the willing and 
obedient, but also their minds and hearts. 

Bemarkable progress has been made in legis- 
lation providing mothers' pensions since the 
fir^t Mothers' Pen.«ioii Laws were passed in 1911 
by Slissouri and lilinois. According to a bulle- 
tin entitled' '"Laws Relating to Mothers' Pen- 
sions", just issued by the Children's Bureau of 
the United States Department of Labor, thirty 
states\ Aifi?ka and Hawaii now have some 
publio-iproviriion for mothers left with young 
children to support, and in at least five of the 
remaining states mothers' pension laws have 



been tmder consideration. Canada, Denmark, 
and New Zealand also have passed legislation 
prc/iding aid for mothers. This rapid spread 
of legislation in so brief a period is indicative, 
says the Cliildren's Bureau Bulletin, of the is^de- 
spread, deep-rooted conviction that n<V child 
should be deprived of home life and a mother's 
care because of poverty alone. 

Generally speaking, all mothers' pension laws 
provide for the payment of a stated weekly or 
monthly sum for every child under a certain age 
to mothers who are dependent upon their own 
efforts to support their children and who are 
morally and physically fit persons to bring up 
their children. There is considerable variation 
in the laws in force in the different states. 
Some states provide pensions for ^vidowed 
mothers only. Others include women who are 
divorced or who may have been deserted by 
their husbands, or those whose husbands are 
in prisons, in state asylums, or who are other- 
Mdse incapacitated. In three states prospective 
mothers may receive mothers' pensions, and in 
a number of instances mothers of children bom 
out of wedlock come within the scope of the law. 

The age up to wliich an allowance may be 
made for a child varies from thirteen to seven- 
teen years. Only one state h^ a thirteen-year 
maximum, but this state allows an extension to 
sixteen years if the ehUd fe ill or incapacitated 
for work. Sixteen years is tlie maximum in the 
greatest number of states. One state and 
Alaska give seventeen as a maximum, and one 
other state with a sixteen-year limit for boys 
makes seventeen the maximum for girls. 

Powdered Milk and Eggs 

POWDEKED mill? and eggs can now be had 
which are wonderfully pure, clean and good. 
The way the milk is made is by forcing liquid 
milk through extremely small holes into a mus- 
liu-lined chamber through which currents of hot 
dry air are constantly passing. The dry air 
coming in contact with the milky mist straight- 
way absorbs the moisture it contains and the 
milk settles in powdery white drifts. Nothing 
has touched it but air. Nothing has been re- 
moved but water. Nothing is cl.aiiged. The 



The Golden Age for January 2U Jg^o 



vii 



poY,-dere<i milk eauiiot soiir on at;c-oun: oi the 
iilmo.it total absence of moistare, and I'or the 
same reason no grov.lk ol' l.iactena can taj^e 
place. The powder can be iusiaully trans- 
iormod into fn'sh, sweot milk. It comes m can.^ ; 
it can be kept anv-where, and in many ehmates 
is rlie only good iiiilk obtainable. 

The riding cost oi liquid milk is now making 
it profitable to use this dried milk. It retails 
at a price equivalent to 14 cents per quart for 
sweet milk or S cents per quart for skimmed 
milk. It 13 much appreciated in the tropics and 
also on ooean liners. 

The dried eggs are obtained presumably by 
the same method. Any%ray, it is a fact that the 
beat of omelettes can be made from combined 
powdered milk and powdered eggs ; for Ave liave 
eaten them manv times aud never kiiew, unnl 
oar attention \vas called to the matter, that the 
e<ri?s did not come freshly from th.e shells and 
the milk from tiic dairy. We l>elieve that tliesc 
dried foods have a great future before thorn, 
and are a valuable part of the preparation ot 
mankind for the enjoj-ment of all kinds ot lood 
products in the New Age. 

Saccharin for Sugar 

A SHORTAGE of a substance brings out a 
stibstitute. The shortage ot" sugar has 
brought saccharin to the front as a '-harm- 
less" eubstilute for sugar. Many liousewives 
are buying this sv»eetest of substances and hnd- 
ing it 'convenient for use in foods, coffee, tea 

and cocoa. 

But in emploving saccharin ihoy are playing 
with a dru-:: v.'hivh is not entirely harmlcs-. 
The Department of Agriculture condemns the 
aise of saccliariu in food, -ft is,^' says Iho 
United States Bureau of Chemibtry, -a menace 
to health. The attempt to exploit the shortage 
of sugar and create a demand for saccharin tor 
nse in place of sugar endeavors to capitalize 
the liublie's lack of knowledge of the properties 
of tlis sukstauce. A majority of the states 
have statutes or rcgiilations prohibitmg tlie use 
of saccharin in food. Tlie Bureau of Chemistry 
feels called upon to reiterate the warninss 
which it ha;^ repeatedly given. Food to whicu 
saeehariii has been added is adulterated, since 
a substance has been added to it wlucli may 
vender it deleterious to health''. The Depart- 
ment of Agri*:ult'are regards the use of ?ao- 
charin as so h.Trniful that it is prep.inng pros- 



ecution against concerns thi>.t use it contrary 
to the law regulating the aduitevation of food. 

According to the doctors saccharin has the 
following effects upon the system: Taken in- 
ternally it is rapidly ab.sorbed and elumnated 
unchangB.1 thr.>u?h Uie kldm-.vs. it is almost 
free from general physiological activities. It 
may be taken without appreciable effect. On 
the other hand it has a Elipcht local irritant 
action, and doses ox more than thirteen: grains 
a day are liable to impair digestion. The state- 
ment sometimes made that it is irritant to the 
kidneys seems to lack positive confirmation. 
Its use in medicine is purely as a sweetening 
agent in those diseases such aa diabetes and 
oiiesitv, where sugar should not be taken. 

Aa a sweetener saccharin is quite expensive 
at the current retail price of thirty-flve cents 
for 100 tablets, each equal to a lump of sugar 
in sweetening power. Users of the drag find 
that its sv.-oetness has a sickish quality, and 
that it leaves a slightly unpleasant, nneasy feel- 
ing throughout tlie entire body, wliieh gradually 
subsides as it is eliminated from the system. 

Vegetarians! We Eat Crow! 

MB. Editob: In The GoLDnar Age of Not. 
•26, 1919, Vol. 1, No. 5, page 146, article en- 
titled "Vegetarianism a Settled Question", you 
state, "Our Lord ate roast lamb and thus set- 
tled the vegetarian question", eta _ 

In the same issue, page 155, under '•'Kehgion 
and PhUosophy-', the hitter Jiart of paragraph 
two, you state, "God depiriyed Adam of the per- 
fect food wliieh grew in the garden and caused 
him to feed upon the poiaouous food of the 
earth". How about this? 

While I believe the sacred record to be true, 
nevertlieless the fact that our Lord ate meat 
tloes not prove that the flesh of slaughtered aui- 
nials is the food for perfect man. "While ov.r 
r.oid was perfect as a human being, his human 
)>odv was sacrificed— not having been intended 
to live forever. Again, he was brought up and 
lived among imperfect men addicted to the use 
of meat as an article of diet, and for him to eat 
meat was but natural and in keeping with the 
Apostle Paul's instruetions,-'-'AVhatsoever is sold, 
cat,"' etc.— 1 Corinthians 10:2o. 

Going back to Adam's preiatal day there is 
no intimation whatever that part of his food 
W.1S to cousi.st of the flesh cf slaughtered ani- 
mals, (Genesis 1:29; 2:9; 3:2, etc.) Did 



2S0 



The Golden Age for January zi, igio 



Jfhovalfs commission to Adam (Genesis 1: 28) 
to "have dominion" over the creatures of tiie 
earth mean that he was to take them and t-aiijte 
them pain, alter their bodies, deprive thorn of 
tiieir liberties, fatten them beyond comfort and 
then slaughter them and devour their fiesh? 

All eminent scientists and anatomists are 
nnanimcjQs in their ooinion that the entire ali- 
mentary canal of man proves beyond a donbt 
that man was not intended to be classed among 
lions, tigers, wolves, etc. 

If the Millennial aje, the ■■Golden Age", is to 
restore -the world to Adam's prefatal day con- 
dition, will not the world have to go back to 
Adam's prefatal day diet also? 

I am no vegetarianist — yet; but because we 
are living in the dawning of a new dispensation 
the matter of diet is receiving my most pro- 
found consideration. J. S., Xew Berlin, Pa. 

And Other Meats 

Meat Loaf 
Made the same as hamburg roast by using 
ground left-over meat and baking. 

Chipped Beef 
1 cup chipped beef chopped fine, 1 cap grated 
bread crumbs, 1 well beaten egg, several bits 
butter. All well moistened with milk and baked 
in an oven about 15 minutes. 

Roast Pork 
Wipe pork, sprinlde with salt and pepper, 
place on rack in roaster and dredge meat ^vith 
tiour. Sear, uncovered, for 15 minntes at 450 
degrees, then reduce the temperature. Covftr 
and bake. Mako gravy as for other roasts. 

Roa.tt Lamb 
AYipe the meat, sprinkle v.ith ,«a!t and popper, 
place on rack in roaster, and dredgo meat aii<l 
Ijottom of pan Avilh flour. Sear, uncovcrud, at 
450 de^ees for 15 minutes, then roducc the 
temperature and bake covered. 

Baked Chicken 
Dress, clean, and cut up a fowl. Dip in (■■ifLj, 
and roll In crackm- crumbs wljieli Iiavo bct-a 
buttered. -tPlacc' in roaster, i^ear uneove-red for 
15 minntes at 450 degree.--. Keduc(.» the tomper- 
nture. Covfr and bake. MaJce gi'avy the .suim; 
as for roast chicken. 



Hamburg Steak 
Mix one pound hamburg steak witli one cup 
dry bread crumbs, .season with onions, pepper 
and salt. Make into cakes and fry in butter. 

Roast Ham 

Wipe with a damp cloth, place in roaster and 
sear, tmcovered, in oven at 450 degrees for 20 
minutes. Reduce temperature as directed. 
Roast covered. ; 

Beef Loaf 

2 tbs. round steak chopped fine, 1 cup bread 
or cracker crumbs, 1 cup milk, 1 egg, 1 lump 
butter size of an egg, popper and salt and, if 
desired, i cup celery chopped fine. Form into 
loaf. Bake 1 to 2 hours. Leave in pan utitil cool. 

Casserole of Lamb 
Put in a casserole two pounds of Iamb cut 
into small pieces. Add one onion, one turnip 
and one carrot cut fine, one and a half cups 
tomato, three even tablespoons rolled oats, 
pepper and salt to taste. Pour over this three 
and one-half cups hot water, cover top with 
cracker crvmibs and balte two hours. 

Balked Calves' Liver With Bacon 
Slice the liver pait way througb in half-inch 
slices, lay thin slices of bacon between the slices 
of liver and fasten them together with skewers. 
Cover the bottom of baking pan with thin slices 
of bacon, place the liver on it and bake in a hot 
oven, basting frequently with tlie fat. 'When 
done, remove ske^\ors and sejive' hot. 

Pork Chops 
Kry pork chops. Lift them out when done and 
Hoasoned, leaving the gravy in pan. In the 
grav}' fry string bean.s tliat have been previous- 
ly boiled very tender. When browned in the 
sra\^' put them around the chops on the platter. 
Serve hot. Lamb or nmttou chopiJ are Vf ry nice 
cooked in the nanie way. 

Boiled Ham 
Wash tlioroughly and cover completely with 
cold water: then add: 2 dozen cloves; 2 dozen 
ailispiee berrL&ti; 2 bay leaves; 2 large onions 
idicL'd thin ; 1 cup vinegar ; oiit.side stalk.s of one 
bunch of fi'kry or one tfaspoon of celery seed. 
Cover tightly. Let aiiumer in oien at :i23 ds- 
firees for ten hours. Remove and let stand until 
cool in liquor ham has been boiled in. 



The Golden Age for January ZT. ig20 



tst 



RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHy 



TJie Wave of Spiritist Literature 

THAT the -vvorld is uiidergoing a subtle prep- 
aration for an inundation of spiritism is 
manifest iTom the advancing wave of literature 
oil the subject of j)3ychical plicnomena. 

World movements advance, not by a steady 
progression, but by waves. The beginning of 
the modem spiritist movement was about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, in Prance and 
England. It spread to America through Shak- 
erism and other cults, and received a strong 
impetus about 1800 in a tidal wave of religious 
re\'ivals evidencing spiritist phenomena. Dur- 
ing the nineteenth century it was revived with 
marked demonstrations of rappings, levitations, 
voices and visions, but was submerged in the 
practical indnstrialii?m which characterized the 
latter part of that century. 

Some forty or fifty years ago the evidences of 
a new revival of spiritism appeared in a syste- 
matic research into the occult, which assumed 
organized form in the nineties in societies for 
psychical research. These societies weighed tes- 
timony and sy.stematically published to the 
practical-minded British and American people 
convincing evidence of the reality of psychic 
phenomena. Zilen of science finally became in- 
terested ; and such scientists as Sir Oliver Lodge 
applied rigid scientific tests, became satisfied 
of the genuinpuess of the things seen, heard and 
felt and, by their own great influence and high 
.■standing, gave the occult tlio broad foundation 
of public confidence from which it is noiv oper- 
ating. Spiritist happenings, once sneered at, 
are now veroived seriously by the public, and 
spiritualistic literature is being fed to a de- 
luded populace ad libitum and ad nauseam. For 
spiritism i.- plainly demonism, and its advance 
pre«agcs thf' possibility of the blinding of the 
minds of millions witli delusions and of their ob- 
.^ession to tb" ^^wpep of crowd-madnoss to a 
df^zrrx' net v.;t;ie?;.pd since the gx'eat waves of 
the psvchic in tiie past. 

Tlie cxtt^nt of the present sweep of spiritist 
literatO-re is sus-gr^sted by an article in Life on 
"The Spiritist Intrusion": 

"Thers arc r.oir i'vo croups of periled icals ; t)ios^ tli.it 
pnnder to the jro'i'ir.g .ippetitc for spiritiit literature, 



.111(1 those i hat havs iiot yet come to it. Not 'pander' but 
'niiuiiiter' is ths woi-d timt .'eople irojild use who are 
interested in the spiritist literature and who like to keep 
tlie run of it. A little more every month they iir^ftiin* 
iiteretl to just now. borh in the periodic.lls and fey books. 
The A-tiantic Uonthhj did not faed tliem much of any- 
tliiug until the current number; but that has an inteiy 
Citing ;-tory by Dr. L. P. Jacks, O.vford proiessor and 
editor of the Hibbert Journal, about experiences of his 
own incurred in making personal investigationa. The 
hibbirt Journal, a quarterly devoted to theology, philos- 
ophy, religion, pyyckology and iuch matters, has been 
liospituble to reports and di.-'ciissions of psychical phenom- 
t'ua ssiiice there were any that were worth talking about. 
Dr. Jneks, its present editor, is also at present the pres- 
ident of tlie Psychical Sesearch Society in England. Mr. 
Heni-y Holt's Unpopnlar Review (now Unpariisan Et- 
viewj lias cultivated the psychical research field without 
apnlog^,- ever since it started. Harper's Magazine is 
£rarae for inquiry in the same field, and lias lately had 
.^ovcral artides about curious exploits of mediums and 
notable instances of automatic writings. The Cosme- 
poUian Magazine is running a scries of disclostuee by 
Basil King, the novelist; Conan Doyle preaches his 'Sew 
IJpvclation in Hearst's and in the newspapers; and the 
MtfropoUlan, which has shown sympathy for two years 
past with the spiritist actiyities and has had pieces about 
them by Booth Tarkicgton and Conan Doyle, haa now 
in progress a narrative, by Ealph ^^dams Cram, of the 
Gla.'^tonbury Abbey experiments in inducing the Past 
to give up information for the^j^idanco of the Present. 
"There must be many other magazines implicated in 
attention to these psychical and spiritist proceedings 
lately held in so much disapproval by cautious persons 
who valued their reputation for coromon sense. Eepu- 
table characters and publications are gradually being 
(Iia-A-n into contemplation of them, puzzled and incredu- 
lous as yet, but inquisitive. The literature of the subject 
increases so fast ajid is so much read that it begins to 
be impolitic for folks who claim to be awake to ignore it. 
The Js'ew York Public Library reports its readers aa 
'turning from hooks on the war to those on South Amei- 
ica. the export trade, Spain and the Spanish language, 
rf^Iigion, ."ipiritualism, psychic phenomena, applied psy- 
chology and technical subjects'. The librarian in charge 
of tiie Central Circulation Branch reports that readers 
arc demanding books on all phases of religion, are eager 
to kno'.v how jrrpat a part religion is to play in our re- 
constnicted -world, and are 'iiitensply interested in spirit- 
i;al subjects of ah kind.«, and are turning with new 
eagerness to the writings of Sir Oliver Lodge and his 
investigations and speculations into the spirit world'. 



222 



The Golden Age Jor January 21. igzo 



"This is scaadaloti!!, of course, to people -who insist on 
keeping their feet ou the actual earth, but the prospt;ct 
is that we shall have mora oi it biforo %ve have lesj. 0-ae 
hears there is much iv.or^ ia Eaglar.tl th;:n h^^i'v;. 

'■'For people who dou't kaow aaythia^' at all cbout 
these Durgcomng mtcreat? it may be suitable to cxplaiii 
that the foundation for thcni seems to havo bcca kid 
by the studies and reports of the psychical ie;o;;rcli socio- 
ties, ertcndiBg over forty or fifty years ; that the uiterest 
in all sach matters has been immensely stimulated by 
the war and ita attending bereavements and by the pres- 
ent parlous state of society, and that the most popular 
disclosures that attend this movement are those that 
come in. the form of so-caUed 'automatic ■nxitings', which 
have been cropping up of late like mnahrooms in all 
parts of the conntry. They purport to be records, by 
sensitiTes or mediums, of informations communicatad 
through them but not derived from their ovra minds, 
nor from any mundane source that they know of. That 
there is a lot of these pommiinications is unquestionable. 
That the persons through whom they come are honest as 
a role, and not consciously deceitful, is little doubted. 
That some of the communicstions are extremely curious 
■will be admitted by most people trho read them (vide Dr. 
Jacks in the Atlantic) : but how or whence they come, 
irhether £rom the subconscious minds of mediums or by 
telepathic cormminieation from minds of other living 
persons, or out of the minds of the questioners ivho re- 
ceive them, or from the spirits of the dead, is all still 
matter of discussion, investigation and dispute. 

"No one need to be dl.?mayed at tranting to know morcj 
about contemporary s'piritiam and the automatic writ- 
ings. They are mighty queer; and in any but the 
flounder type of mind that likes to lie still on the bottom 
and look like mud, they are bound, if known, to excite 
curiosity. But very many people still know nothing 
about them. Presently some conclusion about them will 
bs reached, but it will be based not on prejudice but on 
knowledge, and the knowledge it muat rest on seems to 
be accommulating vci y fast."' 

Xot every one believes in what is said in the 
Bible; but to those that do have contidenee in 
the Bible, as the Word of God, the teaching is 
positive that modem psychic phenomena are of 
the same class as the obsessions by devils of 
Christ'S'tioie and before. Then, if these things 
are manifestatious of demons, the demons are 
enemies of God, and their influence can only 
proceed increasingly toward worse evils. The 
divine pronouncements against spiritism evi- 
donce disa^ro^al of it as true today as evei* 
before. FoFvexample, the Bible Prophet IsaiaJi 
shows the duty of tuniing to God rather than to 
spirit mediums: '""IMien they [spiritists] shall 
tay unto you, St^'i-k unto them [spirit mediums] 
that hare familir.r [friendly] spirits [devils 



pretending to be the spirits of dead persona], 
ajid unto wizards [male mediums] that peep 
[whisper confidentially] and that mutter [unin- 
telligible utterances] ; should not a people [as 
the Christian people of America] seek [in 
prayer] imto their Godf — Isaiah 8:19. 

The same God that Christians worsiiip today 
voices his disapproval of spiritism in these; 
unmistakable vvords : '"There shall not be found 
among you one that useth divination, [a form 
of spiritism] or an observer of times [an astrol- 
ogist], or an enchanter, or a witch [female 
medium], or a charmer, or a consulter [as thou- 
sands of w^omen, busitiess men and clergy are 
today] with familiar spirits [demons] or a 
Avizard [male meditim] or a necromancer; for 
all [as much today as in Moses' day] that do 
these things are an abomination xmto the Lord." 
(Deuteronomy 18:10-12) How serious an 
o^ense spiritism is in God's estimation may be 
inferred from the fact that the divinely directed 
penalty for it among the Jews was death. The 
safe and only course for a Christian today as of 
old is resolutely and absolutely to avoid and 
resist it, the wisdom of which course will be- 
come increasingly evident as the rising wave of 
spiritism may within the next few years grow 
into a tidal onrush. 

Suiciding a New Way 

IF IMPROPER eating, according^to medical 
authority, amounts to digging one's grave 
with one's teeth, it will not sound' so strange to 
state that the Protestant clergy are digging 
the grave of Protestanism with their mouths. 

Even Roman Catholics are paying attention 
to some of the utterances of "modem" Protes- 
tant preachers, according to the recent com- 
ments of one of the Papal '"Most Reverends". 
Protestants genercJIy esteem themselves and 
tlieir religion the best going, but their Roman 
Catholic friends are noting IJie hard time Pro- 
testant preachers are having to hold and to 
please Uieir people. Protestants seem to be 
quite indifferent to Protestantism proper, if one 
is to judge by the constantly increasing demand 
for other novelties in the Protestant churches. 

For example, one Protestant preacher regu- 
larly attends the theaters in a neighboring town 
in order to entertain his people with summaries 
of the plays and movies, while the audience 
s-houts out rag-time songs, and the organ keeps 
the congregation awake with jazz music. 



The Golden Age for January ar, 1920 



288 



Another prominent exponent of Protestant- 
ism tells his flock that they are liable to find 
him in the dance hall, the elnb room, the pool 
room or the back alley, getting the raw mate- 
rials for up-to-date ''sermons"' suited to his 
modem Protestant congregation. If he had 
his Tray he woiild torn the churches into dance 
halls, recreation rooms, gymnasinms and bil- 
liard rooms. (But God still lives!) 

How this looks to Roman Catholic eyes, ac- 
customed to the solemnities of the Papal ritual, 
would shock many a Protestant: 'It is well to 
see the preachers throwing off masks and show- 
ing up Protestantism as it really is — a man- 
made, shifting, compromising religious trav- 
esty". How are the mighty fallen! 

Romanism may be digging its grave in its 
own peculiar way; but the Protestant clergy are 
very assiduous in removing the solid ground 
from beneath the imposing structure of Prot- 
estantism. This is really sad. 

From West's History 

PROFESSOR Willis Mason West is author 
of a history entitled "The Ancient World", 
published in 1904, and much used in school and 
college. AVe quote from it : 

(Page 319) "Tlie Church and the Barbarians. — 
The barbarian converts to Christianity understood its 
teachings of love, purity, and gentleness very imper- 
fectly, and adopted them still lea« fully. The eharch 
suffered a lowering of religious spirit — although the 
superstitions of the iguoTant age gave it, perhaps, in- 
creased pov;-er. Christianity raised the new nations, 
but in the effort r.'as dragged down part way to their 
level. More emphasis was placed on ceremonies and 
forms. The clergy, especially the higher clergy, became 
often merely ambitious and worldly lords, preachers of 
a coarse and superftcial religion, men who allied them- 
selves to the schemes of wicked rulers, lived vicious lives, 
and were unable to understand the services thcy mumbled. 

(Page ^'jl) "Causes of Persecutions.— (1) The 
popul^ hated the Christians as they did not hate the 
adherents of other strange loligions, and pressed the 
government to persecute them. 

"'(2) The best ruler.', thoiigh deploring bloudsheS, 
thought it proper and riglit to punish the Christians 
with death. 

"These Tacts' can be partly explained, (a) Rome 
loleratod :rnd supported aU religions, hnt she expected 
all her populations .ilso to tolerate and support, the 
-tiite religion. The Christians aloae not only retused to 
tlo fo. but dw'isiii'd iv.ir iron it a- ^inful and JdoIi;trou3. 
To the populace thi= seiiii'-M to thaik'iige the wrath of 



the gods ; and to enlightened men it seemed to indicate 
at least a dangerously stubborn and tjeasonable temper. 

"(b) Secret societies were feared and forbidden by. 
the Empire, on political grounds. The church was a 
vast, highly organized, widely diilused secret society, 
and 'as .such was not only distinctly illegfll, but in the 
highest degree was calculated to excite the apprehen- 
sions of the govemmenV (George Burton Adams). .• * 

"(c) The attitude of the Christians toward socie'ty 
added to their unpopularity. Many of them refused on 
religious grounds to join the legions, or to fight, if 
drafted. This seemed treason, inasmuch as a prime 
duty of the Roman world was to repel barbarism. More- 
over, the Chri^tiand were unsocial : they abstained froin 
most public amusements, aa inunoral, and they refused ta 
illuminate their houses or garland their portals in honor 
of national triumphs. 

"Thus we have religions and social raotiTes with the 
people, and a political motive with statesmen. It follows 
that the periods of persecution often came under those 
emperors who had the highest conception of duty." 

Bible Acrostic 

MY FIRST was the doubting disciple 
Who belie\'ed not till he had aeen; 
My second was delivered to Satan 
By Paul because he blasphemed. 

My third was the place where the goddess 

Diana the Great had her throne; 
My fourth by the hand of a shepherd. 

Was hit in the head with a stone. 

My fifth was the Mount of Sorrowi^ 

At my sixth the law was gwen. 
My seventh, unnamed, met the gallows. 

My eighth ascended toward heaven. 

My ninth for four days had slumbered 
In the grave whil'st his sisters did grieve; 

My whole "is the power of salvation" 
To all who truly believe. 

MY FIRST is found in the Gospel of St. John. 
My second is found in the First Book of Timothy. 
My third is found in the Book of Acts. 
My fourth is found in the First Book of Samuel. 
Aly fifth is found in the Second Book of SamueL 
My sixth is found in the Book of Exodus. 
My seventh is found in the Book of Genesis. 
My eighth is found in the Second Book of Kings. 
My ninth is found in the Gospel of St. John. 

Key — If you cannot find the answer, yoa can learn tbt 
vvortis ivhich make up tlie acrostic by changiDg the following 
fisures Into the corresponding letters of the alphabet, letting 
A equal 1 and B equal 2. etc., up to Z, which njuaU 28. 
-,>*(.] r,. 1 »,.M 9.!*--:ri. 1 3-5-1 4-\-:>-21 -1 0-^1 6-.S- 3-1 !V21-t 0-7-15-1 2-9 
-l--.a)-3-I.T-I'J0-2--'-^-2O-19-9-I4-[-9.ie-«-l-18-M3-»-l!)-2.1.11-5-ia 

-j-i:;-9-io-t-8-i3-i-::a-i-i3-2l-l». 



S84 



The Golden Age for January zt. igio 



r 



JUVENILE BIBLE STUDY 



1. WJiat definite information have tee con- 
eeniinj thf- directions aiven to Moses to write 
the law and history in a booJc? 

Answer: See Exodus 17:14; 34 : 27 ; Deuter- 
onomy 31 : 9-26. 

2. What is another name for the Old Tesla- 
mentf 

Answer: The \e.vi- and the prophets. — Joshua 
1:8; 8:32-35: 2 Samuel 20:25; 1 Chronicles 
27 : 32 ; 29 : 29, 30 ; 2 Chronicles 33 : 18, 19 ; Isaiah 
30:8; Jeremiah 30:2; 36:2; 45:1: 51:60; 
Matthew 11:13; Luke 16:16,17; 24:44; John 
1 :17, 45 ; Acts 3 : 21 ; 26 : 22 ; Bomana 3 : 21. 

3. What is the. oldest Tcnoicn mamiscript of 
the complete Bible? 

Answer; Ail the books of the Old and Xev; 
Testamciit are preserved in the Sinaitic Man- 
uscript, written a);out A. D. 350. 

4. Is our English common version translation 
of the Bible correct? 

Answer: Substantially so. There are errors 
in translation, and some additions have crept 
in by mistake or fraud ; hut the careful student 
of the Bible may now Avith the oldest and 
most complete manuscripts, translated properly, 
readily detect these. — Daniel 12 : D, 10. 

5. Wliy are ike first four books of the New 
Testament called the Gospels? 

Answer: The word gospel means good news 
or glad tidings. Tliere is only one gospel; that 
is the gospel of the kin3:dom. The four accounts 
of the gospel given by ilatthew, Mark, Lvkc and 
John arc four statements covering the same 
prcneral facts. They contain an account of Jesus, 
the Messiah, his work and teachings, and testify 
concerning his resurrection. — Matthew 4:23; 
Mark 16:15; Lukn 1:39: 2:10; 8:1; John t: 
1-l4; Acts 13:32: 20:24; Romans 10:15; 
1 Corinthians 15 : 1-5. 

G. What is th c fifth book of the ^e w Test am cut? 

Answer: The A<.-ts of the .\po5tlo3, which is 
r.n account of thn doings of the apostles after 
Pcntcc'bst. -,Kho\viug liow the Cliristian t-hurch 
was esJwXbli'shcd .audhoAv the gospel was first 
taken to the Gentile?. 

7. Why iccy ;:pi^tlc>; written hij the aposHr-f? 

Ansvrcr; Tlinv w^rc letters written to the 



various congregations of Christians, are care- 
fully preserved with the first five books of the 
New Testament and are considered by all 
Christians as authority on doctrinal matters. 
They were publicly road and explained among 
the carlv cimrch congregations. — 1 Thessalo- 
nians 5 : 27 ; Cotossians 4 : 16 ; 2 Peter 3 \2, 15, 16; 
Hebrews 1:1,2; 2:1-4. 

S. Why has the Bible been preserved so Ibngf 

Answer : Because it is the Word of God and 
evidently has been divinely preserved for the 
benefit of the people. 

9. Has any one attempted to destroy tha 
Bible; and if so, who? 

Answer: Many have attempted its destruc- 
tiou. Professed Christians have burned tlie 
Bible in times past and made it a crime for 
others who held beliefs different from theirs to 
have the Bible. The spirit of selfishness evi- 
dently prompted this action. — Luke 11:52; 
Matthew lo : S, 9. 

10. WIm would induce any one to destroy 
the Bible? 

Answer: Evidently Satan, in order that he 
might oppose the development of the church. 
He has ailwaya been the enemy of men who have 
tried to do right. — Genesis 3:14-16; Join 8: 
44 ; 2 Coiinthians 4:3, 4. 

11. Is the Bible now published iii all the laii' 
guages of Christendom? 

Answer : Yes, bat only in'rccent years. 

13. WJmt does that fact prove? 

Answer: See Matthew 24:14; Proverbs 4: 
18; Daniel 12:4. 

13. Why did Jesus sa>./, "Then shall the end 
come", in Matthew Si: 14? What did he mean? 

Answer: The word world there used means 
age, and not the earth. It moans the age or 
dispensation of time during which a certain 
order would prevail. — Matthew 13:39; 24:3; 
Ecclcsiastes 1:4. 

li. Is the Bible a complete booh? 

A:is\vor : Ye?. ''.Vith the death of the apostles 
the cajion of Scriptures closed, because God 
there had given a complete revelation of his 
purpose and program concerning man. The 
Bible is not fully understood by every one, but 
will be in due time. — 1 Timothy 2:3-6; 2 Tim- 
othy 3; 15-17. 



The Golden Age for January 2f, ig20 



Bsr 



TRAVEL AND MISCELLANY 



Wealth Untold 



I 



"T USED to be said, "Go "West, young man"; 
now it should bo, "Go Nortf, if the reports 
are to be believed that come from explorers of 
the far Canadian North. 

It is the grass over the fence that looks green- 
est, and it is over the frontier of civilization and 
in the reaches of the Mackenzie, Pelly, SticMne 
and Laird rivers in Northern Canada that the 
wealth lies. There are coal, gold, platinum, 
nitrates, phosphates, and other minerals, be- 
sides — ^in the nitrate and phosphate regions — 
"dandelion leaves four feet long, ferns eight feet 
high", and other plants in proportion provided, 
of coarse, the backwoods whisky does not make 
the Northern hermits see doable or triple. 
Potash beds have been discovered which are 
j^ reported "richer than any in Germany and 
enough lo pay off the Canadian war debt". 

Wliatever may be the truth about the alleged 
new resources of Canada, the riches laid up in 
the eartli for man have only just begun to be 
uncovered. The Golden Age is coming, and in 
that day better and bigger tilings for humanity 
Avill come forth than have ever been seen. Man- 
kind has a Father who has looked out for his 
children abundantly, and irill bring out hia 
treasures when they are needed, and when they 
will be appreciated and not cornered for the 
benefit of the rich, but used for the good of all. 

Miuic Hath Charms 

THE Pied Piper who drew the children away 
by the hundred to hear him pipe, is to be 
emulated by the practical Fifth Avenue Asso- 
ciation of New York. The Association koops 
- Fifth Avenue as good-looking as po.ssible, and 
it.considers that the effect is not properly artis- 
tic ^en the workers from the factories in the 
less patrician streets come out at noon Jioui* and 
line the sidewalk-s to watch the s^liow that 
parades this famous liishv.-ay. 

Below the Avonuo tlioro nro park;^: ami t'lo 
aristocratic"' AssociaUoii plaiiri to locatf^ bands 
there n^t sununrr with the \-icw of sotting up 
a counter attrat:tiou in the way of music to 
lure the working iioopic i'roni het'orc tlu; /'a:-li- 
ionablc store fronts. The l'"ifth Avcnua mer- 



chants evidently are good psychologists, but 
how good Avill be settled when it apaears which 
has the higher attention value, music or _th.e 
street show. 






To Make Newfoundland Warmer 

AGAIN the plan is brought up of warming np 
- the eastern coast of tlie country by turning 
aside the cold arctic currents that bathe New- 
foundland, Nova Scotia and New England. 
The proposition is to build a dam across the 
Strait of BeUe Isle, and divert the cold current 
from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Newfoundland 
will be particularly helped, as it is now chilled 
the year round by the often ice-cold waters. 
Though as far south as France, it can raise only 
potatoes, oats, peas and turnips. The enter- 
prise is prodigious, and may have to wait for 
the greater engineering operations of the Golden 
Age, when such great works will be common. 

Liberty in Canada 

THE Canadian people have recovered many 
of tlie liberties they voluntarily sorrendeTed 
under the War Measures Act. At midni^t of 
December 31 hundreds of Orders in Council of 
the War JMeasures Act c&]}ie to an end, under 
which some of the people ' feared they might 
have to suffer restraint for some time. Generally 
speaking, full liberty on a pre-war basis is now 
enjoyed by the Canadian nation, including free- 
dora to enjoy rights like those guaranteed in the 
American Constitution regarding freedom of 
speech, the press, and the exercise of religion. 
The press censorship is gone, with the other 
Orders. Objection was raised, however, by the 
Canadian clcrgj-, wlio put themselves on record 
liy a resolution opposing the restoration of free- 
dom of ppcoch and the press. This relief is the 
iirst-fruits of the Farmer-Labor revolution- ^ 

England Has Enough 

IT IS coiutorting to our English readers to 
know that a aarvoy of the food stocks of 
(.Ireal Britain shows that there is plenty of food 
for the wintor. There is less comfort in the 
oxpoctation that pricos are expected to keep on 
:;oins up. 



238 



The Golden Age for January 2t. sg-^cr 



Athletics at Harvard 

ONE of the quiio delusive publications of 
today is a sftiocl or college catalogue. Tlie 
reader of one of those pamplilets sees, for ex- 
ample, the promtner.ce given to athletics, and 
imagines that if his hoy goes to that institution 
he will get plenty of healthful exercise. 

As a matter of fact the average colleffo 
student is more likely to get pneumonia from 
the college athletics than good health. The col- 
lege boy is connected v.-itli the college athletics 
principally in the fxmetion of standing around 
on the -wet grotind with his hands in his pockets 
on Thanksgiving Day, and watching a dozen or 
two students who need no atlvletics at all doing 
the pnblicitj- athletics for the institution. Col- 
lege athletics are as likely to put young men on 
sick beds as to benefit them physically. 

The new idea at Harvard is to get ail of the 
students into athletics. To that end they are 
going to generate a lot of enthusiasm which 
possibly may yet bo the principal part of the 
athletics. As long as the team idea is in vogue 
whereby one football teeun or one baseball nine 
represents a whole college population, the aver- 
age student is not likely to be particularly 
benefited by college athletics. If Harvard can 
develop a system whereby the average of forty 
per cent physically unfit young men can materi- 
ally reduce, the iTistitiition will have conferred 
a benefit, at least upon those favored youths 
who find their way into college haUs. 

Judge Cooley on Religious Persecution 

JUDGE T. M. Cooley, one time chief of the 
^ Michigan Supreme Court and chairman of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, in his 
work on "Constitutional Limitations", page 530, 
has these very interesting and convincing re- 
marks to make: 

"The legiflatnrps have not been left at liberty to 
effect a'^pion of church and state or to establish prpf- 
erence by law in favor of any one religious perstiasion 
or mode of worship. There is not complete religious 
liberty where any one sect is favored by the state and 
given an. advantage by law over other sects. Wh.itever 
p."tfi!ilishes a» distinction against one class or sect is, to 
the extent to-»'hich the distinction operatas unfavorably, 
a persecution. The extent of the discrimination is not 
rrjatrrial to the principle; it is enough that it creates 
on inequality of riglit or privilege." 



Blarney Castle Annex 

'"We have concluded that it is going to point to the 
bright side of prophecy. We think it has a very refined 
nppearance, and wa Hope to be counted worthy to place 
it in many homes." — 11. A. G., Clatf Center, Kan. 

"One feature that will nst be noticed by many until 
called to their attention, but which pleased ma very , 
much, aa I had thought of -writing you about it, and 
which I believe will be a big help to the csmvussen, if 
tbey will use it, is the union label on the bottom of the 
first page." — E.B.T., Roeb Island, 111. 

'Tlease send me The Golden Age for one year. I 
received your sample copy. The article entitled 'Talking 
with the Dead' is worth a year's subscription. Please 
let my subscription start with issue number 2. I don't 
want to miss a copy." — J. A. C, Blanche, JV. C. 

"The first issue of The Golden Age came in du» 
time and the publication is destined, I hope, to becom* 
the most popular home journal in the world. It is jn«rt; 
full of good, practical articles that can be appreciated 
by the natural man, and they are so wisely written, eo 
impartial ; and yet, as it should be, it seems to touch a 
responsive chord in the hearts and minds of the common 
people." 

'"Tlie Golden Age, has reached me. Tha definite 
and clear andysis is striking and the facta thus accum- 
ulated and presented are sure to enlist the minds of 
reasoners. All departments seem properly . arranged, 
condensed, and it is undoubtedly the first attempt ever 
made to embody all these branches into one collective 
whole, with the view of imparting a perfect knowledge 
of the facts, teachings, and principks of Scripture." 

~G. B. C.'H., Chicago, III. 

"Gentlemen : In my mail yesterday I found a copy 
of The Golden Age. On the wrapper were the characters 
'11-30', which would indicate to me that some one 
has favored me with a year's subscription. Would you 
be so kind as to inform me who it was who has seen fit 
to please me in this way, for I wish to thank him. I 
would certainly have wanted to subscribe on my own 
account had not some one else done it lor me, but the 
copy I have is the first knowledge I had of the existence 
of your very out-of-the-ordinary publication. I am only 
an ordinary American workingman, without technical 
training of any kind, and earning ordinary wages, but 
I think I know a fine thing when I »ee it and this is 
one of them. I hardly know how to describe your pub- 
lication, but to me it is solid meat all through and has 
surely touched the right spot in my heart. You seem 
to be in a class all by yourself among the periodicals ol 
the day. Your mission seems to be to inform the people 
about everything that is going on in the world today, 
b.-.t softening their hearts and preparing them for 'The 
Golden Age' while doing so." — K. S. H., Detroit, Mich, 



The Golden Age for January zi, ig20 



tar 



The Calf Path 

One day througb the prlmeyal wood 
A calf walked home, as good calrcs should, 

And oiade a. trail all bent aake^, 
A crooked trail, as all ealTes do. 

The trail iras taken up nest day 
By a lone dug that pusiseti that way. 

And then a wise ball-wether sheep 
Pursued the trail o'er vale and steep, 

And drew the flock behind him to», 

As good bell-wethers always do. 
And from that day o'er bill and glade 

ThroTigh these old -woods a path was made. 

And many men wound to and out, 
And dodged and tnmed and bent alioat; 

And attered word of righteous wrath, 
Because 'twas such a crooked path. 

This forest path became a lane. 
And bent and turned and turned again: 

This crooked lane becamo a read. 
Where many a hort'O bore heavy loatl. 

Toiling beneath the bumlng sun. 

They Cra'v-elled some three miles In one; 
.\Bd thus a century and a ball 

They trod the footsteps of that calf. 

Hw yean passed on la swiftness fleet: 
That road became a Tillage street; 

And thia, before men were awnre, 
A city's crowded thoroughfare; 

And soon the central street was this, 

Ot a renowned metropolis: 
And men two centuries and a half 

Trod In the footsteps of that calf. 

Each day a hundred thonsand rout 

Followed the zigzag path about ; 
And o'er this crooked Journey went. 

The trafflc of a continent; 

A hundred tIioiis.ind men were led 
By one calf near three centuries iJead; 

They followed still liis crooked way. 
And lost a hundred years a day! 

For thus such reference (s lent 

To well established precedent, 
itiid bow the wise old wood-gods laugh 

Who amw that first primeTal calf! 

ScM Walttr fu* 

Hie Kingdom of the Mind 

Plice ra^ nn some desert shore. 
Foot of man ne'er w;ini1erwl o'er: 
Lock me in some lonely cell, 
Peneath srjme pri--oi> cUacIel: 
s;tiH, here or there, within I Had, 
My (luiet kiusdom uf the min-i. 

if. T. T^fftr 



Stanzas for the Times 

Is this the land our fathers lOTed, 
The freedom which they tolled to win? 

Is this the soil whereon they moved? 
Are these the srares they slnicber inl , 

Are wB the sons by whom ace borne 

Xhe mantles which the dead have worn? 

And shall we crouch above those graves, ^. 

With craven soul and fettered lip? .,' 

Yoke tn with marked and brande<I slaves. 

And tremble at the driver's whlpl 
Bend to the earth our pUant knees 
And speak— but as our masters pleaset 

Shall outraged Nature cease to feel? 

Shall Mercy's tears no longer flow? 
Shall mfllan threats of cord and steel — 

The dungeon's gloom — the assassin's bloir, 
Turn back the spirit roused to save 
The Truth, our cotmtry, and the slavsT 

Shall tongues be mute, when deeds are wrought 
Which well might shame estremeat hell? 

Shall freemen lock the indignant thought? 
Shall Pity's bosom cease to swell? 

Plmll Honor bleed?— Shall Troth suecmubl 

Shall pen, and press, and soul be dumb! 

No— guided by our ccnntry's laws. 
For trjtli, und right, and Buffertng man. 

Be ours to strivs In Free<loni'5 cause, 
As Christians hat — as freemen cah! 

Still pouring on unwilling ears 

The (ruth oppression only fears. 
(Wrlttea 1S35) iToJki* Ctrtmteaf VlkltMr 

Still Free! 

Thank God for the token!— one lip Is still free- 
One spirit unLmmmeled — unbending 40c kneel 
Like the oak of the mountain, docp-rpotcd and Arm, 
Erect, when the multitude bends'to the storm; 
When traitors to Freedom, and Honor, and God 
Are bowed at an idol polluted with blood; 
\Vhcn the recreant press* has forgotten her trust 
.Kad ttio lip of her honor la low in the dust,— 
Thank God, that one arm from the shackle has broken! 
Thank God, that one man, as a FonutAJt, baa spoken I 

Bight onward, oh. speed It! Wherever the blood 
Of the wronged and the guiltless Is crying to God; 
Wherever a slave In his fetters is pining; 
Wherever the lasU of the driver is twining; 
Wherever from kindred, torn rudely apart. 
Conies the sorrowful wail of the broken of heart; 
\^niercver the shackles of tjTanny bind. 
In silence and darkness, the God-given mind; 
There, God speed It onward ! — its trutb will be felt — 
The bonds shall be loosened— the iron shall melt! 

No, Freedom '.* — her friends at thy rraming shall stand 
Erect for the Trutb, like their ancestral band; 
Forgetting the feuds and the strife of past time, 
Coimtiaji coldness injustice, and silence a crime; 
Tumln.; back from the cavil of fTocts, to unite 
Oai.0 iigain fur the poor in defonci? of tSio Right; 
Drcastlug talmli'. but firmly, the full Udc ot Wrong, 
OvErWn-:;lmed, but not borne on 1:3 ^urses along: 
L'nippalled b;.' tlic tlaoser, the sliaxe. aud the pain, 
.\.nd counting each trial for Tmth as thsLr gain! 
• Worii moaiflci (VFritteo 1S37.) i/'ofti» Orrsifta/ ITWfMsp 



GOLDEN AGE CALENDAR 



JANUAtY 21 TO FEBRUA&Y J* 1920 



Tuk: 



1920 A,D. ; 604* tine* Creation: 26T2 of TtoTW^r SCfiS of Gn*k Olrrapiail T!ni: 25T3 of Jftp&a«M 3r*; 
13S3 Mohunracdan Era ; 144111 jear of Indrpenilttnc* oX XJoited States. 



/anuory 



SJ, WedAtsiIav 



moon : Jewish month Sebat b^fflni : !?ua rlstm T :C0 
a. m.. sets 5 :0S p. m. ; Twllijcht becina T> :44 a. m.. emli 
6:40 p. m.. at Xevr York; 101S, U. S. Uke« ot4>p Dtilt-h 
flhips in American ports : Ifild, Germany to be compiwetl 
of etvht federated republics. 



1917, President Wilson aOdresaea S^^nale on ptepft n^c- 
easAty for world pt^ftco: 1918, British m«atl«s ddva. 
TueaiSaTS and Fpfday^ ; 1010, Peace Council inrltes con- 
rtp^nce of alt }liisf.ian parties at Prince's I.-iland, Sea of 
MarmofVL, for Febnisr^ 15 ; TBduftTial unrf^t Incrvaslnic 
In Great Britain : Tv'are of crime la Farls due to the war. 



JONuary fiS, Friday 

F*ta ©f th* Kin?. Kpain : 19X9, Xon-BolaheTik fa(*t{ons 
In Riumta reject proponed ronfcrenc* at Trince's Island; 
Feaca CoDfereoce is a^ked by Chinese t« revise the iolqul- 
tooa 191S Cfaino-Tapaneae treaty, which the Chinese say 
!a aa anfalr at the Brest*Ltto^-9k treaty. 



101^, Peace Conference issues "solemn warnin;t" that 
"taldnc terrltoiT l^J* force Trill (»erioiwT.r pn»jad!ce the 
rlaims of those T~ho u.ie stiich means and ^et up lorer- 
eign^ by coercion". 

1915, Second Rusflat PiTasion of Kast PruMla : 1913. 
f^ermasT and Ai:!*tria outline peac? terms: 1819. Peace 
Cocferenee anaaimonaly rotes to *reate a L^a^ue of 
NatJona, t!ie plans to be drawn by the 'T.Ib Ftre" — Great 
Britain, France, United Sldte:.. Italr ;:niJ .fn^^nn : TUm 
American st>r-mrn<»nt rnarels fifteen l»illioti do!l>irs Torth 
of war cootract.t ; Nnn-PartUr.n Les^ue .innounres a 
57,000,000 indnstriai, flnsBCIal and ajricultural procrani 
for Xarth Daicota. 



JffKHary Sff. Uondav 

.4 FooBdatlon Dst. N'ew South Wale?. Vu-tnria, West 

Anistraila, Tasmania; 191S, TThefttle** >TondaTs snd 

Wedneedoys, meatlras Tuesdays, porkicf^ ThunidR>5 and 
Saturdays^ with Victory bread. 



/tfrtutfry t7. TuMtfey 

Kaieer'B Birthday, Gemieny (not reffulaHy celebrattil 
now) ; St Sara's Day, Serbia : 1919, Great Britain In griii 
ot a sroat striWe : General Wood reparta a cost of 92000 
a year ta xuatatain each soldier aliroad. ^ 

JtKutttf t9^ Wednesday 

1018, France decrees a dally bresil ration of e^eren 
ouneea ; 1919. Pensant perolutioa in Rumania ; ronfrresa 
is afllced for $1.2:k>.000.000 to piarantee the 191B $2.20- 
a-bushel price of wheat. 

January », Tftuisrftfy 

Toandation Da.v, QaeemtTand, ?. Anatralia ; ISlEk, Coat 
of war to Great Britain f» ?IO,ai0.non.ooft ; Formal aa- 
Donncement m»d« of ratiileatton of T-'ed^rai Y^rohlbttloa 
Amendment effertlT-e .lanuary 20, 1020; 1018 farm erepa 
totaled 914.000,709.000. 

/Cttaary 5», Friday 

1919^ Senator Borab begrlns the oppositioB te the 
Leacne of >*ationjt ; Amerlcsa iineDiT>ioraeiit sjtnattoa 
grofwa serious, with *fi.l,CfiO Luown to be ont of wortc 

1919, Sfloator Nfw lnt''cdures a bill -for nnirer:al 
compulsory military serri'-e for Amerl^^n youth: Feed 
dealers prepare for a "klilia< ' after the ceremmeat re- 
strictions OB proflta are rcaored on February 1. 

FF&rusry 1, Sun'fav 

1019, Soldiem' I'ocnciJs in the tJerman srtny epealr 
rsTOIt; Tbenaands of soldiers e^iard public utiUty plants 
ia Scotland. 



Februtrrjf J, Tueyrffly 

1919, "The neliotts of the world", annoanree President 
Wiiaoo, ";ire,ibout toronwirnmateabrotberUood" ; Aseeret 
ti'^aty between Humania and the AUiefl pcoioisin; Bu- 
mania v»art. of Hungary ; London tralHc paral.ned by 
strike in tramway tabes: General railroad ntrike In 
STfwi*n; r«rtuvje«e monarrhiai farces defsnted by Re- 
publican army: A forty-eirhi-honr-a-week workins ^ched- 
uie beccmes e(Tev:tlTe In Xew Cnelan^ textile Industry. 



GMiiii 



■; HOPt-AND'CONtyicTljCJN 




February 4, 1920, VoLl. Nq.10 

■SB P^lisi-ed every athtr 
fEjSI week at 1S6S Broadway, 
\SJF NruYork.N.Y..U^A. 
Tea Ctnto a Capr— $1.SQ a Tea* 

Foreiga Subscriptloa Frlct $2,0Q 



CONTENTS of the GOLDEN AGE 

LABOX and ECONOMICS 

Doctor EU»f« Pro«i«Bi 291 Blotmu ED«ulln( 398 

EUda Tram tba Sea 293 SallToad Wacca. 294 



SOCIAL and ESUCATIONAI. 
Mara DrankR Than £Ter....29n lii Education tb*B49B«drI-39S 

At lUad CoUajra. - 2WS Pflstor Uu!w«irB ror«Tlaw_£98 

"Within Thy Gatca" 29(1 JlUf eUaneoos Anry Itcma-S9S 

Co«|i«iatioB ]a Amarlca 200 No Cat for Five Yean S9S 

MAMUFACrVRIMO aad MINING 
Mora About Higli SllTer....299 Homea at ?2200 300 

FIHANCS, COMMERCE. TSAMSPOSTATION 
Bboitwa of Phono Glrta. 301 

POLITICAU DOMESTIC and FOKEICN 

rtrni'l'm farmer Bop«fal„303 Damocner In Anatralla 3M 

Aonria Starrtns- __..3(M Arm; Omcen Quit Job(....309 

AGRICTILTURB tad HUSBANSRT 

VkimlBC Oarpontlana Attractlfii UBCfal Blzdl 308 

Nort 807 No Dso to Hoard 308 

SCIENCE aad IKVSNTION 

Iha Month Caleadai. 309 A Mare WIieeL 310 

)^T Doaa MerenrT Badio and Lifht Fho&tB 310 

Wobble}. . 309 Mo More Seaalckneaa 310 

HOUSKWItrERT and RYGtENS 
Caza of tba Bodr 311 Cooklo Bedpa*. 3U 

KELIGION and PHILOSOPHY 
God's Wrath — When, Why Juvenile Bible Studr. 318 

and Hot Lon;.. 313 Bade to Tbelr Own Bordera 

Alienation and Reatltutlon (poem) 318 

(l)0«n) 31 T 

TRAVEL aad MISCZLLAHT 
Dm FitmatT Colois 319 Mnabr Hallbnt !nt 

QoUta Am Calendar, Febmarr 4 to IT, •'°'" *^ 



r^UUtMi T*f«lai4* #wfr «taw W«!B«Mfty «• 
IH» Braulrur ttrm Tirk CiOr. N. 1..*r 
WOODWOEm. UUDGLNGS ud HAirnlf 
rtATTTOM J. WOODWOBIB, ...... BcSUe 

«U. r. BVDGUICS Stifjmirnm. 

TowKiMm aad ym i i h iKm . A l i Um <d OHk. 
IlOBnad'waj, Not YMk. N. S. 

Ku Cinra 4 Corr— 41.S0 A Taaa. 
Mako remlttnnai to Tha OoMan Apa 



crt^ Golden A^e 



V«L I 



JfcTT Tork, Wednesday, Febrnaiy 4, 1920 



No. 10 



DOCTOR ELIOT'S PROGRAM 



ONE of the "safe and sane" programs sub- 
mitted to help society oat of the difficidties 
occasioned and aggravated by the World War is 
that of Dr. Eliot. His plan relates particularly 
to the relations of labor and employer, and is 
simmiarized hy Colliers. .The first part relates 
to employers, and appears like a reasonable 
requirement, it being understood tlirouf,'hout 
that there is intended no disturbance of the 
OAvnership of tlie industries : 

1. "Abandonment of every form of autocratic 
government in industries." This would hit most 
employers hard, for there is nothing an em- 
ployer likes to take refuge in, when left without 
a reason, like an arbitrary decision often bear- 
ing on the autocratic. Tliis requirement would 
rob the average employer of his authority, and 
be readily conceded by few. 

2. "Universal adoption of cooperative man- 
agement tnrougnoTit the works or plant, the em- 
ployer and worlonen having equal representa- 
tion in managing committees." It is seldom a 
good plan to divide authority equally, because 
in case of a tie, a deadlock may result as disas- 
trous as a shut-down. In most places where this 
plan is nominally in operation it is a cjmio ullage 
behind which the weight of authority is exer- 
cised by the o^^le^, often by seeing that the men 
chosen by employes for committees are only 
those fully approved by the owners. 

3. "Adoption by all corporations, partner- 
ships, and individual owners of every means of 
promoting the health and vigor of employes and 
their families." A government report of the 
condition of corporations showed that only 20% 
of them were making any money to speak of and 
many were'*breaking even" or losing. It is diffi- 
cult to see how a management that can barely 



make things go could possibly go into an exten- 
sive welfare contract like this. 

4. "Careful provision in all large services of 
well-trained employment managers for dealing 
with the engagement, distribution, shifting, pro- 
motion, and dismissal of employes." This plan 
is an excellent one and is in successful use iii 
many large concerns ; but how is a little business 
going to stand the expense of such a highly paid 
<'mployment manager as these specifications call 
for ? Few business men themselves have the wide 
capacity to judge human nature and its abilities 
necessary to carry this put. Many of the em- 
ployment managers today are adepts in keeping 
their jobs wiiile seeming to perform the service 
expected of them, and their service, while ac- 
ceptable to employers, is not liked by the em- 
ployes of these establishments. 

5. "Careful provision in all large services of 
the means of dealing promptly and justly with 
complaints of employes." First get the em- 
ployes to feel that they dara to make complaints, 
except through the trades union business repre- 
sentatives, without fear of discharge or the dis- 
pleasure of a foreman and his petty persecution; 
and then this provision might be workable. 

6. "Genuine adoption of a genuine partner- 
ship system between the capital and the labor 
engaged in any given plant whereby the returns 
to labor and capital alike, after the wages are 
paid, shall vary vrith the profits of the estab- 
Ushment, the percentage of profits going to pay- 
roll being always much larger than that going 
to shareholders, and pay-roU never to be called 
on to make good losses." This is soraetliing that 
would not be acceptable to owners, who could 
not be blamed for not ■wanting to take all the 



292 



The QoUen Age for Fdmtary 4, 1920 



risk and get only a limited share of the retoma. 
How long could capital be expected to enter Ln- 
vestments in a country where this proTision was 
expected, when it could take wings to China, 
JaDan. India, South America or other locality 
whei'e capital could expect large returns? 

7. "Constant effort on the part of managers 
to diminish monotony and increase variety in 
the occupation from day to day and year to year 
of every intelligent and ambitious employe." 
^Vho is to decide who are to he the happy em- 
ployes of ""intelligence and ambition"? Manage- 
ment has something else to do besides entertain- 
ing the employes; besides, discrimination pro- 
vokes jealousy. 

8. "Universal acceptance of collective bar- 
gaining by elected representatives of each side." 
Just present tliis to Judge Gary, head of the 
United States Steel Corporation, or to the presi- 
dent of the American Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, and see the glad hand stretched out to it 1 

Dr. Eliot makes requirements of employes; 

1. "Abandonment of the doctrine of limited 
output." A limitation of output does not help 
to lo"wer the cost of living, but it keeps more 
workers in positions than the self-abandonment 
of the -worker to the doctrine of the utmost pos- 
sible output Employes have discovered by 
hard experience that if they adopt real efficieney 
and turn out as much as they can, the larger 
output is made the standard for all, and every 
one has to work harder for practically the same 
pay as they received previously. 

2. "Abandonment of the idea that it is desir- 
able for workers of any sort to work as ferw 
hours a day as possible.'' Then why not go back 
to the original factory hours of sixteen, fourteen 
or twelve a day? It is leisure that makes for 
culture, and why should not workers have lei- 
sure as Vr'ell as owners? Labor generally is of 
the opinion that a man should have to work only 
as many hours a day as are necessary for all to 
have enough, and that there should be a con- 
stant endeavor to give labor a chance to have 
"its p'lace in the sun". 

3. "Abandonment of violer.ce toward prop- 
erty or person in the prosecution of industrial 
flisputes, and of the conception that unorganized 
laborers-, are, h-aitors to their cause."' "VThy, 
liless you — with everybody as kind and reason- 
able as Si the ten provisions foregoing, there 
"svould be no disputes liable to run into violence! 

Besides these arrangements there are two 



Great -Commandments to help both partiea in 
the internecine industrial strife: 

1. "Willing adoption by both parties of tie 
methods of conciliation, arbitration, and ulti- 
mate decision by a National Government (loard 
as snfficient means of bringing about just and. 
progressive settlements of all disputes between 
capital and labor." Canada has such a law, as has 
New Zealand, and it obviates much serious trou- 
ble, though it is not well liked by either party, 
and it is liable to abuse according to which party 
to the dispute controls the of5cials in govern- 
ment positions. 

2. "General acceptance of the view that Amer- 
ican Uberties are to be preserved just as they 
have been won. They have been slowly achieved 
by generations of sturdy, hard-working people 
who valued personal independence, industry, 
thrift, truthfulness in thought and act, respect 
for law, family life, and home, and were always 
ready to fight in defense of these things." This 
provision implies a population about like the 
original New England people, for what are de- 
scribed are the ideals of New England! am, as 
derived from Protestant English stock, which 
was not without serious faults. The ideals of 
the American Colonists were on the whole the 
best that ever came to the country, for they pro- 
duced the hest form of government known; it 
would be a good thing if there could be evolved 
a population expressing the best social ideals 
in a variety based on different racial funda- 
mentals, ^ey are much needed. 

It is quite evident that Dr. Eliot speaks as a 
clergyman and not like one that has worked in 
a shop. His ideas are forward-looking, and 
helpful, but as a whole are thoroughly unprac- 
tical when there are taken into consideration the 
low ability of the average employer, the neces- 
sity of making a profit to remain in business at 
all, and the mental attitude of the worker 
evolved from decades of painful experience with 
employers of every sort, race and disposition. 

It is a good thing that prominent men are 
thinking of the better ways of doing things, but 
they arc "trp against" an impossible proposition. 
The doctor's requirements would take decades 
to work into the minds and hearts of the people, 
while there is a condition confronting the world 
that will not wait Whatever solution comes, 
must come speedily. 

The true solution lies in the arrangements of 



"T" 



The Qolden Age for Fdrruary 4, igzo 



293 



tBe Golden Age -(vhieh is believed to be about to 
come a very few years hence. Then there will 
begin the reign, not merely of justice among 
iSien, but of a universal love, that will make ail 
men like brothers to one another. Love is the 
solvent of differences and diffienlties, and love 
and brotherhood are two of the great charac- 
teristics of the Golden Age. 

Hides from, the Sea 

SCARCITY of shoe leather has turned the 
attention of leather men to the creatures 
that inhabit the sea: and this great source of 
supply is now becoming available, through the 
formation of companies that will fish for sea 
animals heretofore neglected. 

The porpoise has for some time supplied an 
excellent quality of shoe strings ; but now skins 
of the wliitc whale are being used in England 
for belting and shoe leathers, and the hides of 
sharks and other great creatures of the sea are 
being used here for similar purposes. 

Sharks weigh as high as a ton apicc«; and 
not only are their skins salable, but the flesh is 
good for food and shark meat is now on sale 
in many cities of the Atlantic seaboard- The 
Government has furnished many recipes which 
have shark meat as the piece de resistance. 

If they could catch a few fish like that deep- 
sea monster caught off Miami sisc or eight years 
ago, ■tt'hat a lot of leather they would get ! The 
fish in question was forty-five feet long, weighed 
fifteen tons, and had in its stomach at the time 
it was caught a blackfish weighing 1500 pounds, 
another fish (an octopus) weighing 400 pounds, 
and 500 pounds of rock which it had swallowed, 
probably to help its digestive apparatus. 

This iish-s habitat is at 1500 to 2000 feet be- 
low sea level, and the specimen caught at Miami 
by Captain Thomas is one of tlie very few that 
have ever come to the surface. Its slan is three 
to four inches tliick, and its cartilages in lieu of 
bones all indicate the enormous wciglit of water 
it \vas, built to v»itlistaiid. It had no fins, but 
flukes Hkf! a valrus: and in its death throes, 
after having ■withstood a rain of bullots and 
harpoons for thirty-nine hours, it smashed "v\-ith 
a blow the propeUor and stern of the stoara yacht 
that had c^^ome cut to tow it in to shore. It took 
nineteen barrols of formaldehyde to disinfect 
the carcasl and prepare it for oxliihition. 

This great tiih has a mouth forty-bvo inches 
long and thirty-six inches Mide, easily sufficient 



to swallow a horse at a gulp. Its carcass was 

on csbibition at Pittsburgh in the summer of 
1919, and at Nashville, Tcnn., in November, 
1919, and has been shoAVTi in other American 
cities. It is supposed to have boon driven to tlio 
surface by some seismic shock, as it seemed to 
be in a dazed condition at the lime is was foxuid 
and kmed. Scientists calculate that tliis is a 
young specimen, probably about 000 years old. 

The smart alecks, who have had so many 
sarcastic things to say respecting our Lord's 
statement thiit. '"As Jonah v,-as three days and 
three nights in the belly of the hetos [huge, gap- 
ing fish], so shall the Son of man Ik; three days 
and three nights in tlie heart of the earth" 
(Matthew ]2:40), because they claim a 
"whale's" throat is not large enough to swallow 
a man, have not had so much to say since this 
fish was brought to shore. It may havci Ix^cn 
the very father or grandfather of this fi^h that 
swallowed Jonah; but it in far more lik(?ly that 
there are millions of them beneath Lh-; ix-cuu'.s 
waves, and (hat the bodies of inyriadri yl' liuninn 
beings that Iiavc been drowned have found their 
way into their cavernous maws. Anj'^s^ay. here 
is a fish big enough to swallow twenty .Jonahs 
and to provide leather enough to shoo a small- 
sized army. 

Riotous Spending 

MONET in pocket still has the ancient trick 
of burning a hole. During the war people 
stinted and saved and earned unprccodeiitod 
wages; and now the money is coming out. Work- 
ing people everywhere arc reported to be on 
a spree of spending. A high public official puts 
it that they are parting with their money "like a 
drunken sailor". There is a surprising extrava- 
gance on the part of people who have never been 
accustomed to having much money, but who 
have it at last and are rapidly getting rid of it ; 
for they are throwing it away rceldcssly for 
meats, rents, clothing, food, musical instru- 
ments, furniture, and everything else that 
money can buy. 

AMierevcr the spending spree goes, reasonably- 
priced goods have no attraction. Dealers put 
shirtwaists on sale at $3, but the public turns its 
nose up. A batcher tried an oxperimi-nt. Ho 
priced part of a lot of Hamburger st^ak at 
twenty-ei;:ht cents and tlie rest at forty-two 
cents; at the cud of the day the high-priced part 
was gone, but uot a pound of the twenty-eight- 



294 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



cent variety coald be moved until it -waa placed 
in the other pile. 

"Worlonen eamiTig $S5 a week demand silii 
shirts at $10, regardless of whetlier they wear 
or not. Shoes are wanted, if tlsey are high- 
priced. Good fish at eight cents v.'ould not sell ; 
but at foi-ty cents there was not enough halibut 
caught six weeks before in the Pacific Ocean 
and brought across the continent. The most 
expensive cuts of meat are insisted on and 
though hogs at wholesale have dropped .50% in 
Chicago there is no need to cut t]ie retail price, 
for tlie jjeople have the money and are going 
to spend it. Silk stocldngs cheaper than the 
old $1 variety go at $4. 

The demand for luxuries is not confined to 
Boston. jMunition Tvorkers in England are get- 
ting rid of their savings, -w-here high wages 
earned by several in a family enable them to 
ride to work in tlieir limousine. Girl workers 
in the prosperous factories "strut about in the 
streets in their furs and other nnery all out of 
peasori and far beyond what they liave ever been 
accustomed to before''. 

In Italy even the peasants are buying luxur- 
ies. People who never dreamed of such a thing 
are getting automobiles. i[en once poor now 
have tlionsands of dollars. The country is in 
a heyday of riotous (••pending and bnbday mak- 
ing. ".\fter a wldlo", says a retired lace mer- 
chant, ilr. Narvonne, in tlie Wall Street Jour- 
nal, "this spirit \\n]l subside and Italy will look 
like a jack-in-the-box as a commercial nation. 
It wdirtaki^> a long time, though. I do not look 
for normal condition.=? for two or three years". 

Tliese are tlie perhaps eiivions comments of 
well-to-do persons, who seem to feel bad when 
they see t!ie "common" people hai-ing something 
more than they used to hare. It must be ad- 
mitted that, from the economic vieT\-point, 
spending for "ultimate consumption" does little 
good and produces a train of evils, which will 
have to lie reckoTied with later, when it would 
])e better to dimini.sh rather than enhance the 
prevailing unrest. It would be better to invest 
the'fnoney, and as capital make it produce goods 
for the nation; but what do people know about 
investment who for gmorations never had any- 
thing to invest? Soon \v\\\ come the sore feel- 
ing of-.having had it and spent it, and of suffer- 
ing the ol(T, old grind of poverty. They mnst 
unavoiT^aI)ly realize that "he that loveth pleas- 
ure shall be a poor man." — Proverbs 21:17. 



Railroad Wages 

WE HAVE received from a railroad en^- 
necr a communication giving farther light 
on the subject of railroad Avages, and protesting 
against our article on this subject in the issue of 
January 7th. "We stated there, on the basis of 
the best information then obtainable, that 
"freight and passenger conductors now receive 
over $300 per month, and freight engineers 
receive $392 per month". We have received sev- 
eral similar letters from railroad condnctors- 
The criticism follo-vre; 

"1 am a locomotiTe engineer, but work in yard service. 
My pay is seventy-two' cents an hour, $5.76 for eight 
hours. Before ire were granted the eight-hour day I was 
getting $5.22 for twelve hours, so that yoa can see that, 
althocgh I am wotkizkg shorter hours, the actual incarease 
in wages is small compared with the increased cost of 
liTtttg, clothes, etc. As soon aa I read the artiele in Tbz 
GoLSEK Age I went to the home of one of otrr freight 
engineers and inquired regarding the freight service. 

"In freight service on out division an engineer gets 
eighty-five cents an honr aad in pick-up or local woric 
ninety-one cents an hour. This is for service ax the 
largest engines on the division. About a year ago the 
officials put on a crew known as the shuttle crew, in 
which the men have the opportunity to make large sal- 
aries by working long hours. The engineer told me that 
one month he worked thirty-one dajrs, fifteen hours each 
(lay, and made over $390 ; but that it nearly killed hmu 
There are some very large compound Mallet type en- 
gines working the mountainons regions where the engi- 
neer may get more per hour than in the ca.se I investi- 
gated, but I am positive no engineer gets S13 for eight 
hours, and I do not think it fair to publish a siippoc^ 
staudard wage x\hich can be made by an engineer on^ 
by working nearly sixty days per month on the eight- 
hour basis, at the expense of his physical health. 

"1 somewhat agree with you that the four big brother- 
hoods used Jesse James methods in getting the eight- 
hour work day, but I suppose that is about the only way 
the railroads would have agreed to them. It certainly 
v.as a blessing to ms. When working twelve hours I ran 
<in engine from 6 p. m. to 6 a. m. ; and when I reached 
hnme in the morning I ate my breakfast and went to 
bed. Thirty days in the month practically aU. I saw 
ivas my -n-ork and my bed." 

In the preparation of articles for The GoldeS' 
Age ■"■e try to use only data which we believe to 
be reliable ; but occasionally we get our fingers 
burned. Be patient, and we will tell you the 
truth on every subject as fast as we can leant 
it. "While we have excellent facilities for learn- 
ing it, yet it takes time and effort to collect and 
ase the data we secure. 



The Qolden Age for Fe&ructr/ 4, 1920 




More Drunks than Ever 

IP DETROIT is representative of the country, 
there is an nnpreeedentcd wave of crime. It 
is due to the World War — that promised "splrit- 
Tializer" of the warring peoples — for Germany 
Las had her wave of crime, Paris hers, and Eng- 
land, Italy and Russia theirs. In fact, Detroit's 
exjjerience is mild compared "svith the increase 
noted in some other cities. 

The figures are available for the correspond- 
ing three months of 1S18 and 1919. Tliey siiow 
that the percentages of increase of felonies and 
misdemeanors "srero 47% and 50% — ^.ubstan- 
lially the same. The table of increases is inter- 
esting, and as follows; 

Robberies 4.60% 

Concealed Weapons 433% 

3o0% 



Beggars 

Assaults and Batteries. 

Disorderly Conduct 

Diaturbing tko Peace 

Larcenies 

Burglaries 



_19S% 
,,.152% 
.^24% 
-11S% 
- 83% 



The interesting feature is that the chief in- 
crease is in crimes against the person, including 
robberies, concealed weapons, and assaults aud 
batteries. Plain stealing, including larcenies 
and burglaries, show a far smaller increase than 
the more serious criines of violence. 

Evidently the doctrine of hate and violence, 
which was preached vehemently before and dur- 
ing the war, was planted in fertile soil. The 
crop sprouted well, both in actual warfare, and 
now ill peace. It has become a problem for 
police authorities to know what to do with this 
dark fruitage of war. 

Comment was made during the war that the 
universality of the method of getting the troops 
brouglit groat numbers of criminal youths into 
the army. The character of the crime-increases 
Kuggests that in 1[>JS these votaries of crime 
wore busy in the camps and coidd not coraniit 
crime tliroughout the country; tut now they 
arc baok\hom,e again, and arc t:urniug to ac- 
count thc^essons of violence learned from tho 
world's great teacher. Mars. Other causes of 
the crime wave arc thought to be the current 
eoclal unrest and the industrial turmoiL 



The new note of violence is observed ever;,- 
where. Before the v.ar tho JioJd-up man seldom 
shot his victim aa \\y>\\\ but fought him with !ii;3 
lists, or gave him a (jiijctus with a sandbag or 
blackjack. If the victim screamed or fought back 
the hold-up man usually decamped, but now h« 
is likely to shoot or otherwise injure him. 

Crime has become v/ell organized since the 
war. There are thougitt to he several large or- 
ganizations for conmiitting a variety of crimes. 
Toledo is reported to be the headquarters of one 
— a band of interstate shipment thieves, drug 
sellers and safe blowers. Chicago is the center 
of one of the largest systems of crime knov/n. 

Before proliibition was adopted it \ras pre- 
dicted that in tho cities it would not materially 
reduce the drunkenness. This is borne out, for 
the Detroit experience shows a 102% increase in 
arrests for drunkenness. This is due to the 
increasing use of raisin whiskey and other 
"moonshine" drinlcs, which are also blamed for 
the 152% increase in arrests for disorderly 
conduct of various kinds. 

It is safe to say that if the degree of morality 
attained in the present tag end of the dark 
ages has brought about the national prohibi- 
tion of liquor, there Trill be a most effectnal 
prevention of its use, when the Golden Age ia 
well under "way. Crime will fall to nothing, 
for under the measures of that age it •will be 
practically impossible to commit crime. More- 
over the incentive of a sense of social inequality 
and of injustice will be lacking. Crime would 
not pay even if possible, and the certainty of in- 
stant detection of even the attempt and the sure 
retribution instantly to foUow, will deter the 
most determined. 

At Reed College 

REED COLLEGE, located at Portland, Ore^ 
is credited with having been founded in 
inn, and liaving o20 students, exclusive of 92 
with the colors, J'O tcacherc, 138 graduates, col- 
lege colors of "liichmond Rose," and a distinct- 
ly atidihle college yell. It also has a student 
publication knoivn as Uic Reed College Quest, 
s-upervised and supposedly approved by the 
faculty, which is iateuded to represent the views 



296 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



of the underf;:radaate body. Eced College is of 
quite recent birth, and, not being fettered "v\.'ith 
ancient traditions, should bo up to date in its 
ideas. 

One of the tiiidcrirradualc coiicopts pnblished 
in the Quest related to the relijiaus attitude of 
the boys as follows : 

"Any student vho comes to Tlccd CoUcgc with s 
rclifrious enthusiasm, loses it, hides it, or gets ont. F.\-Qr\ 
ia this day and age ^•"•mc people ^^llo are cultured 
cnnf (!) to want to go io rollegn have dorp religious 
beliefs. Iieed gels tome of these. Under her nurluriiig 
liajid they cither lose ■what they had — or they hide it — ur 
thc_y get out. 

"Of couTiC, as nn rniighieued group, Me, ifudent?, 
faculty and all, do iiot deny that miith good ha? coinc to 
the ivorlj I'rom certain religious enthusiasm — Cliristiau- 
ity. for instance. Civilization has been greatly IjcncfiteJ 
by doctrines which it fosters. On the otlier hand we have 
caught a glimpse of a rational e_\istence. and to ns much 
of the so-called "'spiritual' in religion appears unjusti- 
fiable in view of the indestructibility of matter, the 
.conservation of encrg;/. etc. From our Traturc ( 1) stfiad- 
poiat it is so obviou.-ly unscientific for a niiui to pray 
that wo — wo wondpr v.hy people don't use better judg- 
ment. '\Vc imply as mr.'.h to our coilogc friends, and 
• thf>y — well, no matter.'' 

Sueh a view is not confined to the "West nor to 
new colleges, for the opinion of a teacher in a 
largo Eastern university is that '"'any one that 
bclieATs in tlio Bible is a hack number''. 

Possibly the ■writer in the Quest should not be 
taken seriously, as lie ma}' have been a Sopho- 
more, and "ive were taught that the meaning of 
the "word is "IVise-Fool.' However, it is an index 
of current undergraduate opinion and may 
serve as a suggestion to CTiristian parents in 
deciding whether they want their boys to go to 
college or learn a trade. At any rate the sug- 
gestion of one '■'back number'', the prophet 
Darvid, is that "the fear [reverence] of the Lord 
is the beginning of ■wigdom", and "the fool 
[ignoramus, thouglitl'^ss person] hath said in 
his heart. There is no Ood".— Psa. 111:10; 14:1. 

"WWiin Thy Gates" 

THE ifosaic law v. as very particular to spec- 
ify that which practically all civilized na- 
tions ackuo^wlcdgo in theory, nanitdy, that a non- 
tribal sojourner in the midst of the Israelitish 
tribes ■was to be treated ■with the same regard 
for his "rights and comforts as a native-born 
person. The law said : '"Thou shalt neither vox a 
stranger, nor oppose iiim: for yc wore strangers 
in the land of Egypt". (Exodus 22:21) Of 



course, the requirement was made of the 
stranger that he be obedient to the laws of 
Israel, though it was not at all necessary for 
him to become a Jew in order to dwell in peace 
and safely in tlie land of the Jews. The for- 
eigner, therefore, was not merely the object of 
toleration; he had a legal standing, with rights. 

Wc wonder whether all the respect which is 
.iu.'^tly due to the stranger within our gates is 
being paid to Jiim. The stranger ^v'ithin our 
gatct! is not merely the man of non-tribal birth 
I if there couid be f^nch a tiling in cosmopolitan 
America), bul much more the man of nou- 
t ribal ideas. Do wo follow the admittedly right- 
eous principles enunciated in the ancient code of 
Israel or do m-o follow the unwritten code of the 
South Sea Islander — Idll and cat on sight any 
man who dresses himself or his ideas in other 
than conventional garb? 

Some tendency to the latter course is per- 
ceptible in the conduct of the American Legion 
at various points in the country. They have 
not always .shown the magnanimity wluch one 
might have reason to expect from the defenders 
of democracy. In some cases they have exerted 
themselves to interfere ■with advertised meet- 
ings which some of their members felt thoy 
could not heartily approve. Sometimes the 
meetings were political, sometimes they ■were 
purely religious, though of an unconventional 
tinge. "We cannot think that the better clement 
in the Legion approves this rash interference 
■u-ith constit^ational rights. If anything unlaw- 
ful is said or done at a meeting, there is ample 
machinery already for punisliing such offenses ; 
and the civil courts have not distinguished them- 
seU'es for leniency in the last two years against 
cases of political and ecclesiastical heresy. 

Cooperation in America 

EXPERIE^'CE has proven that the Amer- 
ican people do not take well to the idea of 
cooperation. .\. great number of the cooperative 
societies that have been formed in this country 
have proven faUuros: but what is to be done to 
( hnnge the gruesome fact that at present Amer- 
i<'a i.s literaOy .starving in the midst of plenty? 
One of the answers is that she had better take 
another look, and a long one, at this subject 
of coiipcration. 

Cooperation is not a new thing. Tlicre are 
in Europe cooperative societies still in success- 
ful operation that were formed 142 years ago. 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



297 



Even tlie ijroat rioolidale society is nlmost a 
liundnd years i>l<l. This -was formed by Uventy- 
eight T,arn\"isliii(? veavprs, so poor tlrat their 
first capital oi f);L40 v/as collected iii installments 
of two pence weekly. Their first purchase vas 
a barrel of oatmeal; and it was quite some time 
before they had anything more tlian flour, 
butter, su.crar and oatmeal to soU. Now they 
sell everything. 

One-third of the people of England now buy 
their food and apparel through eoijporative 
societies. In Oermany the total membersliip in 
cooperative pocielies runs into the million;;, antl 
one banlc in Bavaria has 2,654 cooperative soci- 
eties among its cu.'toraers. In Switzerland tliere 
are thousands of these societies, and in addition 
to their otlu'r ontotprises they even ov.-n and 
operate a canal. Cooperative societies are to 
be fo\md ail ov r Europe. 

01" cour.'^e America has suece.<.?f al cooperative 
organizations oL' some sorts. A Building and 
Loan Association is notliing in the world liut a 
cooperative society d(:voted to a .specific end. 
As long ago as 18S2 the students of Harvard 
University oi-gaiii/.od a society for supplying 
themselves with books and stationery, and it 
has been a great success. 

Iq New York City tliere is a cooperative 
school, occupying two floors and eight large 
classrooms, in which tlie students endeavor to 
supply education at cost. The school is gov- 
erned by a council of twelve students elected by 
the students themselves, and supplies a large 
curriculum of required and elective studies. 
School hours arc 6:30 to 10:15 p. ra- 
in Chicago tliere is a cooperative association 
of worldng mothers. These mothers employ a 
matron who looks after their children, and sup- 
plies them -with better influences than would be 
possible if the children wore allowed to run at 
large while the mother is away. 

In Washington tliere is a sub-postoffice where 
the. postmaster is secretary of a eooporative 
society. ratron.=; of the station can leave orders 
with liim lor necdod articles. He fills tlie orders 
and delivors ihcra by parcel post. Deliveries are 
made at the door for cash, tlio .tjame as in 
Europe.- In throe } oars the postal packages de- 
livered froin'tliat ?ub-=tation have grown to six 
times l,hi?lr foi'niir \-oliinie; and the postal route 
where the patrons live, then run at a deficit, is 
now turning in a proiit of $20,000 to the Gov- 
ernment Postoffiee DepartmenL 



In California in 1915 the peach growers were 
without organization and received but fifteen 
cents for every dollar's worth of peaches sold to 
the consumer. The railroads and middlemen got 
the balance. Three years later, as a result of 
cooperative buying, selling and general manage- 
raeut, the price to consumers had been reduciod 
from seventeen cents to fourteen cents per 
pound and the growers' share of the consumer's 
dollar had risen to fifty-five cents. 

The Goveriunent has made a study of coiiper- 
ative stores as managed in the United Statei^, 
and finds that those stores achieve their main 
object in helping to reduce the cost of living. 
They also exorcise a beneficial influence iii Ca.- 
lerring other stores from charging unreasonable 
prices for their goods. 

Of the stores investigated, C6% paid divi- 
dends regularly out of their protit.-j and 345J. 
paid dividends irregularly. The stores averaged 
to turn over their stock four and one half times 
per \par, and on this turnover charged u sr>-''s.s 
proiit of IT.T-'o. The average cost wa.q 11.7% 
of the turnover and the average net profit real- 
ized was 6%. Thus tlie stockholders andpatron.s 
of the stores received two profits, G% on tlieiir 
turnover and a much larger profit in the way 
of reduced prices on their purchases. 

The managers of the stores investigated were 
paid on the average only $106 per month, which 
is not enough compensation for a high-grade 
manager in times likes these. This accounts for 
the f^ure of some of the stores, some of the 
managers receiving as low as $45 per month. 

Enthusiasts, who have started many Ameri- 
can coopei'ative enterprises in the past, have 
laid more stress on sentiment than on 1)113111.688 
efficiency. This type of promotion soon brings 
the business to a disastrous end. The leader of 
a cooperative moveinent must be a good mixer, 
have the faculty for leadership and must stay 
with the organization until a self-peipetaating 
movement has been built up; otherwise it will 
go to pieces when he withdraws. 

Cooperative stores are more likely to succeed 
in communities where there is a strong predomi- 
nating nationality, a common occupation, a 
strong elmrcli organization, and where some 
great and strong commercial orgaitization is 
not already closely covering the field and mak- 
ing sure that no competitive institution gains 
a foothold in its territon*. 

The very first cooperative society ever organ- 



20(5 



The Qolden Age for Febmary 4, 1920 



iacd ccuiie to griof. Their plan was to build a 
lower ■■wiio'r'e top may reach unto heaven". 
(Genesis 11:4) Probably their thong-ht was 
to iirotoct tliemsGlves from another disaster 
similar to the flood. Such protection was un- 
necessary, however, the Lord having already 
^ven the assurance that never again should 
"All flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a 
flood ; neither phall there any more be a flood to 
destroy the earth''. (Genesis 0: 11) We see no 
reason why people sliould not go into coopera- 
tive as.<5oeiations to reduce their living expenses. 
"We urge them to do so, and to pay close atten- 
tion to their management. 

la Education the Remedy ? 

THERE seems to be a general impression that 
something is the matter in the world, though 
there is a ■^•ide divergence of opinion as to what 
the matter is and as to what course should be 
taken to ri^ht things. Some have given up in 
despair and frankly admit that they do not know 
•what to expect. Others aver that everything 
will come out right, because things have man- 
aged to worry along heretofore. Others tell us 
that if people with unconventional ideas would 
just stop rocking the boat the storm might set- 
tle. Few have the disposition to believe the 
Bible explanation of present discontent. 

Now comes Dr. John H. Finley, State Com- 
missioner of Education in New York, and says 
that the great social and economic question.s of 
the present day can be remedied only by edu- 
cation. But what kind of education, Dr. John? 
Is it education in reading, writing, and aritli- 
metic, or does your proposal include algebra, 
music, and vocational training? Is it not a fact 
that there never was a generation so well edu- 
cated as this one is, in the sense of having infor- 
mation and having th.o knowledge of how to 
apply it in practical ways? 

It is education that the world needs, but it 
is education in the basic principles of justice 
and love. And there is no one person and no 
group of persons or any other agency on earth 
wise enough or powerful enough to instruct men 
in the principles of justice and love. Super- 
human Xvisdom and superhuman power are nec- 
essary i^r such a task; and Messiah's kingdom 
is just ahead for this very purpose. On this 
point Isaiali, tlie Prophet, long ago said: "The 
earth shall be full of the Imowiedge of the Lord 
as the waters cover tlie -sea". — Isaiah 11:9- 



Pastor Russell's Foreview 

The collapse wiLl come with a rush. Ju3t as 
the .sailor who has climbed to the top of the mast 
can fall suddenly, just as a great piece of ma- 
cliineiy lifted slowly by cogs and pulley will, 
if it slips their hold, come down again with 
crushing and damaging force, worse oil by far 
than if it had never been lifted, so humanity, 
lifted high above any former level, by the cogs 
and levers of invention and improvement, and 
by the blocks and tackle of general education 
and enlightenment, lias reached a place where 
(by reason of selfishness) these can lift no more 
— where something is giving way. 

Miacellaneota Army Items 

"The sword is without, and the pestilence and 
the famine within: he that is in the field shall 
die -with the sword; and he that is in the city, 
famine and pestilence shall devour him. All 
hands shall be feeble, and all Icnees shall be weak 
as water. They sliali cast their silver in the 
streets, and their gold shall be removed: their 
silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver 
tJiem in the day of the wrath of the Lord: they 
shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their ■ 
bowels : because it is the stumblingblock of their 
iniquity."— Ezekial 7 : 15, 17, 19. 

The Scriptures contain one interesting pas- 
sage on the pay of army men, but it does not 
seem to have any special reference to our days, 
so far as we can judge. It reads: 

'■'And the soldiers lil;ewise demanded of him, 
saj-ing, And what shall we do! And lie said 
imto them. Do violence to no man, neither ae- 
cnso any falsely; and be content with your 
wages." — Luke 3 : 14. 

No Cut for Five Year^ 

PEE-WAB wages are impossible — fo alTirms 
the New York State Federation of Labor — 
and labor \\'ill not submit to wage cuts for five 
years. Tliis stand is raodified by the hint that 
if the cost of living drops, la\;or may accept re- 
ductions, such as will not red\;ce the actual pur- 
chasing power of the vragc. The workers, how- . 
ever, do not propose to get caught by a drop 
in pay, on the promise that a drop in expenses 
will follow. Sad experience has proved that the 
cost of such an exhibition of public spirit 13 
borne by labor alone, and that other members 
of society reap all the profits. 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



299 




More About High Silver 

IN the last previous issue of The Golden Age 
we gave some of the facts respecting the 
silver situation, but a few raore have corae to 
light- which we tliink will be of interest to our 
readers. We are all interested in money ; it is 
something that everybody has to handle. Most 
of us could handle a lot more of it than we do, 
or we thinlc we could, anj"way. 

The value of the silver in a silver dollar has 
been a fluctuating one. In 1862 it was worth 
$1.04; in 1909 it was worth but forty cents; in 
1915 it was worth fifty-two cents ; in 1918 it was 
worth seventy-five cents, and in 1919 it was 
wortli $1.03. It is not believed by financiers 
that silver can fall below $1.00 per ounce for 
the next ten years, however, on account of the 
extraordinary market for it in India and China. 

India and China have always been a market 
for the silver of Western countries, because 
they, are silver-standard countries and because 
they are accustomed to require the payment of 
their bills in actual gold or silver coins. They 
have always done business this way, and during 
the war many of them became frightened and 
refused to accept any otlier kind of money. In 
India the situation was so serious that the natives 
made a run on the Treasurj", presenting notes 
for redemption in silver rupees. Just then the 
situation in India was so difficult for the Brit- 
ish Government to handle that they appealed 
to the United States to release a part of its vast 
silver holdings. So the Pittman act was passed, 
empowering the Secretary of the Treasury to 
melt do-ft-n and ship abroad a maximum of $350,- 
000,000 of American silver dollars. Of this 
amount $260,000,000 was melted into bullion and 
shipped to India. Large quantities have .since 
been shipped to India, China and Japan. Early 
in December silver was being exported from 
San Francisco to the Orient at the rate of a 
million dollars a day, but tins was stopped by 
the Govenimeut under a law v.'liich forbids sil- 
ver exports, except for the specific purpose of 
balancing ?Kchange. 

Another reason v/liy the price of silver if 
high and why there is a scarcity of coin for 
circulation is because of the hoarding and melt- 
ing that i2 going on in various parts of the 



world, and because of the withdrawal of gold 
coin from general use. It is hard to enforce 
laws forbidding the melting of coin when tha 
sDver in the coin is -sTOrtli more than the face 
value of the coin, and in jSIoxico the disparity 
between the face value of the dollar and its sil- 
ver content is so great that silver dollars liave 
practically disappeared and the Mexican Gov- 
ernment has had ro buy 50% of the output of the 
silver minei- for its o^v^l iiso. The United States 
differs from otlier countries in having no law 
against the melting of coins and if the price of 
silver continues to advance the silver dollar is 
bound to disappear. In fact, the claim is freely 
made that many thousands of silver dollars have 
already disappeared in that way, and more are 
liable to follow them. 

After the Pittman act of April, 1918, was 
passed, and the bullion shipped to India, the 
silver money left in America amounted to $260,- 
000,000; on November 1, 1919,. the total stock in 
the country was $208,145,000, of which amount 
$156,135,714 was held iri trust to redeem silver 
certificates which are still outstanding. On 
November 20, 1919, the nmnber of free silver 
dollars in the country, i. e., dollars that were 
not held in trust to redeem silver certificates, 
was $67,124,669. Of this amount $10,000,000 has 
been melted and made up into subsidiary coin — 
halves, quarters, and dimes. On December 
11th tlie free silver dollars in stock amounted 
to $52,183,538. It will thus be apparent that 
Uncle Sam is gradually running short of change. 
The reasons here are the same as elsewhere — 
hoarding and melting, besides exporting. New 
York is now the world's free silver market. 

The Government has no way of knowing to 
what extent the stock of silver in circulation 
has been depleted by private hoarding or melt- 
ing, but it docs know that the witlidrawal of 
silver certiiieates by persons who anticipate re- 
deeming them in silver dollars w^as so great just 
before the holidays as to cause a shortage in 
small bills, greatly hampered retail trade. 
Federal Eeserve Bank Notes increased from 
$228,165,000 on September 12, 1919, to $257,- 
680,000 on November 21, to make up for silver 
certificates \^ithdrawn from circulation. 



300 



The QoUai Age for VAruary 4, 1920 



The •s\-oiglit of a United StatPs silver dollar is 
4LL!.;") graias, ol' wLJcb amount 90%, or ZTl.'S) 
grains, Lii of purft Rilver. Theif arp 4S0 grains 
ill an ounce oii silver, and at $1 jifr ounce the 
silver in a silver dollar is worth seventy-seven 
cents. \Vlien silver is worth $1 .2929 per ounoe, 
the Kilver in a silver dollar is worth just $1.00. 
AVhpn the price of silver goes any higher than 
$1.2929 thp dollar i.s gradually lieading toward 
Iho melting pot, and the higher tlie price goe."; 
Ijfyond that the surer the dollar is to land in 
the pot. On November 24th silver touched 
$1..37y at New York. 

The .subsidiary coins of the United States do 
not contain the same ratio of silver as the dollar. 
While a newly minted dollar contains S71.2.'> 
grains of pure silver, the newly minted frac- 
tional currency contains only ,?47.22 grains, so 
that the value of the silver in the smaller coins 
i.s le.ss in a dollar's wortli of them than is the 
silver in a silver dollar. \Vhcn silver is $1.3S2S 
per ounce, the silver in a dollars worth of sub- 
sidiary coins is wortli just $1.00. The reason for 
making the subsidiary coins worth less than 
their face value was to prevent their being ex- 
ported or melted. 

The disappearance of the smaller coins is 
largely attributable to hoarding. All the mints 
in the country are now worldng twentj'-four 
hours per day, but are unable to meet the de- 
mands for subsidiary coins. Canada is in the 
pame predicament and is discussing the advisa- 
liUity of reducing the percentage of pure .silver 
in the subsidiary coin, so as to further insure 
against its being lioarded. melted or exported. 

The Chronicle (financial), of New York, says 
that if steps already taken to preserve the in- 
tegrity OL United States money do not succeed, 
"Then; are only three cour>~es remaining. The 
lirt-L is to release more silver by rechicing the 
value 01 our t'ractional coins, a step wliicli nat- 
urally is approaehed with some rehirtance. The 
:^ec,ond i.-; lo sl-II more goods in iJie Orient. I 
liave already meruioneii ihe difllouliies in the 
way of this. A third ali&rnative, ^vhirh seems 
equally impo?sib]f>, is liiat Americans and Kuro- 
pean.s shall stop baying in Lhe East." 

On VDeefember Sth a bill was arln.iUy intro- 
daced-in the iious>' of liupre^^entalives by 14pp- 
repentative I'latt, providing for the reeoinage of 
all subsidiary coLu in the United Sinte;;, on a 
basis of 300 grains of pure silver to the dollar 



of fractional currencv, a propo-sed debasement 
of 22.2:ifa. 

The real trouble is that there is not enongli 
actual gold and silver in the world to properly 
sustain the great amount of biisiness. 

Housesat$2.200 

AT UNION, New Jersey, Charles H. Inger- 
soU, brother of the IngersoU Watch man, 
has been making substantial, handsome houses 
for $2,200 apiece. 

The method is much the same as was experi- 
mented ■viith a few years ago by Edison, who 
is watching the work %vith interest, as some- 
thing greatly for the good of the common peo- 
ple. The houses are fireproof and indostmcti- 
ble ; for they are made of poured concrete. The 
pltmibing, the pipes for electric wires, ga.s and 
heat are first put into place -within the mold for 
tlie concrete ; and when mold and piping are all 
in place, the concrete is poured. After a few 
days for the setting of the material, the mold 
is taken down; and the house is don^. Every- 
thing is of concrete, including walls, floors and 
roof. The work talces about one month. The 
molds cost $7000 and can be used over again 
about a hundred times. Each house comprises 
five rooms — dining-room, living-room, kitchen, 
and two bedrooms, and a bathroom. These 
houses present a very pleasing appearance. 

Before the war an equally commodiotis house 
buUt of wood cost about $3500 to $4000, and to- 
day would cost double that. Made of brick, 
stone or cement blocks the cost now wordd be 
prohibitive. Houses and lots costing $3000 to 
$3500 mean monthly rents of but $25 to $30, 
and should start competition that would go far 
to solve the high-rent problem. With rentals as 
high as they are today, there are few families, 
earning fair wages, that could not afford to buy 
one of these houses for, say $r>00 down and 
monihly pajTnents of .•i!40. Even if the total cost 
to the buyer ran to $4000, that would be ch*>ap 
compared with the price of even second-hand 
houses, and very little compared with that of 
new houses. 

With improved methods of building hotises 
to la?t indellnit^ly, this day of preparation for 
the Golden Age i.s getting ready for the time 
wlien every man shall own liLs property and 
enjoy ilie security and comfort of feeling that 
the roof over him is his own. 



The Qolden Age for February 4, ig20 



01 




Shortage of Phone Girls 

THE ■world is always short of good girls (the 
dear things!) and although ttere are a lot 
o£ them in the world, yet there is a more at:ute 
shortage of them just now than ever before, at 
least in the telephone business in New York 
city, so v.'e are given to understand. 

In the telephone business the effort is to get 
refined girls, girls of education and pleasing 
address, and for the last two years it has been 
difficult for the telephone companies to obtain 
enough girls of this class to keep up with the 
growth of the business. The growth of the tele- 
phone business in New Tork since the armistice 
was declared has been phenomenal, amounting 
to a 20% increase in traffic — far beyond what 
was anticipated by the engineers of the com- 
pany. In Manhattan and the Bronx it has been 
necessary to install ten or twelve times as many 
new switchboards and new lines as was origi- 
nally estimated. This has created a shortage 
of over 600 operators. 

Although the company has advertised widely 
for telephone girls, and pays a bonus to every 
girl in its employ that brings in another gixl, 
yet it has not been able to recruit a normal force 
of operators. The training school, which for 
many years has supplied the new "Tiello" girls, 
has not been able to train more than needed to 
take tlie place of those resigning. To cope with 
the situation, the company has coaxed some of 
its married ex-operators to work in the even- 
ings, and brought in 147 operators from out 
of town, and installed them in dormitories spe- 
cially equipped for their comfort and conven- 
ience. Even with all this the serrice at certain 
times and places reaches a point where calls 
canno^be answered. The present situation pro- 
vides only about two girls for the work three 
should do, resulting in overworked girls and 
relatively inefficient service. 

The fu^t thought of many would be that here 
is a situation' which could be readily corrected 
by increaSed wages for the operators, but from 
the company statements it does not seem that the 
matter of wages enters as largely into the ques- 
tion as one would expect In New York the 
initial basic wage is, we aaderstand, $12 per 



week. The first two or three weeks are spent 
in schooling, and at the end of the first month 
the wages are increased Hfty cents per week; at 
the end of the year they are $14 and at the end 
of six years are $20. Within the past two years 
the average annual wages of the girl operators 
have increased from $659.80 (which is $12.6D per 
week), to $841.91 (which is $16.19 per week). 

The wages and working hours differ some- 
what in different cities. In Boston the maxi- 
mum wage for operators is $21 per week, obtain- 
able in seven years. In Helena the girls receive 
$19 per week at the end of the first year (at 
which time a telephone girl is at the height of 
her efficiency), wiUi double time for Sundays 
and holidays. In Seattle the girls receive tune 
and half for Sundays and holidays. In Van- 
couver the girls have a seven-hour day. In 
Boston, Helena and Vancouver the girls are 
organized into unions, and ux Boston have equal 
representation at the conference tables where 
their wages and working conditions are dis- 
cussed with the employers. 

The operators in small exchanges do not fare 
BO welL In Wisconsin the proposal has been 
made to pay these operators in small exchanges 
a monthly silowance of fifty cents per telephone. 
Their wages hitherto have been twenty-two 
cents per hour. 

Keverting again to the situation in New Tork 
dty, the statistics show that the annual labor 
turnover is 37%, which means that more than 
one-third of the operators are changed annually. 
One half of all tibe girls who drop out of the 
service are from those who have been less than 
six months at the switchboard. The reasons as- 
signed by the girls for their leaving are chiefly 
other employment, mstrriage, home duties, hours 
of work, and other working conditions, in the 
order named. The wages are seldom mentioned. 
It is apparent from the statistics that the girls 
particularly dislike giving up their evenings, 
and when one considers that the evening is the 
only tiTTia when a girl ■'an reasonably expect to 
meet her possible future life-companion this is 
not to be greatly wondered at. Besides, tele- 
phone girls, some of them, must necessarily 
work Sondajs and holidays, for people will use 



302 



The Qolden Age for Fdmutry 4, jg20 



the teleplioiie then as at other tiinea. And some 
must be on duty all night. 

"While the published statements would seem 
to indicate that the telephone companies had 
done about all they could to make the work con- 
genial, yet the work is one involving a high 
degree of mental and physical tension- The 
operator caimot let her memory relax for an 
instant, and at times during the day averages 
more than two arm movements per second in 
some of the New York exchanges Trhere the 
shortage of operators is greatest This induces 
great fatigue, headaches, stomach trouble, eye- 
strain and other symptoms of neurasthenia. 
The girls are necessarily under very close super- 
vision, and necessarily also are denied the 
privilege of talking with one anotlier. As a 
consequence of these restrictions few girls can 
stand the strain more than three or four years. 
In Chicago and in numerous other places 
there are automatic telephone systems, where 
no telephone girls are used. The subscriber in- 
dicates his desired number by certain adjust- 
ments upon a dial devised for the purpose. K 
the line is busy he gets a regular 'Tjasy" signal, 
intimating to him that he had better wait a 
while. The system is very satisfactory, not as 
much so, from some points of view, as the "voice 
with the smile" which has become so much a 
part of our daily life, but is probably the system 
that will ultimately prevail. The telephone 
engineers are malting some moves in this direc- 
tion now, and the time will probably come when 
the telephone operator will be a thing of the 
past. No one is indispensable in business. 

It would be unreasonable to expect that the 
market for telephone operators would forever 
continue as favorable as it now is. Observation 
and reflection show that such expectations would 
be unreasor.able, indeed impossible, for several 
reasotis. The prosperity of the past century 
has been — under dirine supcrvison( Dan. 12:4) 
—dipectly the result of the mental awakening of 
the world, printing, steain, electricity and ap- 
plied mecharies boinc^ the a,T;eiicies. 

Invention was stiiviulatod by the demand, and 
it has pushed one labor-saving device upon 
auothelr intp the factory, tlie home, on to the 
farm, eyer^-where, until now it is dilEcult for 
any to earn a bare living independent of mod- 
em machinery. All of tliis, together with com- 
merce with outsi'Io nations, waking up similarly, 
hot later, has kept things goLug prosperou^y. 



It is worthy of note that while wages have 
reached an unprecedented height in recent 
years, the rise in the prices of the necessaries of 
life has more than kept pace with the increase, 
thus exercising more than a counterbalancing 
influence. What will be the result, and how long 
must we wait for it! 

When machinery was first introduced the 
results in competition with human labor and 
skill were feared; but the contrary agencies, 
already referred to (general awakening in 
Christendom and outside, the manufactuie of 
machinery, wars, armies, etc), have xmtil now 
more than counterbalanced the natural tend- 
ency; so much so that many people have con- 
cluded tiiat this matter acts contrary to reason, 
and that labor»saviug machinery is not at war 
with human labor. But not so; the world still 
operates under the law of supply and demand; 
and the operation of that law can be made plain 
to any reasonable mind. The demand for human 
labor and skill was only temporarily increased 
in preparing the yet more abundant supply of 
machinery to take labor's place, and the climax 
once reached, the reaction cannot be otherwise 
than sudden, and crashing to those upon whom 
the displaced weight falls. 

Suppose that civilization has increased the 
world's demands to five tim^s what they were 
fifty years ago (and surely that should be con- 
sidered a very liberal estimate), how is it with 
the supply T Ail will agree that invention and 
machinery have increased the supply to more 
than ten times what it was fifty years ago. A 
mentally blind man can see that as soon as 
enough machinery has been constructed to sup- 
ply the demands, thereafter there must be a 
race, a competition between man and machin- 
ery ; because there will not be enough work for 
all, even if no further additions were made of 
either men or machines. But more population 
is being added; tlie world's population is in- 
creasing rapidly, and machinery guided by in- 
creased skill is creating more and b<^ttcr ma- 
chinery daUv. ^Vho cannot see tliat, under the 
present selliLsh system, as soon as the supply ex- 
ceeds tlie demand (as soon as we liave over 
production) tlie race between men and machin- 
ery most be a short one, and one very disad- 
vantageous to men and women workers. The 
one true solution to this problem is the oncom- 
ing kingdom of our Lord and Savior, Jesus 
Christ — the promised Golden Age. 



f^ 



^:^i^^ .' 



• ^^^^^'■-i-f-T-i-' 



m 



The Qdlden Age for February 4, 1920 



30$ 



POLITICAL- DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN 



Canadian Farmer Hopeful 

THE Canadian reactionaries, or supporters 
of things-as-they-have-been, are desirous of 
I)03tpomng a general election untU 1923, but 
the people, and especially the farmers, having 
tasted the good things of government in 
Ontario's recent election, wish an election im- 
mediately. The result of the election just held, 
it will be remembered, gave the majority to 
the combined United Farmers and Laborites 
•with fifty-seven votes in the Ontario Legisla- 
ture, with the other parties' combined vote of 
fifty-two — the Liberals, the Conservatives and 
the Independents. 

The TJnited Farmers have safeguarded thein- 
selves against treachery or bribery by requir- 
ing each representative to give his local backers 
a signed letter of resignation, effective when- 
ever his backers desire to make it so. This 
amomits to a recall and safeguards the voters. 

The Farmers and Laborites, having succeeded 
so well in the most conservative province, 
Ontario, want to try out their strength through- 
out the entire Dominion, and are clamoring 
against the postponement of the general elec- 
tion. The United Farmers have perfected an 
organization all over Canada, and expect to 
have eighty votes in the House of Commons of 
the Canadian Parliament This, together with 
the Laborite votes, it is expected will control 
the Parliament for the next five years, unless 
before then Parliament should be dissolved and 
another election ordered. 

The immediate result of the Ontario election 
was to cause the politicians to try to placate 
the farmers and worldng- people, who had be- 
come weary of the continuance of war-time con- 
ditions ^iuring peace. Throughout the World 
War the functions of the regular govemmenthad 
been given largely to the Privy Council, rep- 
resenting the Imperial Government of Great 
Britain, for the sake of efficiency in war, and 
Orders in ^ouneil liad taken the place of laws 
passed by a*e Parliament. As announced in a 
recent issue the fears of the reactionary poli- 
ticians caused them at the close of 1919 to 
withdraw practically all the Orders in Council, 
indudiDg those regarded most oppressive by the 



people: relating to the free exercise of speech, 
press, assembly and religion. 

In the announcement of this good news to the 
people the "Winnipeg Tribune put side by side, 
as shown in the accompanying illustration, the 



mm m 
en mi 1 

PEACE iSIS 



URt^CQljiriKQAUCE'OF 



dtit MMHitarUi uMoolfeClav of tt^ 
city ^m0 jMkAMd * rwotuUoa i«»n—l ' 

war . CM#d9ni o< >v*«4li aad pr*«« 

^oeiuiMk dpwi aot ■« M ter ■» •« 
4Ddci!iM Cim tivit that mm «t ti^ 

.Am tti* waulociaa «poa frvadoB oC 
■PMcri ftod. pTMa bat •K^raoM* r4» 

I iMfniUon M tha QMd oC « fptrte «< 
jnutiimi oonflttottM ftod food «til 



URfiES BEtF^ 
HmSTD?" 



mldaicht aJI arrf«rt.iB-Aauneil P*'*- 

•d uid «n&3rced '*X Tltu* of t.h« 

Wftr ICcsmirM act Meem* tnictfae- 

tlv«k aoma lkiiiidr«ila of «rd«r« b«(ec 

BumbvrMi ta thaam iw h ocft a* loacvr' 

will t>* l«w. Commanttnr o» <hl«. a 

inaBbar o^ th* oatttaat «tkX«<il Tu««> 

«i«r t^ftC conCrtuT to ttw intctvrata- 

Uoaa of tbt rtaclBdlnv oM«n-4a- 

couBOtr wblcli bmd bam pubtUhtil, 

Uia oTtUr-tA'Ccmocii rviaunc lo cut- 
tporslillt Is amoos thoa* mc!nd«d 

/ram Jib. L add atdy Bias ordarm. rv- 

latific t« truta A»d naAadal naURn. ftlfffl* fi» 

•ad daftriBc.irtu tA* «a«my. MoalB -'^^^V* w*^ 

1» •«•«< tmtll ^hfr «ad of Um forth- UUItf 

comtat ■■*■■* BO ta vafUamaot. - . .*« » 

Tha oatr orders .4a •eoundl pi ■■aft 

nndar tJi« War Uctauraa act «-hIcb 

will maaln ara: dcTammtnt c«n- 
■ trol af poJp and p«««r. au^ar. coal 
'and wv^^ ardara v^TanMar «Uvar 
' caiaav* 'apd rold ««port; tradlnr 

wuh Ufa tnamr ftM Ifltamintst of ' 

■Jlrna. Ahd Ui« ordar ralittoc %a tttm ' 

waf> purchaaint conmritaioft- 



Nan ItcBU Ia tiM WIztnlpac THbnna Mnccminc t^ 
•f LibedT ui Cwudd 



announcement of the new liberty for CanadianB 
and the reactionary resolntion of the Methodist 
Ministerial Association of Toronto, questioning 
the advisability of restoring freedom of press 
and of speech. Just why the Canadian clergy 
should want "vrar-time restrictions maintained 
during peace was not stated, but it ia well known 
that during the war and since, some of the 
cler^ have acted in what was termed a high- 
handed, oppressive and intolerant manner in 
connection with some who did not agree with 
them in all things religious. Possibly the min- 
isters think that time heals all wounds, and if 
the matter can be kept qniet it will be forgotten 
in a year or two, and are playing for a safe 
portion in this respect* 



304 



The Qolden Age far February 4, 1920 



Unta recently the Canadian fanners have had 
only local organizations, but now they have 
consolidated their varions cooperative organiza- 
tions, and from coast to coast are anticipating 
the early obtaining, throngh the ballot, of tho 
legislative power of the Dominion and of the 
separate provinces. The resmlt of the election 
came about throngh dissatisfaction with the 
administration which had charge of the govern- 
ment in the war. As explained by Nekon Par- 
liament, the new speaker of the Ontario Par- 
liament, '^ar politics, and paiticnhurly war 
espenditnres which were injndieioos, if not 
actually wastefnl, had opened the eyes of every 
Canadian voter, and thongh the experiment of 
Unionist government had promised well, it had 
failed to fulfill its pledges". Hence the change 
in the complexion of Canadian politics, and tlio 
f<rar of the old-time politicians that a general 
election might result in an ouster for them. 

The United Farmers stand for direct taxation 
Ko arranged that at least a f.oir share of the 
burden will be carried by the wealthy. Tliey 
propose to establish a, system of vocational 
schools to keep the boys and girls on the farm ; 
like those of Denmark and of the Middle "West 
of the United States — "Country high schools 
whose aim will be not only the routine education 
Avhieh is now available, but to instill into the 
minds and hearts of country boys and ^Is a 
love of agriculture and of nature and of the 
country. The public schools and universities 
will continue in operation to fit those who so 
desire for the various professions; the new 
schools will fit for agriculture and occupations 
other than professional. Trade and commerce 
speak for the glory of the country; but the real 
backbone, the stamina of the population, is still 
found in a contented rural population." 

A movement in the United States correspond- 
ing to the United Farmers of Canada is known 
as the Nonpartisan League. It stands for mucli 
th^same things, and may manifest unexpected 
strengtii in the olfction next November. Such 
movements sigiufy that 'Jie old order is not as 
popular as it has boen for decades past and 
tliat .the common people are discarding it in 
favor of something that they think may serve 
tlieir "interests better and the exda5ive inter- 
ests of the wealthy loss. It is one of tlio indi- 
cntions of the world-"i\"ide change tliat the 
ScriptuTPS say is due to take place at about 
this time. The new alignment of legislators 



is hoped to produce better things for the peo- 
ple, to give the poor a better chance, and to 
restrict the pernicious meddling of the well-to- 
do in matters that concern everj'bbdy; To 
what extent the change will help those that 
most need help remains to be seen, but the 
Farmers and Laborites have sincere hopes that 
they can make things better. Very likely they" 
could if not interfered with, but the powers of 
predatory wealth remain great and active, and 
may attempt to interfere with the orderly prog 
ress of the proposed reforms. Meanwhile the 
new parties have the well wishes of those that 
care for the common people, and look for the 
early enlargement of the liberties of the poor 
and the betterment of their condition- 

From time immemorial the poor have suf- 
fered at the hands of the rich and powerfuL 
Their condition has been too often like tliat 
depicted by the Wise Man centuries ago, "As 
a roaring lion, and a ranging bear; so is awicked 
ruler over the poor people". The better hopes 
for the poor — the average citizen — and the 
prosperity of a really beneficent administra- 
tion are also suggested when, "with righteous- 
ness he [Christ] shall judge [rule over] the 
poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of 
the earth ". (Isaiah 11:4), "What shall one 
then [in the Golden Age] answer the messen- 
ger of the nation [those sent from all over 
the earth to find out the cause of prosperity 
wherever the arrangement of the Golden Age 
may spread] ? That the Lord hath founded Zion 
[the better government really for the people], 
and the poor of his people shall trust in it". 
—Isaiah 14:32. 

Austria Starving 

NO GREATER problem has been faced by 
the diplomats at Paris, in their regulation 
of the world, than the economic situation in 
Austria. Austria desperately needs money, but 
has no credit; and the bankers, being trustees 
of funds, cannot see their way clear to loan 
much of anything to men without credit, itost 
of llie property of the nation has been pledged 
to tlie Reparations Commission of the League, 
to pay in some measure tlie cost Austria put 
the rest of the world to for tlie war orgy started 
by Austrian royalty and nobility. There is 
practically notliing left to be pawned for funds 
10 help out the industries of Austria. Adjoin- 
ing nations that were bound by treaty to supply; 



TJie QoMen Age for February 4, 1920 



305 



Austria ■sviili coal and other supplies are not 
kooping their promiiJe; and Paris seems unble 
to I'ort-e any oi' thera to observe ''the sacredness 
of treaty obligation". Industry lias reached a 
low ebb, and with it has arrived the train of 
evils that come after people have not been able 
to get work for some time. Austrian factories 
are ready to work full time, but there is no 
money to buy materials to work on, and for- 
eigners are doubtful about sending raw mate- 
rials costing good money to people who perhaps 
may not be able to' pay properly for tliem. 

The internal problems of Austria have passed 
beyond the stage of economics and have be- 
come distressingly social. In order to raise a 
little money to provide for the necessities of the 
people, the nation is taking down its priceless 
treasures of art and selling tlieni to coldly bar- 
gaining foreigners. l''aaious Gobelin tapestries 
and immense silk rugs, paintings, rare manu- 
scripts, beautiful plate, delicate porct-lain and 
glass used at state functions, antique furniture, 
medals and even coin collections are coming tlio 
way of the American art connoisseur for what 
they will bring. 

For unless Austria can secure 15,000,000 
Dutch gulden to pay for flour and corn in Rot- 
terdam the people will have nothing to eat. 
Austria would like to pa\iTi her art treasures, 
so as to get them back ; but no banker wiH ad- 
vance the money on such security, and art must 
go on the auction block for purchasing provi- 
sions for the populace. 

Bread is hard to get, even at what in Amer- 
ican money would be $2 a loaf. Milk in nearby 
tcTTitory is $10 a quart. A pair of ladies' shoes 
costs $80. The ration of bread has been a little 
over a pound a day. The meat ration has been 
three otmees a week, in weeks when it could be 
had. Only infants can have a little fresh milk. 
, Condensed milk is practically exhauFtf>d. Eggs, 
beans, sugar, and potatoes do not exist in 
Vienna. Medicine cannot be obtained, except as 
it i&, made there. Stocks of food from the 
Entente nations have been eaten up. Feed for 
horses and rattle i.-^ gone, and ihe beast.s of 
burden cannot hoar the burdens of the eity. 

Factories never Jcnow from day 10 day 
whetheV thfiy can nin tomorrow: for Czeeho- 
Slovakift has not kept her promise to supply 
coal at the same rate as before the war. Street 
cars can run only at certain hours each day. Xo 
one knows when the steam railroads may stop. 



Restaurants can have heat only at certain times. 
Hotels are not heated, and guests sit shivering 
in the warmest -winter clothing. Only a room 
or two in a house can have heat; for the coal 
ration is a little over a hod of coal a week per 
family — not enough for the kitchen fire. The 
great forest.? about Vienna are being cut for 
fuel. Wood is plenty; but it takes large sums 
of Austrian crowns to buy wood, and the cro^^-n, 
usuallv' worth more than the twenty-cent franc, 
is now worth arotmd half a cent, and men rich 
in money are poor indeed. There i.<? light, t\ 
little carbide lamp; the supply of kerosene and 
candles is exhausted. 

A million people are feeding at the public 
kitchens. Burgomaster Reuman of Vienna says : 

"U'ft liavo bepu rendered absolute beggars, a city of 
nwndicatits. Then^ is -nothing bat despair facing lis. 
Our oitixPTi.^ nre herded like cattle; tUfo of the families 
in the lity now live in one or two rooms. There U 
?i.'aTrt>lr a chance that more than a small percentage of 
the people wJl lie able to cook their meals diiring the 
winter. Ho>pitalf! must be closed, so we are prepared 
for a terrible death rate. Tlie people seek the coffee 
lioiisp.?, wheTe they herd all d.ij to avaU themselves of 
the warmth generated by their boilies. Swarms of beg- 
gars of all ages and both sexes swarm the streets, many 
of them shoeless, and clad in ra.^s." 

Starving men creep into hotel dining-rooms 
and restaurants to grasp scraps of food. Officers 
and their -wives and children are begging on 
the streets. The sights at the hospitals are hor- 
rible. Most of the children below three years 
of age are dying or liaYe gone. Hardly any 
babies live long after birth, and mothers die 
in childbirth. People die in the streets from 
hunger and cold. 

At the same time it is reported tliat those 
who have made vast sums through the war are 
spending their funds like water. These newly 
]ich. crowd the dance halls in a "sickly whirl of 
enjo}-nient bordering on self-destruction"', which 
produces a frightful effect on the sober-minded 
people of the city. Parts of Vienna are re- 
liorted to be more superficially gay than ever. 
Limousine.-; take the rich to the theaters, but 
stop a block iir two away, to avoid the display of 
wealth that a congestion of cars at the door 
inake=. The city is dying, but 'ching to music". 

And tlie politicians and diplomats are busy 
]iloitiiig. One hoars of intri.gues for a change 
in the govermneiit of this miserable people. Ex- 
pected revolution is quenched in blood or in 
prison. The distress makes talk of the dissolu- 



3o6 



The Qoldcn Age far Fdmiary 4, 1920 



tion of the Republic into its component prov- 
inces, which yiiglit do as they pleased — join 
Germany, or go it aione, or with some other 
people. The monarchists plan to return A\ith a 
Irini: — ana tJien the bankers, oerhaps, ■would ad- 
vance money, .^nd in Paris was for a time the 
people's hope — "Tlie Commission will mend 
matters"', but now hope in the Conference is 
gone; no one lias the wisdom to know how to 
help stricken Austria. 

No one can read the story of Austria vatliout 
tears of pity. I'ive years ago Austria, witli 
nimhle of cannon and roll of drum, started the 
"World War. The Ilapsburgs perhaps were in- 
sane, perhaps desperate. The llapsbnrgs are 
gone. The unfortunate populace is finding tliat 
behind the scenes was God; for '"God is not 
mocked [deceived] : for what.soever a man [or a 
nation] sovreth, that .shall he also reap"' (Gala- 
tians 6:7); and Catliolic Austria is "of the flesh 
reaping corruption [famine, death]"'. (Galatians 
G: S) But di^-ine love and mercy are also watch- 
ing; and soon in the Golden Age, even in Ait.s- 
tria, after suffering has made hearts soft, the 
God of Love will "wipe away all tears from their 
eyes; and there shall be neither .sorrow, nor 
erj'ing; for the former things are [then] passed 
away"'. — Kevolation 21:4. 

Democracy in Australia 

THERE is something in the atmosphere of 
Australia that makes the natives less tol- 
erant of a so-called "upper crust" than in many 
other places in the world. Possibly this is be- 
cause the colony in the first place was devel- 
oped from a penal colony, and it is a well- 
known fact that iu prison everybody is on a 
common level. Prisoners accept no lordly 
strutting or bossing from other prisoners. A 
man is a man and tliat is the end of it. 

During and after the Civil War in the United 
States the Australians poked a good deal or 
fun at-s^\ineriea, saying, \vith more or less 
truth, that almost every American was either 
a Captain, a !Major, a Colonel or a General, but 
now it seems that in Australia they are having 
a repetitian of what prevailed in the United 
States, and thpy have not only a great many 
army titles^but a very largo number of hered- 
itary and other knights. 

The Australians do not object so much to the 
army titles nor is tliere reason why they should, 
in view of the great number of Australians that 



fought in the World War, and the eotirage and 
faithfulness with which they carried their bur- 
dens, hut they do not take so kindly to the 
multiplication of knights, and prefer that they 
should not bo saddled with a nobilitj'- that, in 
some instances at least, came to the awarded 
honors by the path of favoritism. If there is 
anything that Avill make a manly man weary 
it is to have somebody awarded honors which 
he did not fairly earn, and thereafter assume 
toward his fellows an air of distinction and 
importance which has no merit to back it up. 

This matter of awarding honors is a ticklish 
business. There has jnst been a sample of it 
in the United States. Admiral Sims proposed 
nineteen men for Distinguished Service Medals, 
to receive a part of the 120 such medals that 
were to be allotted to the Navy. The Board of 
Av>-ards and Secretary of the Navy Daniels 
reduced the Sims list to six, but made the Ad- 
miral liimself one of the number. This arrange- 
ment vi-as not satisfactory to the Admiral, ■who 
intimated that Secretary Daniels had been par- 
tial in the bestowal of the na^vy honors and 
refused to accept the medal which had been 
awarded to himself. Some of the naval ofScers 
overdid themselves in claiming medals for their 
men. Admiral Sims claims that one such com- 
mander recommended every man on his ship for 

the Distinguished Service Medal. 

t 

Army Officers Quit Jobs 

ARMY officers are like other human beings. 
They liave wives and kiddies, and the 
^^"ives and laddies have to live; so it comes 
about that ■srith the rising cost of li'ving, or tho 
diminishing value of the dollar, whichever way 
one chooses to state it, the officers are having 
a hard time of it, along ■with everybody else. 

They probably thinli just as much of Unde 
Sam as they ever did, but of the combatant 
army that were in the Government service at 
the time the annistice was signed two thousand 
resigned -within the ensiling year, or about 
25<?^, to enter more profitable lines of work. 

The General Staff announces that the high 
cost of lining, and the consequent reduction in 
living standards, "has restilted (in) a profound 
stale of discontent and low morale in the serv- 
ice". Some of these men received some glory 
during the war; btit a little of that form of 
compensation, in lieu of needed cash, goes 
a long way. 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



307 



AGRICULTURE AND HUSBANDRY 



Farming Corporationa Next 

'pHAT is just where we are headed for, and 
A going toward it as fast as we can. There 
are 22,000,000 farmers in the United States ; and 
it might be thought a good thing, a wise thing, 
a desirable thing, for them to remain independ- 
ent owners and managers of their ov-ti proper- 
ties. But they are losing out in the race and 
gradually becoming a tenant class, moved about 
from place to place, uncertain from one year 
to the next Avhere their living will be made. 

A generation ago there were no farming cor- 
porations, no milk corporations, no butter cor- 
porations, no fruit corporations, or almost none, 
and no meat corporations of size. Now, gradu- 
ally, all the tilings that are raised upon farms 
are finding their way to market through packing 
and sliipping corporations of one kind or an- 
other, and the next inevitable step in the devel- 
opment of these corporations is the purchase 
and management of the farms from which their 
supplies are drawn. 

Already the most desirable lands for -the 
raising of certain kinds of fruits and vegetables 
have passed into the hands of farming corpora- 
tions, and the independent farmer is irresistibly 
forced back into the less productive lands. There 
is a reason for this. Farming is a business the 
same as any other business. It requires capital 
the same as any other business. It requires 
management, good management, if it is to sur- 
vive in the face of the competition with which 
it is surrounded. And it is not always the case 
that the farmers have either the capital or the 
ability and experience to meet the constantly 
changing conditions. In these days a fanner 
who tries to get along by doing as was done a 
gerie^tion ago, and tlien considered good prac- 
tise, could not retain possession of his t':i.rui 
more tlian a very few years. 

The farmer must keep abreast of tho mar- 
vellous changes taking place in farm rnanay-e- 
ment orMie Ivill go ujider. and he must be on 
the alert-io join and actively to participate in 
cooperative organizations or he will go ur.der. 
He may go under anj-way, as it is hard for evL>n 
an intelligent and aggressive cooperative or.sran- 
•ization to fight for business with an old estab- 



lished, highly organized, multi-milliomiire bus- 
iness corporation that already has virtual con- 
trol of transportation, banking and marketing 
facilities, but it is better to go under intelligent 
and organized than it is to go under unintellig- 
ent and unorganized, and there is a better chanco 
of coming out on top when things change for 
tlie better, as they snrely will do. 

It should be remembered that the theory of 
our Govermnent is that it is a government of the 
people, by the people, for the people; and so 
long as 22,000,000 farmers choose to be free men 
they can be so, if they wish to have it so. They 
can cooperate and vote together. 

We cannot conceive that the farmers of the 
country would look forward with any joy to 
substituting for our present form of government 
a government as Life puts it, instead of the peo- 
ple, in place of the people, in lieu of the people, 
inferior to the people, in preference to the peo- 
ple, in opposition to the people, in pursTiit of the 
people, at the people, against the people, in 
front of the people, on top of the people, before 
the people, behind ihe people, around the people, 
through the people, over the people, under the 
people, up the people, down> the people, into the 
people, A\Tecldng tlie people ; and if we ever get 
the rule of the almighty dollar, that i^ what we 
shall have. 

Some people tliink we have that kind of rule 
now. But let us not be pessimistic. It might 
be a lot worse. George Bernard Shaw said a 
year or so ago that all the real Christians and 
liberty-lovers in the United States were in jail; 
but if he was right then he is wrong now, and 
it is hoped the voters of the country will prove 
it to him by the ballot. 

The giants of Noah's day represented the 
money powers of our own day. It was the 
improper blending of spiritual and natural mat- 
ters that brought to pass the giants of olden 
tinio?, i.hiou£;h whom came the violence in the 
earth preceding tlie catr.clysm of the Deluge. 
Is it remarkable that we find a correspondency 
in our own time? 

Have we not giants today, of renown, of al- 
most illimitable power among ment Are not 
the trusts of today, the financial princes o£ 



3o8 



The QoMen Age for FetnuaTy 4, 1920 



tho prirth, fitinncially rlrong heynnd any droam 
of the past? Is it not through tlio opei-ation of 
these that tho present groat time of trouble and 
violence is upon tJic world? Purely the picture 
is tliis precisely. 

In what senso wero thoso giant corporations 
and trusts and mass-ive foriunps derc-lopcd? 
Are they 01 hoathe^n origin? Oli, no! Tho 
licathen never drearaed of sucli thine:?:, never 
imagined the mijcht and power over men wliidi 
is in the grasp of these institutions. But if 
not of natural or heathen origin whence canio 
these giants'? Wo answer tliat they are tlie 
offspring of a misdirected spiritual energy. It 
is Christian enlightenment, improperly roccivod 
and improperly exercised in the world, that has 
begotten the spirit of pelfishness Avhlcli has 
reached its development and maturity in tliL'.-e 
giants. The whole earth woidd shortly he in 
their power, in their grasp, unless the Lord in 
his providence interposed, as he is about to do 
by the e.'?tablislmient of his long-promised and 
long-desired rule of tlie Golden Age. 

Attracting Useful Birds 

IN PLANNING the arrangements of a farm it 
is well to remember the birds. There still 
esists the age-long vrar between man and in- 
sects, and on man's side may be enlisted tlie 
useful birds, who will cOme if they are invited. 

Birds have need.s, are attracted to locations 
T^'here their needs arc niet, and avoid those which 
are not suitable for their purposes. Among the 
Deeds of the birds are: water for drinking and 
bathing, nesting boxes, protection from enemies, 
and winter feeding. 

The more birds the better, provided the ar- 
rangements are such that the feathered friends 
have counter-attractions to keep them away 
from eating the crops. If plenty of other food 
is at hand, tlie insect-eaiing birds will let the 
crops more or le.-<H alone. Certain tre<>^ or 
bu.^ltes and other plants may br- s^o\^^^ In liru-kcc 
formation to supply food tor birds and make 
attractive iT-trr-ats for thorn. 

Some of the bird-lond plants and tlio number 
of kinds of birds that eat Lli-ui aio : IClJerui-rry, 
G7; ra.'^pbei'ries and blackberries. GO: mulbrr- 
rie.s, 43^ dogwood fr-Liit. 47: nonpoL^onous su- 
macs, 44: wild cborrii'f;, :,;9 ; bluoborrio^, '^~ ; wild 
grapes, 1:9: poki bfrrii.s, L*G: \'irginia creeper 
berries, 2-3: bayborrics. LI5; juniper berries, I'.j; 
Jane berries, 20 ; holly berries, 19 ; strawberries, 



1<J; viburnums, W; hackberries, la; huckleber- 
ries, 15; haws, 12: .spi(>ebush berries, 11; rose 
hips, 11; .yarsapanlla, 10; snur gum, 10; g'oose- 
bi.Tries, 10; curranl.s, 10, and snowberries, 10. 

It is important to have bird-food for late win- 
tor and early spring, when such food is scarcest. 
The plants tliat retain their berries longest are: 
Juniper, bayberry, haekbcrry, barberry, mag- 
nolia, mountain a-sh; rose, Christmas berry, 
chinaberry, pepper tree, sumac, holly, black 
alder, frost grapes, manzanita, snowberry, ever- 
green blueberry, farkleberry, evergreen cherry. 

Certain plants keep bearing food for the 
birds during the famine of early spring, snch. 
as the early ripening mulberries, redberried 
elder, sen'ice-berries, wild strawberries, rasp- 
berries and dewberries — ^which afford protec- 
tion to cultivated varieties — and European bird 
cherries, stock clierries, ripening simultaneously 
with the domestic cherries. 

Midsummer food for birds is abundant, but 
if the birds are to be kept from the cultivated 
fruits and berries, there should be a supply of 
the wild varieties that ripen during the sum- 
mer. A careful selection of wild vegetation can 
be made to feed the birds the year round, and 
be enough to keep them from the plants raised 
for himian food. 

Where there are many birds there are few 
insects, but at the same time the enemies of the 
birds will come, and the birds should be pro- 
tected from them. The most practical protec- 
tion is a funnel-shaped guard or loose spiral of 
barbed wire about the trunks of trees. Assured 
safety, and a plentiful supply of food and water 
work wonders in attracting insect-consuming 
birds to the farm. 

It would seem that people that love and care 
for the birds and other useful forms of life 
possess more of the spirit of the Golden Age 
than tliose that love to hurt, hunt and destroy 
them: and such will bo ready to prosper more 
when the bettor times arrive. 

xVo Use to Hoard 

In the Golden Asjo a full remedy for all 
currency matters will be found, a remedy of 
(lie Lord's provision. It is useless meantime 
lor any to think that they can hide from the 
ditiicultie.~! oi the present situation by hoarding 
either gold or silver. The difficulty is WOlld- 
wide and upon ail classes. 



The Qolden Age for Februarj 4, 1920 



309 




lite Month Calendar 

IT IS proposed that we employ a calendar in 
■which every niontli ^vill have twenty-eight 
clays, and there will be thirteen months in ihe 
year, makin!? a total of 364 days, nnd that the 
extra day be celebrated as New Year's Day, 
without counting it as a re^ilar day in any 
week. Tlie people back of the idea rail iliem- 
selves the American Equal Month Calendar As- 
sociation of Minneapolis. Every fonrth year, 
except the coiiturj' year of three centuries out 
of four, would have another extra day. corre- 
sponding to what is now termed Leap Year Day. 
At present the extra day comes on l-\'brnary 20, 
but the new extra day might bo pui at the 
end of June and before July hr^gan. The months 
would go by their present names, Ijut; the third 
would be called Liberty Month, and would come 
between February and March. 

That the idea has merit is pI'.0T.m by the fact 
that it Ls already used for Ints-ine.ss purposes by 
a number 01 progressive corporations, which 
lind it easier to make conipari?ons of their rec- 
ords, if the periods compared are all equal. 
I'^nder the ordinary calendar it is difficult to 
make a just comparison of the rocord.-- of ;x 
month of twenty -eight day.s and those of thirty- 
one days, but where the "w'rking poriod.s'", 
as the twenty-ei.!::;lu-day montlis may Ijp termed, 
are equal, all monthly records arc instantly 
comparable, without making allowances for dif- 
ferences in the nnmber of days per month. 

Such an arran^omeiu v.ouhl bo objpctod to 
by many per.^ons v/lio Ix-liove that tl'.f Ciblical 
arrargenifnt of consci-uii v<-"' iVi-M-!.:y of •■■(•vrn day;:. 
each ought not to be di^uirlx-i.l. 'J'bc .\iv,< liad 
a S50mc\vhat Fiimilar anang-'-mcnt, with montlis 
ustuUly thirty da>s !on?. v. Ihl-Ii vouhl hrliur I'l'' 
m.onltti=! live days out of plnt-f every y.Tir. n 
differc'Rce e(\nipfn;\T!od iVji' by ilif oc:-a?ioiial 
insertion of an oxtra mi)riili. 

The calendar aiTanirrmMU of ilie Ooldf^n Afro 
is prett\^ (']iig,rly indicatpfl to be somewhat lik^' 
tliat of the an'cicnt Jewish .•nh.'ndar; i'tx- the i-<-\- 
ebration^'of loinlr.rly rn-iirrincc '•-abbaiiis" 
ever>' sev«^nih day is pointed to as one of ihc 
provijsions of that era. By the Jewish plan the 
month corresponds closely with the lunar montli, 



so that a glance at the moon tells approximately 
the day of the month. 

Whv Doea Mercury Wobble? 

THE smallest planet and the nearest to tho 
sun is Mercury. Astronomers are wonder- 
ing why the planet as it circles around the sun 
has its peculiar irregular wobble. It should, 
Ihooreticallj-, swing arotmd in a regular curve, 
but at certain points or times it deviates per- 
ceptibly from the track that men of science fig- 
ure as normal. It was once thonght that the 
variation was owing to the passing by of 
nnot'Jicr planet nearer the sun, hut this theory 
had to be given up, for reasons that astrono- 
mers wotild understand. Then it was theorized 
that tiio attractive power, or gravitation, of the 
sun might not follow exactly the law laid down 
in the physics textbooks. And that this may 
be the case is indicated by the fact that a similar, 
but very slight, variation occurs with the planet 
Mar.'!. A year ago it would have been consid- 
ered presumptuous to question the universal ap- 
plication of the law of gravitation, but now Dr. 
ii^instein has shown that light does not travel 
in an absolutely straight line, but is apparently 
an emanation from the sun, or from a star, 
which, like the rays from radittm, or the X-rays, 
may lie attracted or repulsed and bent from a 
straight line when pas.sing a huge body lilie th<» 
stm, it seoms necessary to reexamine atll the old 
law.s of nature. 

It is like wheels within wheels. Human wis- 
dom has done something in observing the rid- 
illff; of the iVire(^s of the universe, but there are 
evil lent I y oilier forces whose very exi.stence has 
nor been suspected, but which exorcise their 
cff.'ft. Wo are littlo childreii who liave found 
n fr-w wondortiil frnsrmenls of a vast and beau- 
(ii'ul wlinle. T!ie Oeator alone understands, 
nul lie ask.^ us, "Where is the Avay where light 
duflli'th? and as for darkness, where is the 
placw ilu-renf?' (.lob ?.S:M)) And he tells us 
tliat man cannot grasp his wonderful wisdom, 
saying, ".Vs ihe heavrns .ire higher than the 
caitli, so are my ways higher than your ways, 
and rav tlioughts than vour thoughts". — ^Isaiah 
J.-i:9;'job9:2-12. 



3IO 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



A Mere Wheel , bu aarrv p. weaver 

CONTRARY to general opinion, the flange of 
a wheel, the usual function of which is to 
hold tlio wheel from running off the rail, seldom 
functions in that capacity, except in casc3 of 
severe jolting, rounding abrupt curves, etc. The 
flange of a wheel Gcidom touches a rail. Y*Tiat 
keeps the iracic on the rails, then? may bo asked. 
The principle may be illustrated in this v/ay: A 
cone roiled on a tabic does not roll in a straight 
line,^but on the contrary, in a circle. This is 
because, simply enough, one end of the cone 
is larger than the other, and thus, though turn- 
ing synchronously with tlie small end, because 
of its greater size makes more progress. 

Followdng this principle, two cones with 
larger ends attached may be rolled on tv,-o par- 
allel Slicks or rails, indefmiteiy, without rolling 
off; because, should the pair roll toward one 
side, the size of the cone increases on that rail, 
and diminishes correspondingly on the other, 
resulting in increased progress on the side of 
the greater size and a running ahead, causing 
a shifting of the cone to the advantage of the 
otlier, only to be repeated from that side in a 
similar maimer, but. never rolling entirely off 
the rails. 

The crown of tlie wheel, on the side of the 
flange, which runs on the rail on the inside, is 
of larger diameter than is tlie outer side of the 
wheel; and it is this cro\\-ning feature in the 
construction of the wheel which, acting as an 
incomplete doable cone, keeps the truck on the 
rails in the described manner. In this manner 
a train may run for miles on a straight track 
without the flange of a wheel coming in contact 
with the rail. 

Radio and Light Phones 

AS THE gates of the Golden Age are about 
to swing open to humanity, many and fast 
come wonderful discoveries and inventions that 
indictfte how little we laiow and how much tliore 
^v■ill be to explore and learn. Thus far we h.-vve 
had only tlie telephone that talks over a wire, 
with a hint of a phone talking througli the uni- 
versal etjier. But how to bring tlie new v.-on- 
ders down td" the common people has not ap- 
peared ti^ to tills day. 

The radio or wireltss phone has just been 
brought mea.iuralily nearer tlie home. It lias 
not been feasible to obtain tlie high tension cur- 
rent required for ^^-ireless, except from high- 



pov.ered direct -current generating plants. Now 
the disagreeable Imm of the ordinary alternat- 
ing current, the current that enters the hguso 
over tJie electric light Avire, has been overcome; 
aiiShit may soon be possible to plug in a wire- 
less phone into an ordinary lamp socket, and 
talk with any one miles olf tliat has a wreless 
phone of like "tune". 

A young British inventor has disclosed an 
invention used during the World "War, v.'hereby 
it was feasible to talk over a sunbeam, or a beam 
of light from a small searchliglit. It is the 
transmission of speech by light, and is accom- 
pli^^liod by taking advantage of the variations 
of light from a mirror attached to the vibrating 
diaphragm of a phonograph transmitter. The 
■vibrating light beam is received on selenitun, a 
material extremely sensitive to changes in light; 
and from that by a process understood by sci- 
eiitists there comes a vibrating current of elec- 
tricity affecting a telephone receiver in the 
usual manner. 

Tlie inventor calls it the "sonphone". It has 
been used for three years in the British army 
for distances up to a couple of miles, and proved 
itself valuable bcause of the ability to point a 
ray of light in any desired direction, thus keep- 
ing the message as exclusive as though over a 
%nre, unlike the wide-flung message of the wire- 
less, which goes out in every direction- 
Men have touched only the elements of knowl- 
edge that will become common in the (JoldenAge. 
Under the better auspices of that time men will 
begin really to understand; but in the presence 
of the mysteries of the universe, they will al- 
ways feci as one did long ago: "If man will 
contend with God, he cannot answer him one of 
a thousand, which doeth great things past find- 
ing out; vea, and wonders without number". — 
Job 9: 3,10. 

No More Seasickness ? 

I a THE dreaded malady of the sea van- 
quished? It is, if we are to believe Major A- 
E. L!?n;on. array surgeon. He says he has re- 
lieved violent attacks liy packing Ute ears with 
st'Milizod ,:;nuzc, for the trouble i.^ caused by the 
organ of equilibrium within the ear: "The 
counter pres.sure iii the ear coimteracts the sen- 
sation of intermittent air pressure, and relief 
is had at once; a i)erson should use a piece of 
gauze about tv\-o inches square and pack it 
firmly in the oar passage, but not against the 
drum." This is surely worth trj-ing. 



The QoUen Age for February 4, 1920 



311 




Care of the Body r.n Mrs. An'ircw ./. noiuir, 

THOSE ■who nnderstand how to care for thoir 
bodies, and apply this Imowledge in their 
daily living, are practically immune to tlie vari- 
ous diseases and wealcnesses v.-ith which the 
average person is afflicted. Those •vvho have the 
best Icnowledge of the human body and its 
needs have arrived at the conclusion that even 
fallen man should normally live as long as ani- 
mals in proportion to the time each takes to 
reach maturity. Animals live five times t'ne 
length of time it takes them to come to maturity, 
so that if a man readies maturity at the aE:e 01' 
thirty, he should live to be a hundred and J'lfty 
years of age. But today the average length of 
life is about thirty-five years, and at that rate 
of deterioration the race ■would soon become so 
weak as to be no longer able to propagate itself. 

There are many people living today who are 
in themselves evidence of what a change from 
wrong to right living has done for people who 
are intelligent enough to see the difference when 
it is presented to them. Annette Ivellerman in 
her book, "The Body Beautiful ", says of her 
condition when slie was a child: 

"1 ^as v.'pa'c. pur.y ,iTid deformed. I rraa 'boxr-lcggril 
to an pxtroiiie <kgrpi^, M-ith l:nces so v;eal: t!iat I t-oulJ 
neither stiind nor wclk v.'ithout iron lirarvs. whicii I »-or:> 
continually. For iiearly two years .ilio I had to str;:frp;le 
against coiisumptir.". My success in acquiring- perl'eet 
health and faultless dcvclc-pnicTit of evorv p.-irt of my 
body was cortaiuly r.ot due lo any natural advantages ; 
oil the contrcj'", my superior endurance, my perfect 
condition and dovelopmejit, Imve bc'-'u liroiUTnt aSoiit 
polely tliTnusK le.v kv.owled^re of t'ne law? and rP'iviJre- 
nient' of l>e;iU!i, ai;d to r,iy .-tvi-iios and undorsii;:.dli;j; 
of all suljjeci.-: r,-.-oci.Ttod wii'i. Ijody cidture r.::d ihu 
buiUling oL iieclth r.nd vitality.'' 

In Sanford Cennc-tt's ''Old Age, Its Cause and 
Prcvcittion", lie ?a3".s : 

'•'At fiftr I v.-as p!iy>icr;l!v an old man. Many years 
of too active IiViiiii's;: C;i;t'; had resulted in .". crer.eral 
brp.ak-down. I v.'a> then wrinkled. p:irtial!v bald. e!ie<.'hs 
.s«rd:^n. faca dr.w.-n and l>.a;,'!;ard, nniscles atrophied ; and 
thirty ycarsr of \hroidc dy.^pcp-ia finally rcsii!t.^i in 
catiirrii of th(> .'■t,:!".ia( li, wiili acid rheumatism periodi- 
fdlly adding i;:- a.ioi'.ic-:. 1 .was an old r:mn aiul l.xjked 
it. II; \v,i3 ti'.e de.=peration of my ca.« which induced 
me to take up a system of health buiidin^. It ^f« <^^ 



cnstom. if any of ua ttm sick, promptly to 'take !om»* 
thing foT it'. In many sicknesses 1 have had an inti- 
r.-iate acquaintance with most alleged medicinal reme- 
dies, anjthing aa anxious relative could think of. It ia 
a depveising list to lock back upon, and I think 1 hava 
sampled them all. I grew up in the firm belief that in 
medicine lay the only curative process, and I regarded 
(Irutistoro.'? a.s lifc-saviujf stations. I remtined in that 
condition until I was fifty years of age, and brokea- 
down ill health and strength. This enumeration of my 
physical \\"oes at that age is a truthful statement of tha 
condition!! then existing. And noir in my seventy-second 
year (\rritten in 1912) I present the condition of an 
Ethlete in tr.airiiig and the appearance of a man Uttia 
more than half my year?. tTnacceptable as it may 
be to the vast number of the medical profession, and 
also the industrias connected with it, the facts are that 
I succeeded only after I had discontinued all medicines; 
Health cannot lie found in drugstore preparations." 

Dr. Ely G. Jones, in the Medical Summariff 
August, 1919, .<?ays: 

•'It is a fact that dnigless healers are gro'wiBg rapidly 
in this country. "We find them located on about every 
rtrrot. Wc, as physicians, have got to do more for tha 
sick than over loefore; or else 'vre shall sec drugless heal- 
er* grow and fatten on our failures. They are here ta 
stay and must be reckoned ivith in all our futtire cal- 
culations. As physicians vrc. have failed in our duty to 
the sick : we have failed to find a definite treatment for 
tlie diseases common to our country. As a rcsolt of 
this sad state nf things, there are thirty-five million peo- 
ple in the United States that depend upon some fonn 
of dniglesi healing uhcn they are sick. In 1909 I 
warned the jjrofession of what was coming. In the ten 
yenti ^jir.ce then the immher of people who employ drug* 
k'is healers v.'hon sick ha.s doubled. At that rate whei*e 
v.ill the medical profession be in ten years from now? 

"It i.< ?3id that the average mortality from disease ia 
thi? co'intry would not bo over seven p<;r cent, without 
r.ny medical treatment. The mortality of the treat- 
TncTit r.naep .^ome pliysiclans is twelve per cent. From 
this it will be seen that the public would be better off 
v.-iihoiit tliem. If wc physicians are to be of any real 
benef.t to tb.s piiUie, tlie mortality under our treatment 
rausr be lowered seven per cent." 

Fir V.'illiam Osier, a rcco,gnized authority on 
ilr-.;2;s, addressed a body of two thousand stu- 
d'jnts at O.xford University -^-ith these words: 

"Genllemfn, there i.s no such thing as medicine. Na- 
ture does tlie healing and tlie most we can do is to assist 
her in removing the cause of the disease, not by drugs, 
but by observing the laws of health. Those who Imov 



3X2 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



the most about drug? use thorn the least, and those v.Iio 
know the lea>t about them uso them tho most.'' 
Thirteen year? ago my physical condition was 
such that an if. D. said I would never gc-t up 
from my bod again, I am now in a condition 
■where I never have an ache nor a pain and never 
Icnow a sick day from one year's end to the 
next. Health cannot be found in drugstore prep- 
arations, nor can life be materially prolonged 
by any medical proparatioji. The .solution oL' 
the problem lies only in Nature's principal 
Tiielhods of inducing health — nourishing food, 
pure water, pure air, external and internal 
cleanliness, sunlight and other rational laws of 
hygiene oi" -which I hope to have more to say 
in succeeding contributions. By folloAviiig these 
laws health and long life are a natural rosidt; 
without these Ihey are not obtainable. Symp- 
toms ^ro nature's red flag of warning. Drug^? 
deaden tlie warning signals, but do not remove 
the causes. AVrong H\ing promotes disease and 
right living cures it. 

Cookie Recipes 

Canadian Ginger Snaps 
One cup molasses, one-half cup shortening, 
three and one-fourth cups flour, one-half tea- 
spoon soda, one teaspoon ginger, one and one- 
half teaspoons salt. Heat molasses to boiling 
point and pour over shortening; add dry ingredi- 
ents mixed and sifted; chill thoroughly; toss 
one-foTirth mixture on a floured board and roll 
as thin as possible; shape with small round 
cutter, first dipped in flour. During rolling, the 
bowl containing mixture should be kept in a 
cool place, or it ■^\'ill be necessary to add more 
flour to dough, which makes cookies hard rather 
than crisp. Bake ten minutes at 430 degrees. 

Oafmeal Cookies 
Ono-fourtli cup bmtor, one-fourth cup lard. 
one-k;ilf teaspoon soda in one-half cup sweet 
milk, two cups flour, lour cups rolled oats, one 
and one-fourth cups sugar, one-half teaspoon 
salt. Iloll out and cut the same as any cookies. 
Bake a. good brown. 

^ )\Iassachuselts Coolies 
Two cups sugar, pne cup crisco, one scant 
cup sweet milk, five cups flour, salt, flavoring, 
two eggs, two good teaspoons baking powder. 
Mis in order named. 



Rhode Island Coohies 
One egg, two cups sugar.one cup lard,one-half 
teaspoon salt, one cup milk, one teaspoon cream 
oi tartar, one teaspoon soda. Flavor to toste. 

Connecticut Cookies 
Two cups sugar, one cup butter, three-fourihs 
cup sweet milk, two eggs, five cups flour, two 
teaspoons baking powder. Roll thin and bake 
quickly. 

Chocolate Cookies 
One and one-half cups brown sugar, one-halt 
cup shortening, one egg, one-half cup of milk, 
generous mea.suro, two squares chocolate, one 
teaspoon cinnamon, one teaspoon vanilla, two 
cups flour, one teaspoon soda in tho flour. 

Ilciwit Coolcies 
Two cups sugar, four eggs, one cup raisins, 
one cup currants, ten tablespoons milk, one-half 
toa.spoon soda, one tablespoon cinnamon, one 
teaspoon nutmeg, one teaspoon doves, two- 
third.'? cup cottolene. 

Stuffed Coohies 
One cup sugar, one-half cup butter, one-half 
cup milk, one egg, three and one-half cups flour, 
three teaspoons baking powder and vanilla fla- 
voring. For tlie filling: one cup sugar, one and 
one-half cups raisins, one and one-fourth cups 
boiling water, one and one-half tablespoons 
flour. Put the filling ia before the cookies are 
baked. 

Gintjer Coohies — Niimber One 
One cup molasses, one cup sugar, one and 
one-half teaspoons ginger, one cup lard or other 
shortening, three tablespoons hot water with 
one teaspoon soda dissolved in it, one teaspoon 
salt, and flour enough to roll and cut. Bake in 
a quick oven. If you want them crisp add a 
little vinegar to the ingredients. 

Ginger Cookies — Number Two 
Beat together one cup of sugar, one cup of 
molass(?s, and one cup of butter and lard mixed. 
Then add one egg, beaten light; one teaspoon of 
vinegar, one teaspoon of soda dissolved in a 
little hot water, and one teaspoon of ginger. Mix 
these ingredients thorouglily together, and add 
enough sifted flour to make as soft a dough as 
can be handled; roll out, etit into cakes, and 
bake in brick oven. 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 




God's Wrath, When, Why and How Long? 

D^VI^■E Wkath Not Like Huiia^t Wraxu — Soox to b?: Disixaited by DmxE Fatob 



"0/^ that ikon wouidest hide mc in the 
UJiiii ihy wralk be 

JOB Avas a propliot ; and much that he says con- 
cerning human experience and human hopes 
for the iiiture can properly be considered as Ihu 
light of prophecy. The picture wliich is hero 
suggested to tlic mind is that of a summer thun- 
der shower: First the .slc>- is clear and all is 
bright and radiant vith happiness; then the 
dark cloud conies, bringing ^vith it storm, 
obscurity, and even disaster. Ai'ter the stonu 
is past the sky is again clear, and the cheering 
light of tlie sun once more comforts humanity. 
So it has been ^v•ith the human race. At one 
time naught but happiness "was to be found on 
earth. Once man's fellowship -i\-ith his Maker 
was unbroken; and blessing and radiance of 
heart and countenance were in Adam and his 
perfect consort, Eve. Then, through disobedi- 
ence, the dark cloud of divine -wrath entered the 
sky of human experience and largely excluded 
the light of God's favor. Ruin and disaster 
have come in tho wake of this storm and havj 
streAvn the earth with mental, moral, and physi- 
cal wreckage. The language of the Prophet 
Job clearly implies that the condition of discom- 
fort, disquietude, and misery, wliieh abound dur- 
ing God's wrath, A\dll finally be dispelled. God's 
wrath shall be no more. With prophetic virion 
Job looked down to the time when the dark 
night of sin and death shall have passed. 

Many misconceptions have been entertained 
as to the nature of divine wrath. Some instruct- 
ors on Bible subjects, often those who should 
have knowTi better, have helped to create these 
false impressions regarding tho divine displeas- 
ure. But as God's wa^s arc higher than man's 
way^^jind as his dignity and poi:-r of charai.'ter 
arc pcrlVi:t. much liighor tliaii an\- of those qual- 
ities seen in man, so \\o must oxpeet to lind 
his wrath a thing which comports in every rr- 
spect wth the exalted station of the Emperor ot' 
the Univ^rse.-.^ Ilis wratli could Ijn no childit'li 
caprice ocshow of impotence, as human wrath 
often is. tinman angor is generally an admis- 
sion of inability to cope ^\illl a situation. As 



grave, ihat thou wouidest 7;cep me secret, 
past!" — Job I.U IS. 

long as wo feel able to dominate or control tho 
circmnstances in which we fmd ourselves, just 
so long do we remain unperturbed. But when 
we are at our rope's end and know not what 
to do next, tlien we are apt to manifest our per- 
plexity in anger. 

Theologians have very generally overlooked 
these facts and have applied to God the small 
passions which often dominate us. God, ac- 
cording to their theories, has been made to a]> 
licar as a great monster, having little capacity, 
save for intelligence and vengeance. They have 
fostered the thought, contrary to the Bible, that 
God has foreknown and predestinated that a 
majority of the human race ^^•ill be called upon 
to undergo eternal suffering at the hands of 
vindictive and lireproof demons. It is an occa- 
sion for happiness to reflect that this view of 
the Almightyis being largely displaced by more 
Scriptural ideas. 

God's anger is his legal displeasure against 
sin. It is the necessary attitude of mind which 
he holds against imperfection and unrighteous- 
ness. Jehovah is not governed by caprice, or 
whim, or mere sentiment. He has established 
certain principles in the universe, and has re- 
quired that all of his intelligent creatures live 
in harmony Avith those principles. He has not 
excepted even himself; for he voluntarily re- 
mains faithful to the divine principles of wis- 
dom, justice, love, and power. 

It is e\-ident that no mere desire to be arbitrary 
has led God to require perfect adlierence to 
liis laws ; for obedience to his behests means for 
the oheycr the largest amount of blessing o£ 
^\llit■!l bis being is capablo. Let a light rcprc- 
.^eiit a divine principle. Tiio clo.^^er avc get to 
1I10 liglu tlio jiioro ilknnination and boncQt ac- 
'■[■\\c< I'lom it. The furtlier wi;' remove ourselves 
from llic ligiit the I'^'ss bcni.'fit wc have. It would 
bi^ inconsistent and unreafionnble to expect that 
Jcliovah would alter his principles merely to 
.show favoritism to us. If these principles aro 
intelligently and wUlfully nolatcd the sinner 



314 



The Qolden Age for Fehntary 4, igso 



las no grounds for cspcctins a continuance of 
divine I'avor. 

But why, it may be properly asliod, siicuid 
tlicrc bo any tlioiigiil of divino wrath as against 
the liuman family; Why not assume, a<3 iomc 
"would iiave us tJiiiik, that God'b I'avor ia upon 
the human family and that his blessing? are aovc 
chowered upon all classes? Wo clieerfuUy admit 
that liiere are oortaiu gifts which Jehovali per- 
mits man to enjoy, even though estranged from 
fello\Yship with, hia Maker. The Scriptures 
speak of this -when they say: '"He [God] . . . 
sendeth rain on the just and on the uujuot". 
(Matthew 5: 4;")) Like vase the sunshine is ours 
to enjoy, and the many beauties of nature. But 
no one who honestly looks at the situation wouM 
say that God's favor is fully manifested toward 
the human race. The Bible gives xls the oidy 
answer to the question of all reflective mii'.d.s 
as to whj' the cloud of divine wrath obscurea the 
sunshine of his favor. -It teils us .-.iniply that 
sin is the cause for man's separation from 
Jehovah. 

God had blessed Adam and Eve iji tlic garden 
of Eden, and had given them all that was nec- 
essary to contribute to their well-being and hap- 
piness. He had provided for their nourisiimenr, 
and sustenance the fruit of certain tree^ in th- 
garden, forbidding them, at the same time, the 
use of one tree. Doubtless in due tirae .Tehova]i 
would have granted them access to this tree 
also; but at that stage of their development he 
saw it to be best to limit their knowledge. God 
did not ask Adam to perform some laborious 
task Not bidden, but forbidden, was man. AU 
the Lord asked of him was to reinain in resig- 
nation to the divine v.ill and jirovision for hii;!. 

The sad story, as the Bible recounts it. is lliat 
Adam chose Ids o\vn way. He "was not de- 
ceived"'. (I Timotliy 2: 14) .Jehovali liad given 
him the power to resist; he had told him before- 
hand of the death penalty in case he did disobey. 
The situation was plain in Adam's mind; yet ho 
sinned. Could we expect that the righteous and 
just-One, he that sittcth in the ln'avvm?, vroiild 
look with tlie sumo dogroo of approval npijii lii> 
disobedient son a^ whcu they were Ju ha;>pv 
I'elloAvsliip a-fid coiiunuuiijn? Ccrla'nl\ uut. 

Another bain.-ful cvncrption ^\"hicti has n'- 
tached to 'the thought of <Jod"s wrath is t!ip 
supposition that God'b wrath is a thing future. 
The words of our text indicate clearly tJ;at Job 
looked npon it as a thing "i\Iuch he was even 



then experiencinj'. Job prayed to die becaose 
he found liiniself in such eufferiiig and distress 
that life seemed more of a burden than a bless- 
ing. He had no desire to jump from the frying 
pan into the fire; but he did desire relief. 

Job v.as a man of great wealth and of con- 
siderable standing in his community. He was 
blessed with sons and daughters, with health, 
and with the companionship of a wife. Sud-* ■ 
denly disaster overtook lum. His oxen and asees 
were driven away by Sabean marauders, and liis 
servants guarding them were slain. Next, his 
sheep and their shepherds were destroyed by . 

fire from heaven. Thau his camels were stolen '_ 

by Chaldean bandits and the camels' caretakers, 
Job's servants, slain. Xe:ct, his sons and daugh- 
ters were Icilled when a whirl^wind struck the 
iiottso of his eldest son. Then Job's own health 
gave way, and he broke out v,-ith loathsome sorea 
from head to foot. Furthermore, Job's "wifo 
lost confidence in him and recommended that 
ha curse God and die. Lastly, his intimate ac- 
quaintances suspected his uprightness and be- 
labored him with much tmsought and unappre- 
ciated advice. It was under all these extraor- 
dimiry au'.l extreme circmn&tances that Job, 
\iG\»ing the "situation as best he could, esteemed 
that a continuance of lu.s life in pain and dis- 
tress (ilia v.-tallh, Ida family, Iila health, his com- 
panion, and liis respectability gone) >vould be 
■iiseless to himself and to others. He was too ■ 
noble a man to commit suicide, to take away the 
]>ortion of life which he had and which he rec- 
ogniwd to be so much of blessijig from the 
-Almighty. Therefore, he Look tlie matter to thrt 
Lord in i>raycr, e:;T)rcs.sins his o^n^ proference j 

1o die. yot leaving tjjo deternunatiou of his case ^ 

with the wiser 0;ie tln^n he. 

Job ho.d,. no dosire to become extinct. He 
in'jvc'ly desired to sk"^p in tlie sleep of death 
until a happier day slio'jtd come ■wlien he could 
again be called forth into being and experience 
whatever blessings divine favor would appor- 
tion him. lie therefore limited his supplication 
to being hidden in the Innib, or death state, 
"iv.itil Cod'.s wrath b'> past'. .Job lived before the 
'im" of Chri.--t: and .-inee ""■(liero is none other 
liUinf^ ■and'">r l^cavr-n given amnrig ni>'U, whereby 
-vc iP.U5t lie faved'' (Acts 4: 32), therefore Job 
V. ould have to go into torment if the theories 
of the dark ages wore true. He cottld not go to 
heaven; for the way into heaven had not been 
opened up until our Lord's death rent the vai 1 



r 



The Qolden Age for February 4, rgso 



315 



in twain, opening np the wav of "life and im- 
mortality".— 2 Timothy 1: 10.' 

The truth is, Job had no heavenly prospects, 
hopes or desires whatever. No heavenly hopes 
were held out to any human heing until after 
our Lord's death, resurrection, and ascension 
to the Father. 

That God's -^Tath is a thing of the present, 
and not of the future i-^s made perfectly plain by 
the "vvords of the Apostle Paul when he says: 
"The wrath of God is revealed from heaven 
against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of 
men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness". 
(Romans 1:18) How is God's wrath revealed 
against the human race 1 It is revealed by every 
sickness, every tear, every ache, every pain, 
every doctor's sign, every drugstore, every un- 
dertakers establishment, every burial ground, 
every unhappiness. Can we imagine grave- 
yards, undertakers, drugstores, pellets and plas- 
ters in heaven? Can we suppose that these 
things are marks of favor? Surely the thought- 
ful must agree with li;e Apostle that God'i 
^vrath is thus and now revealed. 

But we are not left with the testimony of 
merely one witness, even though that ■\\itness 
was guided hy the holy spirit. We have the 
further substantiation of the Prophet Moses. 
He says ; "We ate consimied by tliine anger, and 
by thy wrath are we troubled^'. {Psalm 90:7) 
It is the actual and immediate presence of di\'ine 
anger that causes us to be consumed by the more 
or less rapid process of death — distintegration, 
first of our faculties, then of our organisms. It 
is because divine wrath is a present thing that 
all the trouble in the world is caused. Piloses 
does not say that we arc consumed by disease 
and death, and then brought under divine anger ; 
nor does he say that we spend our years here in 
trouble and ditficulty, and then are plunged into 
divine wrath. No ; the anger and the wrath are 
present things. Similar testimony is borne in 
the ninth verse of the same P.-^alm : ''All our days 
are passed away in thy u-rath; we spend our 
years'as a tale". We do not pass our days and 
then go into God's wratli. Tlie wrath is lierf, 
now, in all the earth, and has been here for nioro 
than six thouFand years. 

All tho?e who realize the situation as it actu- 
ally exists, "^"ho arc not too much deceived by 
the grejR adversary concerning the cause and 
nature of God's wrath, have at some time or 
other in their lives given utterance to the long- 



ing experienced by the Prophet David: "Turn 
us, O God of our salvation, and cause thino 
anger toward us to cease. Wilt thou be angry 
with us for ever? Wilt thou draw out thine 
anger to ail generations? WUt thou not reivive 
us again: that thy people may rejoice in thee! 
Shew us thy mercy, O Lord, and grant us thy 
salvation." ( Psalm 85 : 4 - 7 ) The Psalmist him- 
self answers tliis query as to the length of God's 
wrath when he says: "His anger endureth but 
a moment; in his favor is life: weeping may 
endure for a night, but joy comcth in the morn- 
ing-'.— Psalm 30 : 5. 

Six thousand years may seem like a long 
moment ; but it is nothing compared to eternity. 
The six thousand years during which God has 
sliown Ids displeasure at sin and unrighteous- 
ness by cutting off from man tlie sunshine of 
his countenance and the blessings of hia fellow- 
ship constitute a very short period, as God 
views time. We are told that -^vith him a day is 
as a thousand years. '"One day is . . .as a thou- 
sand years, and a thousand years as one day.* 
(2 Peter 3 : 8) Again, we are told that "a thou- 
sand years . . . are but as yesterday when it 
is past, and as a watch in the night". (Psalm 
90:4) All these Scriptures indicate that Jeho- 
valrs superior faculties and capacities for ac- 
tivity in unlimited directions make the passage 
of time much more rapid to him than to us. 
Furthermore, the time of divine disfavor has 
riOt been long for any one indiAddnal. It must 
be fairly conceded that almost every one is 
glad to hold on to such life and blessings as he 
has as long as he can possibly do so. Hundreds 
of thousands of dollars are paid to expert 
physicians to help one hold on to a small frag- 
ment of life for a few days or weeks or months 
— years at most. If Ufo and human eTperience 
under divine disfavor are considered by the 
majority of people as being desirable things, 
how much more desirable would they be under 
divine favor! If the night of weeping has con- 
tained .some measure of happiness and some 
opportunity for doing good, will not the joys of 
life become much more intense in the morning? 

The Psalmist gives n? the secret of the whole 
matter when he says; 'Tn his [God's] favor is 
life '. No one and no thing can live eternally in 
Ciod's .great universe -without his favor. But how 
can favor be brought to a sin-cursed and dying 
race? Certainly not by anything which man 
himself can do. All are sinners because all are 



3i6 



The QoUai Age for Febnuiry 4, 1920 



descendants of Aclam, the one sinner -vvho lias 
Leea peraonally condemned. "In Adiun all die.'' 
(1 Corintiiians 1.1: 22) x\gain: "By the offense 
of one, judgment eame upon all men to con- 
demnation". (Romans 3 : 18) It vLll bo noted, 
therefore, that human beings are not d}ing be- 
cause of their own sins, but because of the trans- 
gression of father Adam. This fact makes pos- 
sible their redemption through one man, if such 
a man can be found, mighty, or able, to save. Xo 
one could take Adam's place under the sentence 
of death unless he were perfect in uiind, in 
body, in life, in dominion, just as Adam was bo- 
fore his transgression. Who can be found to 
he such a savior? 

The Bible does not leave us in doubt. When 
man Tvas unable to help himself, wholly incapa- 
ble of extricating himself from the toils of sin 
and death, then God sent forth his most beloved 
Son, his honored mouthpiece, the special expres- 
sion of his love, to earth. "Tlie Word wan niailo 
flesh, and dwelt among us.'' (.Tohn 1: 14) 'l"ic 
Apostle Paul explains that the Sou divested 
himself of the glory which attached to liis high 
position and nature witli the l''allier before the 
TV'orld was. He laid aside or rolinquislicd his 
angelic existence, exchanging it for a lower one 
en earth. But though his human nature ^^■as 
inferior in rank to the angelic plane which ho 
had left, it must be clearly understood that lie 
■was a perfect man. For even a perfect man is 
"a little lower than the angels". — Psalm 8 : 5. 

The Son not only came to earth and became 
a human being, "holy, harailess, undcfiied, sep- 
arate from sinners"' (Hebrews 7: 26), but when 
he had attained his groMh at thirty years of 
age he gave himself in sacrifice with a -^dcw to 
redeeming mankind. He himself expresses it : 
"God sent not his Son into the world to condemn 
the world; but that the world tlirough liini 
might be saved"'. (.Tohn .3:17) Again: "Tho 
Son of man came not to bo ministered unto, Imt 
to minister, and to give his life a ransom I'o'- 
many". (JIatthew 20; 2S) In pur.~uancv ol' tliis 
design on the part of the Father and of willing 
cooperation on •fr^'Us's owni part, ho iinishod his 
ciiursc of t^iif-rilifi' in ili" luuniliafing d^ath nn 
tiie cross f'i. Calvii.rv. 'I'heio he "gavi-' himsi-ir a 
ransom ^a cpnc-pouding r>r subttitutioniiry 
price] focall.'to be tf stiliod in dne time." 

(]>n the basis of this sacrificial ^vork -wbii-h 
our Lord has already accomplished, the Bil.ilo 
is filled with assurances that divine favor shall 



return to men after the church of this gospel 
age shall have been chosen out from amoug men 
to be associated with Christ in the work of 
dispensing the blessings to the nations of the 
earth. As soon as the church is complete, as 
soon as they have all learned the privilege of 
being members of his body and of realizing 
that he is the Head over all things to the church, 
as soon as their trials and testings are ended, 
then the blessings will be due to come to the rest 
of men. Other Scriptures assure us that the 
time for divine favor to be manifested througli 
tlie Messianic kingdom is just at hand. The 
prophets of botli Old and New Testaments iden- 
tify the unparalleled time of trouble, part of 
v>"hich has already been experienced, with tiie 
time of the end of this gospel age and, there- 
lore, v,-ith the beginning of Messiah's reign. — 
Daniel 12:1; Matthew 24:21. 

When our Jjord Jesus shall have presented 
ti;o merit of iiis redemptive sacrifice before tlie 
bar of divine justice for all tho people then 
<jod's w rath, as manij'cst through tlic scntciTce 
of death against mankind, ^\ill be past. It 
was do^vn to this time that Job, in prophetic 
nsion, looked; and it was for this time that he 
longed. Will Job have the fulfillment of his 
prayer? Listen, in answer, to the words of our' 
Lord Jesus: "All that are in the graves .[i^l- 
eluding .Job and raajiy thousands of million oth- 
i^.n] i^hall hear his voice [of the Son of man] 
and shall come forth". (John 5:28,29) Some 
of those who come forth, those whose trial time' 
has gone before, will come forth to the "life 
resurrection". They shall receive perfect life 
at once when they are called forth from death. 
There are three classes v/iio will be thus blessed: 
(1) The little tiock of this gospel ago, who 
arc faithful overcomers and who will be re- 
warded with the divine nature — glory, honor, 
immortality; (2) tin; ancient v.orthies, or the 
laitlitul ones of tJnio;- prior to our Lord Jesus — 
from ric.htf'ous Abel to faithful John the Bap- 
iitt — wiio shall bo re-\vardod with perfect humaji 
lifi^ and made ■■princes in all the earth" (Psalm 
-}•'>: Hi) : f:;) tlu- ^-rcat multitudo of loss faithful 
oiv^s of ibis aos|'pcl age who will graciously re- 
i-rlvt' ill.' ((pjicfi Litiity for life on some spirit 
I>hi.ao of ^•.\i^tcl|r.■> and :\ho \\ili be granted tJie 
in iviloge nf service hrforc Christ's throne 
i!)iiijgii not ;-ratcd with him in the throne, as 
• hf^y might lia'>c liroii had luore zeal and more 
loA e for sacrilico actuated them unto the cud. 



The QoUcn Age for Fehmary 4, 1920 



?I7 



The majority of manldnd however will come 
forth to the "resurrection by judgment". The 
calling forth, or resuscitation, is one thing- 
The resurrection is another and much more com- 
prehensive thing. The calling forth is first. 
Complete resurrection means complete restora- 
tion to all that was lost through Adam's disobe- 
dience. This judgment-resurrection occurs dur- 
ing the thousand years of Messiah's reign and 
is a time in which mankind will be instructed 
concerning the principles of righteousness; for 
■without harmony with and adherence to those 
principles no one can attain or maintain divine 
favor. "When the judgments of the Lord are 
abroad in the earth, the inhabitants of the world 
will learn righteonsness," (Isaiah 26:9) If 
there are those in that blessed time who will 
spnm the divine gift of life through Jesus 
Christ and who, after full light and knowledge, 
wantonly choose the way of sin and self-will, 
they will he mercifully cut off in the second 
death, from which there is no resurrection and 
in which there is no kind of consciousness for 
ever. Then it -will he true that 'Tie that be- 
lieveth on the Son hath everlasting life: and 
he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; 
hut the wrath of God abideth on him". — John 
3: 36; Acts 4: 12. 

From aU we know of Job he wiH he one of 
those ancient worthies who will experience the 



'Tjcttcr resurrection". He, in common with many 
millions of humanity, has slopJ: in the dust of 
tlie earth, in imconsciousnoss, awaiting that 
glorious morning of earth's experience to which 
he looked — "until thy -wTuth be past". Job ivill 
then be called forth and will doubtless be happy 
in the pri\ileges which God Txill give him of in- 
structing arid helping the poor, fallen, degraded 
members of mankind up to an appreciation of 
Jehovah and his laws. He will help and en- 
courage them up the highway of holiness, then 
open, that they may finally enter in through the 
gates into the city — be re-admitted as members 
of the human family into divine fellowship and 
into constituent participation in the divine em- 
pire of the universe. Thus finally not only will 
God's wrath, the legal sentence, be past, but also 
the effects of his wrath — all imperfection will 
finally be banished from the earth and God's 
will shall be exalted in every heart. 

All these thoughts arc contained in germ form 
in a few words of Job wliich occur just foUowing 
our head test: '"Oh, that thou . . . wouldest ap- 
point me a set time, and remember me I ... All 
the days of my appointed time [the intervening 
centuries whUe Job was dead] will I wait, till 
my change [from death to the better resnrree- 
tion] come, [then] Thou shalt call, and I will 
answer thee; thou wilt have a desire to the 
work of thine hands". 



Alienation and Restitution 



"Elohlm ! Elohlni ! Why nre we forsafeenT" 

Hear our flrst parents despairingly cry. 
Had not the tempter their constancy shaken. 

Would they have wandered In eiile to die? 
Why, since life's stream t^iis defllcd at Its foantaln, 

Waa It not dried ere the flood ran so <Jeep? 
■Why, lest iniquity grow to a mountain — 

Sbonld the Srst Infant be cradled to TveepT 

"AlmlBhty! Almighty! Why hast thon forsaken?" 

Groaoeth the slave as he curses tiis chain. 
Stung by the lush, and his last loved one taien; 

Doomed to a lifo of enslavement and pain. 
Long Jias the despot his tyranny T\-ieldccl ; 

Long-Tobbed bis fellosv ot freedom and home: 
Long have the humble their hard carainss yielded^ 

Starvlns themselves to build turret and dome. 

"Creator! Creator! vnty hast thou for:-iilirn?" 

Hear Uta fend mother in agony moan. 
Babe on her bOTom will presently w.ilfpn ; 

Walsen t« find its dear suardian flown. 
Merciful Gddl Who will cure for the nioarni^r? 

Who'U guard the orphan from hunger and cold? 
Who'll guide the feet of the youthful sojourner. 

Past haunts of vice to the ^avigr's pare foldl 



"0 Father of Mercies! Why hast thoB forsaken]* 

Questioned my spirit In sorrow's long boor; 
Terrors and nnsjuish my doubtlngs aTvalcen, 

Doubts of n Father's compussioa and power. 
Louder the thunderpeals answered ray walling 

Darker tlie storjn cloud spread o'er me Its pall: 
Friends could not comfort: while focman ■wex9 rallliiKS 

Heaven seemed deaf to my piteous call. 

"My God I Jly God 1 Why hast tliou forsaken.?" 

F.clioes from Calvary scatter my gloom. 
■^'eilj have been rrnr, anrl DcHth's prison house shaken. 

Answer I find at the dismantled tomb. 
"God unto all men assurance has given." 

Sv.orn by him.«eir all his creatures to bleaa: 
S'lon will tlie bonds of corraption be riven, 

Soon comes his tiu;dom of blest righteousness. 

riirist .Tt>su3 lias rii^en to random the dyins; 

'"Poured out his foul nnto dnitli", to restore 
IJcauty for .•i.slii>s. und siadueia for si.:.'hinj: 

SoDii of reunion from monnrnin to shore. 
.\ rter Death's nipht comes Life's pinrious morning; 

nainbov.-s of Wesslne will halo our tears: 
Truth will deliver from error and scorning; 

Blessing will crown earth's milicimiiil years. 

— Written for The Goldes Acj^ O. U. B, 



3i8 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



JUVENILE BIBLE STUDY 

One Qtiestlou for cacli c!ay is provicled hy ihls journal. 
The parent will find ic iuroresting antl helpful to have 
the (.■liild t;ike up thp fiiiestloD eneh cliiy iinii airl it i;i 
tincliiis the answer In the Scrfpttires, thus developing 
a knowledge of the Bihle and where to And In it the 
tblnss desired. 



1. Is a knowledjA of the Bible truths neces- 
sary to salvation? 

Answer : Yes.-^John 17:17; Romans 6:23; 10: 17; 
13:2; 15:4; 3 Timothy 1:10; 3:15. 

2. Why is the book of Revelation hard to 
understUnd? 

Answer : Because it 13 written in symbols or signs. 
The LoTd tign-ifi^A it by his angel unto his servant 
John, who was at the tiOie a prisoner on the isle of 
Patmos. — Revelation 1:1-3, 9. 

3. Does the Bible fid great stress upoji the 
importance of right doctrines? 

Answer: St. Paul says that we should not be tossed 
about w^th every changing; wind of doctrine which men 
cleverly use to deceive. Hope is like an anchor to the 
ship, but we must be able to give a rca.«on for our hope. 
— Ephesiaas 4:14; John 7:16,17; Romans 6:17;' 1 
Timothy 1 : 3, 10 ; 4 : 1, 16 ; 2 Timothy 4:3; Titus 1:9; 
S : 1 ; 3 John 9 ; Hebrews 13 : 9 ; Coiossians 2 : 23 ; Ephe- 
«ians4:14;l Peter 3:15! 

4. Can any one be pleasing or acceptable to 
God and teach wrong doctrines? 

Answer: No. — John 4:23,24; John 8:32; 18:37; 
Romans 1:25; 3 Corinthians 4 : 3 ; 1 John 2 : 21. 

5. Who was the first one to lie about the 
truth? 



Answer: Satan. — John 8:44; Genesis 3:3,4. 
G. What will befall all ivho do not love the 
fruthf 
Ar.sv-er : .See Romans 1 : 13 ; 2 Thsssaloniana 3; 10-13. 

7. ]Vkut is truth? 

Aiisver: Jesus paid, "Tliy word is truth". — John. 
14:6; 17:17; 1 Corinthians 5:S; Ephesians 1:13; 
Coiossians 1:5. 

8. Wluj is first mentioked in the Biblef 
Answer: Cod. — Gene.sis 1:1. 

9. What docs the Bible tell its about Godt 
Answer: Aloiit Iiis form or body, his nature, his 

character and attributes, his name, his abode, hia work, 
his law, and his existence. — Psalm 90 : 2 ; 83 : 18 ; Exo- 
dus 6:3; Isaiah 12 : 8 ; Deuteronomy 6 : 4 ; 1 Corinth- 
ians 3:5,6; Isaiah 40:13,14; Acts 15:18; Psalm 
89: 14; 1 John 4: IC; John 3: 16; Malachi 3:G; Jamos 
1:17; 1 Corinthians 1 : 21. 

10. What is God? 
Answer : Sec John 4 : 24. 

11. Can God he seen with human eyesf 
Answer: See John 1: IS; Deuteronomy 4: 18; John 

5:37; 8 : 46 ; 1 Timothv G : 16 ; 1 John 4: 13 ; Esodus 
33 : 20, 13. 

12. Where does God reside? 

Answer: See Isaiah 66:1, .3; 3 Chronicles 6 : IS ; 
Acts 7:48,49. 

13. Is God a King? 
Answer : See Psalm 47 : 3, 7. 

14. Is there a7iy greater king in heaven or in 
earth? 

Answer : See Psalm 95 : 3 ; Psalm 97:9; Isaiah 46 : 9. 



Back to Their Own Borders 



The little brook that runs by my door 

Is tncbed in its ley bed. 
The little birds tliat I loved of yore 

Have gone from the branch o'erhead. 
The leaves have dropped from the li'.ac tree. 

The erass is nnder the snow, 
And the plaintive note of the chiclcadeo 

Is tlie only sound I know. 

But I know th:it I lie liirrts -ivill como bauk to me; 

The brook will Muw ajaln ; 
The wee brown Innls ™ the lilac trw 

Win bur^t Into k-aves; and then 
My la^n will come from its tiidiiig pl.ice; 

The birds will sing and will mate; 
And I'll hfar their songs of love ami grace. 

So I'U thankfully, patiently, walL 



The little ones whom I, loved so mnd>, 

Was blessed with their babj charms. 
Yielded my heart to their loving tonch. 

Have gone rrom my mother arms. 
It is lonesome and still in the nureery now; 

I dread to go by the door; 
And sometimes in sorrow niy heart will bow, 

When a toy I see on the floor. 

But, oh, from the land of the enemy, 

When the winter of death Is o'er, 
Jly little ones ail will come bacit to me, 

And gladden my heart oace more, 
As the calves of the stall they shall grow up then; 

For .lel'.ovah hua planaed it so. 
My heart respond."! with a glad Amen! 

And I'U vtait, aad be patient dow. 

—Written for Thb Gouim 



The Qolden Age for February 4, 1920 



319 




Color C CHARACTER® 






ft HaiH SIM dnm. 



The Primary Colors 

THEEE is no need here of going into elabo- 
rate scientific discnssio-ns as to wliat the 
primary colors are (discussions, in fact, as to 
■whether there be any primary colors at all), for 
in light analysis it seems to be very well estab- 
lished that red, green and blue-violet occupy 
such a position. But when we come to the realm 
of pigments for painting, drawing, dyeing and 
printing we have a different problem ; and here, 
for all practical purposes, yellow, red and blue 
are primary. Bl^ck is not, strictly speaking, a 
a color, but the presence of all three — none of 
them being reflected from the sunlight which 
strips a black object or texture. The primary 
colors are elemental; they cannot be produced 
by mixtures. 




Yellow is the most brilliant color, in bright- 
ness being nearest to the light of the sun. It is 
cheerful in its effect on the mind, sunny, buoyant, 
hopeful, jocund. Yellow has life-giving radi- 
ance and power to dispel gloom, as daffodils, 
buttercups, and dandelions seem to chase away 
the blue of winter. 

Ked Is the warmest color and imparts the 
feeling of vitality, action, courage, and aggres- 
sion. Bed stimulates the nervous system, even 
the nerv'ous system of a gobler or a bull. It 
is becausi^ ofj,this forced Ktimulation and call 
to action t^at some sensitive people are temper- 
amentally opposed to red. They are already 
too active, perhaps, and red comes to them like 
an angry challenge. Bed associates itself with 
tbd tliought oi fire and must be as carefully 



handled and restricted or it will destroy as 
well as warm. Nature uses brilliant red but 
sparingly and then only where there are great 
masses of green ro counter-balance it. All colors 
which contain red are warm m proportion to 
its presence. 

Blue is cold, quiet and reserved. It is present 
in all shadows and never enthuses one to action, 
being in this respect a balance for yellow and 
red. Blue flowers are aU modest and retiring, 
as the fringed gentian, the forget-me-not, etc 
The restraint and formality of blue make it 
particularly suggestive of dignity. 

Whoever understands color understands a 
universal language, Uke music. True, one may 
enjoy both tone and color and not niiderstand 
either; but it is like hearing an opera in aa 
unknown tongue — it leaves much to be desired. 

Yellow advances ; red in some hues remaios 
about stationary, but in pure value tends to 
recede ; blue recedes decidedly. Thus we have 
the foreground, the middleground and distance. 
There are no pure yeUows in a middleground or 
distance and blue always predominates in the 
latter. 

Mushy Halibut 

THE halibut season is at its height in early 
summer. Of 1,683,130 pounds of halibut 
caught off the coasts of Washington and Oregon 
in 1915, 1,620,000 pounds were caught in June. 
The wholesale price of this catch was a little 
better than five cents per pound. 

One difaculty in the halibut trade is that fifty 
per cent of the fish, when delivered at the mar- 
ket, have been found to be mushy and, hence, 
unsalable. At the time they are caught the 
affected fish cannot be separated from the good 
iish, but after being on ice for some time the 
meat of the mushy ones becomes soft and can 
oasily be .shaken from the bones. "When culling 
fish a small jash is made in the tail whereby the 
condition of the moat is luade apparent. Some- 
times only part of the fish is mushy; the tail 
may be mushy and the body good, and again the 
reverse may be true. The cause for this condi- 
tion is unknown. 



■■■; (^ 



GOLDEN AGE CALENDAR 



FEBRUARY 4 TO 17. 1920 



Teab: irjO A. P.. Gi>lS siucc CrenlUm: "CSO .Ii-n-isli Kra : "ilTD of Japanese Era; 

IHMi jcar o( ln(l«>ppndfnce of VJnitotl States. 



133S Mohammedan En ; 



F<;bnwri/ j, Wt rli'csda'j 

^\xn iJM's T:<iS a. n.. sots jiliO i>. in. : l^vilijlit 
l.>r;;ins ■"» ;::r ;j. i»i.. cu'i> »>;-"»l p. m.. N<'>v >'nrU rimt;; 
js!.i'.i. I'liilipiiirc-ArniTk-un War bejruii ; I'.'IS. Trial 
cif Kolo l'ii>li;i ai I'jii'is for treason; TliirU lu\illo>s 
JLonday; iJiiTcL cost o£ World War has bfxni :;iX> 
billion rlolli!i-s niiil direct cost -'0 mi.n-e : >'*-'nytt; 
bo;ins hi\t>ti;:iLiun ut antl-AmerlL-in inilicaliMii. 

February ij, Thursday 

Anniversary-ot-Constitutlon Day, SXeiico: 1010. 
Existing nlliimces between nations not to be ufTected 
by the League of M^ations ; London electrical work- 
ers tlireatened with prison if they strike; Secre- 
tary Baker declares it "unthintable that any sol- 
dier be allowed to remain without a job, If he 
grants one". 

reSrtwrK *, Fninv 

1919, Draft of League of Nations tentatively 
adapted; Russian So^'iet covemmeut seeks pence 
vim Allies: Paderewski elected President of 
Poland: War Eevenue Bill proposies annual taxes 
of six blUioti Uollars; 2,(XX),000 railway workers 
back of Plumb plan for railway control. 

Feltruarf/ 7, Saturdap 

1919, China objects to Japanese-American agree- 
ment concerning Shantung. 

Feiniaru S, Sunday 

1819, Allies decide on Supreme Economic Coimcil. 
deallns with food, finances, blockades, sbippins 
and raw material^ ; Kolchak accept Japanese 
offers of troops, arms and money to defeat the 
BolslieTiki ; 60,000 workers are on strike in Seattle. 

February 9, Monday 
1919, La1x>r wages war on prohibition. 

February 10, Tuesday 

Annamites Day, French Indo-China: 1916, Ger- 
mans begin sinking merchant ships without notice ; 
1919, President Wilson seeks peace and negotia- 
tion with Genitaos, instead of "imposition of the 
.-will of conquerors"; Japan warns China not to 
r'ereal to the Peace Conference any secret Chino- 
Japaiipse arroements; 1,500.000 miners, railway 
and t^an^pn^t vorkers begin a campaign for a 
sli-hour day .nm! thirty per cent increase; Sixty- 
sis radicals arc brou;ht to New York for e.tilc. 

Feifuary It, ^Vr'lnctday 

Sop rl^-cs 7:02 a.m.. s<^ts 'i:2S, p.m.. Twillfht 
bc;in» o :-7 a. ni., ends 7;02 p. m- New Yorli tiiue ; 



Ki^en-setsn {.\nnivcrsary of Coronation of First 
i;miioror), Japan : Chinese New Year, Kiam ; 1018 
intoriuiti'HiuI Siicialist Oon^rpss at Berne votes 
asain.st l!ol^licvir.ni ; Kins Uoor^e expects Parlla- 
incut by new laws to end social TinreijL 

i'cbniary 12, Thursday 

Lincoln's Ilirtiiduy {in northern states) ; Geersla 
Day, Ga.; Amalg-.imution Day, China; Chinese 
Now Year, Slum : IS-'il. Gold discovered In Aastra- 
I'.'i; 1911), Allies impose more sercre conditions on 
Cii'rmans for renewal of arinLstloe; Belglnm do- 
iiuiiuls Dutch territory; American troops defeat 
Bolsheviki; England thinks America best fitted 
to "ilire<t Arnienia townrU solid government"; 
S'-'O.'XIO lSriti?<h miners demand six-hour day and 
lliirty per cent wage increase; 1,500,000 British 
workens are at odds with Lloyd George. 

Fehraary IS. Friday 

Chinese New Year. Stam; 191S, Hcatlcss Mod- 
days discontinued ; Hays elected Chairman National 
Republican Committee; 1919, :X>.000 Berlin star« 
workers striko for higher wages; Strikes of Ger- 
man workers are met by counter-strikes by doctora 
and other professional men ; Catholic War ConaeU 
arses labor's muiiasement and ownership of \t^ 
dustrles to prevent Bolshevism. 

Fetn-uary 14, Saturday 

Admission Day. Arizona; National HoUdar, 
Ecuador ; 1919, President Wilson reads tlie Leasue 
of Nations plan and describes it as "a moral fores 
having an armed force in the background". 

FeTtruary 15, Sunday 

Constltation-of- Republic Day, Panama; 1919, 
President Wilson sails from Brest to Dnlted States 
for a IT-day visit and plans a speaking tour of the 
coimtry; Europe fears a vast upheaval of labor. 

Feirvary IS, Monday 

The international boycott is to be used against 
nations disobeying the League of Nations; Typhus 
rasing In Siberia. ( 

Fetrtary 17, Tvetday 

Annamites' New Year Day, I-'rench Indo-Cblna; 
1919, German bankoi's I'orsce ruin and collapse from 
indemnities imposed b.v .\Jlies: German-Austrian 
elections ;i\c UX» :^ocialisli, SO Christian Socialists 
and 70 Llboials: Traraediate withdrawal of Amer- 
ican troops from Rusc^ia is announced by SecretaJT 
liaVer; l.av.-renre textile strikers' committee is 
ret'uscil an audience by itOTemor Coolldgc for their 
complaints about conditions, police intimidation 
and starvation wages. 



Fehniafyl4192^v«i.:,N«Jl 



li 



xPiMulud OMfy oOur 
*■ vttk al XSS5 BnadiMV. 



VoKlfa Sabaofptloa TtIca ygffT 




/'-^. 



K 



CONTENTS of th« GOLDEN AGE 

LABOK uid BCOMOHICa 

Bln'llBf Mm 1b Bun(ll«L...323 Pr»-W*r CiradlHou , . ,, , B < 

Ulil[ll»-ailf« Worker* 5^4 Kuocklnj Out ttl« „^ 

Oorerrsment Workers 323 FounUatlonj KB 

SOCIAL «i<i XOUCATIONAL 

CItT GirtJTe for Hoj» 337 Schwab Not Pmle StrOkea !2» 

Eniland't CHIW SIitm sn I-lrint la New Yort J?9 

The Now Saioen __ 2iS Ou lUadUc Xlsnd 33a 

MAMUPACTUaiNO aad UIXIKQ 

Fael Eagimwrlni; 331 Th« Blast-Turnaju SM 

Cliea:>er V;ijiadluia . — -3i>l 

FINANCE, COMMEBCK. TKAMSJOBTATIO* 

Tti« Law o» the Vroftta 333 public TJtlUtKB TrottM»l_-S34 

Imprareil dlibieax La.ini.J334 

l>Ol.mCAU OOMKSTIC lad FOSEIOM 

Farmars 1» Pollaca 325 iJiaKhy — Common 

Of t^e^erreo ? 3St 

AGRICffLTCIti: «i«J irUJBANOKY 

B«cka«plaE. A Pra(<»iiioii..339 DIeaer's Giant Urferida S40 

Kltte.t Wh»t Surrtvca 339 *'""£" eeS«li<L L_.-J4« 

Good Bfa to ta« Bona. 340 Aa Eartbly Imaja... , , $40 

SCIEHCS aad INVENTION 
Ufa (rf ilia Banrlaaa. t*\ 

TKAVEI. and MUCVLLANT 

Th« Saeoadary Color* 3+3 \ Traredr »t limt Aco...i<3 

HOUSEWIFEBV lad HYCIEKK 
TwcBtrMiJUonjirarMedm MS MafflDt and 
Adeooida and Oataopadiii .343 Ot&ar Baeipca 344 

REHQIOM mi PHlLOtOPRT 

Bas the O>od atiephi^rd Jarenil* BUilt Stiidf..— „..S4A 

Uor* Tbaa One FaU?.JM3 iBrocatioa to Ubartr ~..-S49 



ItsSt r-«>^"!y. r-tf ~i* aiy. K. Y., hT 

^oconoi:T&. :iii.z>'.^va3 lui UAinut 
lUka rtnUttaaaa ca TJU Ch)U«a A«a. 






crt. Golden Age 



Volnme I 



Nr» York. WedncadAj, Fehnur 18, 1929 



Nonber U 



BINDING MEN IN BUNDLES 



WE LIVE in a time -when it seems as though 
almost everybody was in a onion of some 
kind or trying to get into one, and the bnsiness 
and even the legislation of the world is becom- 
ing' not so much a matter of dealing with indi- 
vidual problems as dealing with masses of men 
gathered together for the pursuit of some com- 
mon object or objects which they have in view. 

To the true American there is something dan- 
gerous, something sinister, in the influence of 
lobbies at Washington or at other legislative 
centers. Once these lobbies were largely" of a 
personal nature, hut this is rapidly changing. 
The first pronounced step in the way of what 
might be called a permanent corporate lobby at 
Washington was the location in that city of the 
general headqiiarters of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor. More recently the Farmers of 
the country have also established permanent 
headquarters in the same city, and now comes 
the announcement that the representatives of 
Capital have decided to do the same thing. 

It seems as though there is now only one great 
group at Washington that is not separately 
represented by a lobby, though perhaps that 
group is best represented by the Congress itself. 
We refer to the great middle classes who are 
ununioni2ed. If Congress does not remember 
their interests in dealing with the representa- 
tives of Labor, Farmer and Capital, then they 
have no representation at all. 

In EnglWnd,'\where unionizing has gone much 
further tha^n in the United States, a strenuous 
campaign is under way to organize the millions 
of clerks, bookkeepers, physicians, surgeons, 
dentists, newspaper men, ministers, lawyers, 
and others composing the middle classes, so that 
in the constant battle going on between Labor 



and Capital they may not be forever and always 
the only real losers. The movement is meeting 
with some success, though not ta much a3 its 
friends hoped; for this class particularly dis- 
likes to have its progress marked by the strife 
Avhich has been inseparable from the forward 
steps of Capital and Labor. But the logic of 
events seems to be gradually pressing them into 
the union ranks. They cannot hold out against 
the financial pressxire which the high cost of 
living is forcing upon them. 

The wise man who knows just where the lines 
of love and justice should be drawn in this mat- 
ter of unionism should arise and bow ; his where- 
abouts is not generally known. It must be ad- 
nutted that there are many employers who, no 
matter what their profits, never make a conces- 
sion in wages, or take any other step in the 
direction of the betterment of those of their 
fellow men who are worliing for them, until 
they are forced to do so, either by the men them- 
selves or by the public opinion of an aroused - 
and indignant people. There are plenty of em- 
ployers who see nothing inconsistent in holding 
every employe down to the barest wages that 
will support life, while they themselves are roll- 
ing in every conceivable luxury. It is only in 
time of war or other national peril that such 
"citizens" ever get anything like a comprehen- 
sive view of their proper relations to their fel- 
low men; but as soon as the peril is over they 
go back to the same old selfish way of looking 
at things as far aa the worker is concerned. 

It does not appear to be sound wisdom to 
leave wages to the formula of begging, pleading 
and coaxing from men of such a stamp what 
they ought to be glad to give readily; and it is 
inevitable that in any place where aa many as 



324 



The. Qoldax Age for Fetrruary i8, ipso 



fifteen or twenty workers are employed they are 
liable to get together, sooner or later, and. for 
their common good make such overtures as will 
protect them from the most glaring t'eatares of 
industrial injustice. A number of -workers, as- 
sociated together, can do for the whole what 
singly they would not be able to do for any. 
At the same time it is a violation of liberty to 
force anybody to join a onion- 

It is un-American for employers who are or- 
ganized with other employers to discharge their 
employes for organizing themselves; and it is 
equally un-American for self-appointed commit- 
tees of "business men" to get together, aa they 
occasionally do, and railroad labor organizers 
out of town under the specious claim that they 
axe thereby protecting America. Such protec- 
tion of America will do far more harm in the 
end than it will do good. We have had too many 
"respectable" plug-hat mobs, and the people 
are getting thoronghly tired of them. "We do 
not want extremists of either kind, Labor or 
Capital, in this country. 

One of the charges that is frequently brought 
against unionism is that the members of labor 
unions do not live up to their bargains, but fre- 
quently disobey their own oEBcers and violate 
their contracts by going on strike when they 
have agreed not to do so. Such instances fre- 
quently occur, and do the unions more harm 
than any other one thing. Any union which 
fails to carry out its contracts alienates pabUc 
sentiment, and when any body of men in a re- 
public forfeit the approval of their fellow citi- 
zens they have lost their case. The public cannot 
and should not look with favor upon any body 
of men that violate their contracts. 

There is a limit, too, to the things that a labor 
union can properly demand. The limit to that 
demand is not all that can be forced from an 
-unwilling employer. When workers get to the 
poirifc^tjvhere they demand for themselves the 
total receipts of business, regardless of the 
rights of others, the ^vhole fabric of civilization 
■will crumble unless they are made to see that 
the rights ot" othei-s are as real as their own, 
and are hot \o be lightly trifled with or bar- 
tered away by any one. 

On this point Jlr. William B. Colver, of the 
Federal Trade Commission, at the annual con- 
vention of the National Coffee Roasters' Asso- 
ciation, had this to say: 'Organizations of 



groups of men for mutual benefit are proper and 
are to be encouraged up to the point where such 
organizations interfere with the general welfare 
and public interests ; but all rights yield to the 
one dominant right — that of the general wel- 
fare. All organizations are useful so long as 
they function in and for the public interest." 

Noting that restless and reckless Labor makes 
Capital restless and reckless, some have pro- 
posed that labor unions should be required to 
incorporate themselves, so that their bargains 
could be enforced. Labor objects to this, hold- 
ing that it would be subject to constant legal 
I)ersecution by avaricious employers.- Never- 
theless, the members of labor unions are not a 
separate class of people. They are a part of 
the whole people and should be aa ready as 
others to bear their full share of the load. 

Middle-Class Workers 

NOT only is the organization of middle-class 
workers making progress in England, and 
in Germany, where it is said that the largest 
organization of office workers in the world {350,- 
000 members) has been perfected, but the same 
thing seems to be going on in America, although 
not to the same extent as abroad. . The move- 
ment has spread to Spain, where newspaper 
men of Barcelona and Madrid formed unions, 
and aiSliated with the printers, demanding 
monthly minimum wages amounting to $58.50. 
This does not look like much when compared with 
the wages now paid in America; but the cost of. 
living in Spain can hardly be as great as it is 
here or the workers could not live on the wages 
desired, to say nothing of those they actually 
receive at .present. _ 

In this country some of the middle classes 
that have organized and afiSliated with the 
American Federation of Labor are the News 
Writers of Boston (already mentioned in these 
columns), the Musicians, Actors, Insurance 
Agents, Stenographers and Bookkeepers of 
Xew York, the Technical ^len of Xew York and 
Chicas'o, the Scientists and Specialists of Wash- 
in.^ton, the Teacliers of Chicago and the Pro- 
fessors of Harvard. In connection with tho 
latter movements Miss Helen Taft. Acting Pres- 
ident of Bryn Mawr College, declared that she 
wished that the professors of the whole country 
would go out on strike for higher wages, so as 
to wake up the people of tlie country to the 



The Qolden Age for February 18, ig2o 



3?5 



injustices they were then bearing'. In New York 
City there is also a small teachers' union, but it 
is estimated that only about 10% of the 23,000 
public teachers in the city belong to it. Although 
there was a great deal of unrest among the 
teachers in the Fall of 1919 it was corrected 
someTvhat in New York state by legislation that 
served as a partial remedy. 

Occasionally the umon organizers attempt the 
impossible. Efforts ■were made to organize the 
physicians in Greater Ne-w York; and at one 
time it was claimed that 200 physicians in the 
Bronx had afBiiated themselTes ■with the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor, so as to bring about 
union conditions for physicians employed by 
insurance companies and hospitals, and to fii 
umon rates for physicians throughout the city. 
Bat the morement was unsuccessful, as were 
similar efforts in Brooklyn. The registered 
drug clerks, ho-wever, organized a union and 
■went out on a strike for $50 weekly and an eight- 
hour day, TV'hich they won. 

Attempts were also made to organize the bank 
clerks and other clerks in the financial district, 
many of whom, when they work cT-enings, either 
One hour or five hours, receive no other compen- 
sation than the us^oal 75 cents or $1.00 "supper 
money'. The clerks wish a regular six-hour 
day, with a scale of wages for o-vertime, S'on- 
days and holidays. But at the Christmas holi- 
days of 1919 some Wnll Street houses distrib- 
uted as bonuses among their clerks amo^nnts as 
high as $1100 apiece ; and there is an argument 
against unionizing, in such a bonus, which the 
ablest spellbinder cannot effectively meet 

Government Worker* 

TRYING to take an unbiased view of matters, 
it is not greatly to be wondered at that 
many workers in various departments of the 
Government have been thoughtlessly led into 
ombarrassin,ar positions in the current of unioni'i- 
ing th^ has been s'^vecping over the land- The 
trouble really startfd v.-faen the American Pod- 
oration of Labor, -vvhich had always previously 
roTused to charter police unions, decided to do 
so at th^ anpual convention held at Atlantic 
City, June 9116, 1919. But it was at Boston 
that theTjeans ivero spillf'd when the newly 
organized police union endeavored to try its 
strength. President Wilson described the strike 
as a "crime against civilization"', which it turned 



out to be; and the Protestant Governor Cool- 
idge, of Massachusetts, with great severity, we 
think, refused to take back any of the striking 
otTicei-s (most of them Soman Catholics), de- 
claring that "to place the maintenance of tJie 
public security in the hands of a body of men 
who have attempted to destroy it would be to 
flout the sovereignty of the laws the people have 
made". Massachusetts endorsed his stand. 

But possibly the severe lesson in. Boston 
(where the new officers were granted the in- 
creased pay that the old officers desired) wa^ 
necessary to check the tide that was then rising 
in other places. New York City was perilously 
near the same difficulty, but an agitation in the 
papers and increased pay for the patrolmen re- 
lieved the situation- Li Buffalo also the efforts 
to form a police union ■were frustrated by giving 
the men an increase in pay before they got ready 
to demand it. La September there were thirty- 
seven American cities in which the police were 
unionized; but with the e.xception of Boston, Los 
Angeles, Portland (Ore.), Wheeling and Okla- 
homa City none of the cities were the largest in 
their respective states, and Wliecling and Olda- 
homa are both rolati^vely small cities. 

The matter came to a head effectively in 
Washington, D. C. There the District Commis- 
sioners took the position that they ■were qnite 
willing for their men to organize, and that they 
approved of the principle of collective bargain- 
ing, but that they would not have on the force 
men combined or associated ■^\-ith any other labor 
organization. The police took the matter to 
court, asking for an injunction to prevent their 
discharge because of membership in the union. 

The subject was threshed out in the Serrate 
and in the course of the debate Senator ilycrs 
said: "^Vithin two years we shall have a soviet 
government in this country unless something 
is done to check tlic movement for unionization. 
The police force of every city and to'wn in the 
L'nited States will be unioniKcd and affiliated 
■with the American Federation of Labor -n-ithin 
sixty days if the police in the District of Colum- 
bia arc permitted to unionize. The next step 
■■^11 be to unionize the army and na'.T> and tbey 
■will have just as much right as the police. Then 
the neit step -will be a soviet government.'' 

There is a gro^^ng belief that Government 
employes must not become affiliated vnth other 
labor organizations if the integrity of the Amcr- 



^26 



Hie Qoldzn Age for February z8, 1920 



ican system of government is to be preserved. 
Postmaster-General Burleson in his c^nn^al re- 
port has even requested Congress to repeal a 
. law passed in 1912 under which postal workers 
have understood and utilized the right to organ- 
ize. The report states that one of the purposes 
of labor unions is to coerce the employer, and that 
when snch employer is the Government such an 
association is aimed at the Government and is 
inconsistent with the performance of public 
service and is not a true American spirit. 

The gathering together of Labor Forces, Cap- 
ital Forces, Farmer Forces and now the possible 
- Middle-Class Forces all reminds us of the 
Lord's parable in regard to the end of the age, 
that it would be accompanied by a binding 
together of the tares, professed Christians, for 
the purpose of destroj-ing them as tares — con- 
vincing them and everybody that they were not 
Christiaji, properly speaking; and proving, as 
we claim, that the only remedy for earth's tan- 
gled affairs is the speedy coming of the Golden 
Age for which we have all so long prayed, "Thy 
kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it 
is done in heaven". Then we shall see that all 
this gathering together of the elements of soci- 
' ety into different bands was inevitable, and was 
* divinely foreseen as a necessary preparation for 
I the inauroration of that kingdom of peace, joy 
and divine blessing. 

Pre -War Conditions By d. r. Pierce 

HOW many times we see p.rticles in the daily 
press, reminders of the times preceding the 
war, calling attention to the then cheap prices of 
necessities, and the variety and quantity of what 
are now regarded as luxuries. These inchido 
food, clothing, fuel, housing facilities, amuse- 
ment and recreation, education and travel. 

2ilany people are coming to be "stand-patters", 
desiring to use all the machinery of religion, 
goverilEHjnt and industry to return the world to 
the condi'fions prevailing in the pre-war days, 
not recognizing the totally un'satisfactory ends 
attained in those times, as well as row. 

A cartoon recently appeared in a prominent 
daily, which if*-,printed by a so-called radical 
paper woulAhave brought do^\'n the calumny of 
the entire "conservative" press, as being in- 
tended to produce unrest. It had for a central 
figure an office worker seated at his desk, -w-ith 
a ball-and-chain attached to his ankle, with the 



terse suggestion that "whoever is satisfied with 
his present job, is like the person behind the 
prison bars, tied for life to a ball-and-chain". 

In Exodus 16 : 3 we read that the nation of 
Israel murmured at the action of the Lord in 
leading them out of Egypt, where they had 
plenty to eat and nothing to worry about, not 
remembering that they were on the way to the 
promised land, "flowing with milk and honey". 
So also the people now who desire to return 
to the pre-war conditions, forget that we are 
on the way to the Golden Age and that no pos- 
sible force can turn mankind back to the condi- 
tions that are now forever past. 

Knocking Out the Foundations 

ABOUT 30,000 Italians have left for home 
• recently, and comparatively few have im- 
migrated. Other nationalities are said to be 
planning to go to Europe or some other conti- 
nent than America as soon as conditions for 
travel ease up. In spite of the fact that the 
dove of peace is looHng for a place to roost 
on, the huge net after-war rmmigration shows 
no signs of materializing. Miners are giving 
up mining and going into work where they 
can make a good living for their families. Steel 
workers are getting out of the industry and 
into other lines. Farm laborers are quitting 
the farm. Lumber jacks no longer like the 
rough, hard life of the camps. 

If the world war and the unrest of a pseudo- 
peace are driving common labor from its task, 
or maldng work distasteful, from a sense of 
restrictGiT liberty, who is going to do the hard 
manual labor of railroad building, foundation 
work, milling, or the farm^ Common laboF-- 
must not be despised. Conditions in America 
have always hitherto been attractive to the hard 
workers of Europe, v.i;o-have felt that here was 
a chance to make good for themselves and their 
families. But now the news is going through 
Europe that this is not as good a place as it 
used to bo for poor men. Americans must 
beware not to knock out the foundation of their 
industrial structure. 

A better acquaintance with the stranger with- 
in our gates brings out the fact that he pos- 
.sesscs qualities as good as are to be found. 
A little of the brotherly appreciation that will 
characterize the Golden Age would go a long 
way now to oil the joints of the social machine^ 



The Qolden Age for February 18, 1930 



327 




City Garbage for Hogt 

AKEOX, Oliio, ]ias had the usual expensive 
and u)iMUii-;factory experience w-ith the dis- 
ijosal of city Aarbtige. In by-?»one days the eiti- 
zenesses Luiiiod or buried their scraps, left them 
oat for the occasional itinerant private collector, 
or threw thorn into the back street. In 191C 
the city startt^d a reduction plant of tweuty-five- 
tons-a-da;.' capacity. Tlie customary system ws.a 
to be folIo-A-ed of digesting liie garbage ^\dth 
steam, drying; it, running rasoline through it to 
rorover die fats, and burnmg the dried residae. 
The collection was au-arded to a private con- 
cern, the Alcron Garbage Collection Company, 
and the operation of the plant to the Akron G-ar- 
bage Disposal Company, which was paid $3.12 
a ton for collecting garbage, and -which paid 
the city $S-00 annual rental for the $116,000 
plant. The city gre-\v rapidly, and the com- 
panj- iiicrea.sed the daily capacity of the plant 
to forty-five tons. 

The collection service never proved to be 
satisfactory, either to the citizenesses, or to tlie 
company ; for it was conducted at a loss of about 
$3000 a year. The disposal company cleared 
about $1300 a year, making the net resolt of 
the operation to the companies a los3 of Eome 
$3800, a discouraging outcome on disagreeable 
V'-ork done at groat effort. The garbage com- 
panies finally took advantase of a technicality 
to tcrnancte tiicir contract and end a losing 
venture; and the plant came back to the city, 
which paid nearly $100,000 for the contractor's 
invested interest in the plant and for the teams, 
trucks, barns and bins. 

The i^lant Avas the source of bad odors tliat 
affected two residential sections of the rapidly 
growing city, and were liable to give more seri- 
ous offense, as tlTS river boulevard and further 
yxtoisnions approached and passed the location 
of the p!iu:t. A neiv plant wa^ ligurcd on of 
HX> tons capuriiy. v.ith an outlay of !r-l:72,iX)0 
and a nrt anuual co.sl of ntariy $j"),«»0, with no 
tollini? h')^- soon a city with the oxpanMivo capac- 
ity ot-v^J^™" might again surround tiie plant- 
quite a serious affair to people that buy or rent 
homes only to breathe day and uight the per- 
fume of steamed garbage. 



There is one garbage dispoaal plant that can 
be moved at will, and that is a herd of hogs. 
It has unlimited cupaelty, replaces itaeif, and 
can be sold at a profit, provided tiio garbage 
i« obtainable at a eoattliat leaves a nuvrgia on 
tho seUing price of pork. 3o the oity fathers 
decided on the new style plant; and, as they 
weru unwilling to undertake the reaponeibilitiesi 
connected with a hog farm, advertised for bids 
on the garbtvge, received two respoiisLbk- liiilii, 
and turned the city garbage over to the new 
plant under private ownarship. Unfortuufltely 
there is no plant of half a million dollars' cost 
to be built; and so it ia decided that tiiis ar- 
rangement i» only a temporary expedient, 
although thoroughly convenient, economieal and 
suited to the interests of tho common people, 
the taxpayers. Whvtijor the consideration of 
tlie practical iinpofssibility of any substantiiil 
ralvC'ofE from the inexpensive hog proposition 
enters into the teinporariness of the new idea, 
ia not stated, but it ia well known that a poli- 
tician has at Ifia'it some ohsnee when there is 
a costly plant to !» built and operated. How- 
ever, for a wliile thy Akron citizens are getting 
this valuable per^'ic* for a rsasonabie price. 

It is an old story, this of oppressing the help- 
less common people, but it ivill soon come to an 
end forever undor the grai?iou3 arrangements 
of the Golden Age: "for they [the people] shall 
cry unto the Lord beeauae of the o]jprestior>-. 
and he shall setid thein a Savtor .ind a gr(»at 
One [Clirist the Heiul of the government in the 
Golden Age], and he shall deliver tltem",— 
Isaiah 19 : 20. 

England's Child Slaves 

IT IS useless to claim that a child laboring in a 
factory is anything less than a slave, cither of 
conscicncoh^gs or jioviM-ty-^tricken puronte or 
certainly of tlio oflf^ti ivtutlcso or brutal foiv- 
luc-n or foriwDiucii in cliar'^o of tiio work of 
.-irivin? th" litllr oi.i^r ^o c;ft thw porttid of iL-'hli 
iliat Ihc law of profits r*;quirf>tf. Children ou^ht 
not tn br allowed, mu^h lc8s forced, to wfirk 
in such an enviroruncnt as tlio factory or mill. 
The child's place and right in iu the suniihine, 
where it can exercise, work, and play until little 



328 



The Qolden Age for February i8, 1920 



mnscles and nerves are strong and sturdy for 
the life-work before them. 

Bat England has its cliild slaves by the thoti- 
sands, and British investors are coining the life 
blood of little ones iuto dividends. Nobody 
cares; for does it not pay to u-ork the ueak 
little arms and fiiigers better than those of the 
gro's%"n-ups who demand more money? So in 
Manchester seven- year-old children labor ten 
hoars a day for 11 cents; and boys and girls, 
that should at least be at school and getting a 
ohance in life, are sla^-ing ont their thirteen and 
foxirteen-year-old brains and bodies for less 
than a dollar a wt-et 01 forty or fifty hours. Of 
sonshine, green fields, good comfortable bed;;. 
and of the joy and gladness the dividends bring 
to a few rich idddies, these thousands of chil- 
dren know nothing — and ■vhy shonld they, -when 
they can so early become "useful" members of 
society and earn dividends for some one else! 

The "'great" city of Manchester boasts 6000 
little Tforkers of seven to fourteen years, includ- 
ing 1500 girls. Warrington has the distinction 
of having 700 child slaves. No mill city exists 
in England that cannot point ■with pride to its 
hundreds or thousands of these invaluable in- 
fant pillars of the indubtrial and social order. 
Girls work tiveiity-oue hours a week for 11 
cents, or half a c«rt an hour. Others labor from 
4: 15 p. m. to 10 every night and fourteen hours 
Saturdays for 28 cents (with tea and sapper) 
for the week. Little boys of eight slave ten and 
one-half hours a day for 20 cents. They labor 
in all binds of places— in Deansgate 650 deliver 
milk. "JOol run errands, 319 are in barber shops, 
CO in pawTi broker shops, and SS5 serre as 
spare-time household servants. 

Tlie fact that these oiiildreu have been reduced 
to slavery is attributable largely to the greed 
of their parents. In most of the places where 
child slavery is practised, the parents earn 
ample wages, and there is no eeononuc excuse 
for-tlie ruining of the lives of the little ones to 
add a^-shilling or two a week to the family in- 
come. But employers willingly cooperate in this 
destruction of coming manhood and woman- 
hood, for how elio could the muuagcment of 
busiaesses big and little make :o good a ^ho^\■- 
ing on aividfend day? Fortunately there are 
laws of 'J'arliainent which localities can tate 
advantage of, though the Town Council en- 
counters powerful influences when it attempts 
to prevent any of this child slavery. 



But the Golden Age is close at hand when such 
iniquities shall end. Now God is pictured as 
looking dovm upon earth and seeing these things 
and saying, "1 looked, and there was none to 
help; and I wondered that there was none to 
uphold; therefore mine own arm [power] 
brought salvation unto me [from such evils] ; 
and my fury [against such evildoers] it upheld 
me". (Isaiah 63:5) Again, "He [Christ in the 
Golden Age] shall judge [rule over] the poor 
of the people, he shall save the children of the 
needy, and shall break in pieces the oppressor'. 
—Psalm 72:4. 

The New Saloon 

THE theory of some would-be philanUiropists 
regaxdijig the alcohol addict is much the 
same as that a person prohibited from stealing 
needs a substitute for stealiug and that philan- 
thropy or religion should furnish the substitute. 
This may explain the effort to supply the "Idck- 
loss' saloon for the driitker. 

In some respects this is true. The drinker 
that went to the srJoon for good fellowship 
because he craved it ynil go somewhere else to 
find it. As there are no places worse than Uie 
saloon, he is obliged to go to some better place. 
Consequently he is to be fonnd in the pool room, 
the men's club, the street comer, the Y. M- C. A., 
or almost anpvhere with other fellows be likes. 
By thousands he is joining the Knights of Co- 
lumbus and other secret societies where the 
social instinct can be gratified and the inspira- 
tion of crowd psychology enjoyed. 

The man who drank because he likos to get 
drunk is not going to a Uquorless saloon. He 
may know where he can obtain raisin, peaeli. 
prune or dried apple whiskey, and get a product 
which, though far inferior, satisfies an abnomiart 
appetite. Not the maliogany bar, the shiny 
brass foot-rail, nor the piles of shining glass- 
ware will tempt into the sacred precincts of the 
prohibition saloon tlie lover of alcohol for its 
own sake. That is not what he desires. 

It is snggested that the new bar-room will 
furnish work for T. M. C. A. assistants with 
whom might be associated '"as a sort of low- 
brow canteen worker"' the former bartender. 
Inspirational work among saloon devotees is 
considered desirable by the advocates of the new" 
saloon; for, say they, "the bartender himself 
was usually a good practical psychologist of 
human nature, and not only prepared the favor- 



Tlie Qolden Age for February iS, 1920 



329 



ita tipple for bia customer bat also -with quick, 
'hou^li sonietlmes spurious sympathy famished 
]iun wiih ihfi mental coToioTt he nt'eded". It is 
not regarded woll for those behind the new bax 
10 wear a Y. AI. C. A. or other uniform, bat 
"those who have charge must assume some of 
the nature and behavior of ordinary individuala 
nnd avoid the wearing of special dress or uni- 
forms .ouggestive of Lnlubitions and prohibitions 
of certain aspects of society that liave grown 
to be intolerant of the average individual''. 

It is hard work getting up a ret\ned substitute 
for vice. The better way is to get the mind of 
alcohol's devotee on something better, not to 
remind him constantly, by a substitute, of what 
he has losi and still craves. 

Schtcab Not Panic Stricken 

CHARLES M. SCHWAB, head of the Bethle- 
hem Steol Corporation, at a banquet in the 
Waldorf-Astoria recently made the foUoAving 
statement: 

"A good many peojple these days are 'seeing red'. 
Some taifc as though the rrhole world is tbre&tened with 
overturn by Bolihevism. 1 am not one of those who 
tallv or think that vnj. And particulaxly here in Amer- 
ica, I have the greatest confidence in the sound and 
lerel-hcaded common sense of the American working 
man and of the American people. The more the Bol- 
shevists talk and threaten destruction the more vnH our 
p<?ople see through ail the sophistry preached to them, and 
stand adamant for America continuing to be a La2id of 
law, of order and of opportanity." 

Mr. Schwab is admittedly one of the wisest 
men in the TTidted States, a3 he is one of the 
most successful, and in the above words we think 
he has spoken not only with wisdom bat with 
a moderation calculated to make some profes- 
sional patriots stop and think. One of the 
greati-st dang>^rs in tiie United .States today is 
ihc man who "sees red" and fans the unrest of 
thc^'-country into a flame by denying to his 
fellow citiz>^tts iho commonest privileges of free 
speeeh. Iret- pr»-ss and free assembly. Such 
men should bo loi-kfd up Lmmediately. 

It I^ nefyil'-.^ for us to as.-ur'^ the readers of 
Th>: Goi-d;-x Acf, tliat we are not "'Bolshevists" 
— have no leanings in that direction whatever. 
Allhonfi,li we b.-liove in the coming kingdom of 
our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, as do all 
proft^s.-ed riiri.stians, yet we believe the Lord 
will have his own way of ushering in that king- 
dom; and we are certain it will not be by any 



acts of violence such as have been attributed to 
the jBolshevists. With such men as Mr. Schwab 
t'spressing his confidence that the United 5^tat<>s 
is in no danger whatever of Bolshevism (an 
opinion echoed by so able a journal a.s the New 
Tork World) some of those who have so much 
to say about a coming red terror here in Amer- 
ica make themselves ridiculous. If we ever do 
have a red terror here it will be directly due to 
having been induced by a needless and out- 
rageou.s white terror, started for the purpose 
of concealing and retaining from the common 
people the profits of the world war.- 

Living in New York 

BROADWAY, big hotels, theaters, and beau- 
tiful churches are not all there is oi New 
York. Neither are the Riverside Drive apart- 
ment palaces representative of life in the big 
city. No r is a position in tlie lofty office buildings 
typical of jobs at which most New Yorkers work. 
For New York is a city of poor people; of human 
beings striving desperately against rapidly 
climbing prices and rentals and slowly creeping 
wage rtiises. He who would live ia New York 
most exchange the geuuiae things of subarban, 
small city, ^^llage or country life, for the 
slightly stimulating environment of city coa- 
tsets and a host of disadTantages. 

Life in a village may seem dull enough ; but 
it is bright beside the somber picttire of the 
average worker's New York home painted by 
the Women's Municipal League of the City of 
New York, in an investigation under the direc- 
tion of the New York State Reconstruction 
Commission. We quote: 

"In one block there were 1050 families, 16S white and 
S35 colered. Rents wero from $l3 to $23 in the Phipps* 
houses (better houses built by a wealthy piulanihropias), 
and from ^S to $14 in th'e old hoiises. TLe Phipps' 
houies can accoinn^odate only a small proportion of vhe 
people who would live there if they could. Many oi 
their I the Phipps) tenants, it is true, find the rent bor- 
deniocic. Lilt by econonuiLng on other npcesjines they 
ir.aniffe to live there in T'loanlinew and decency. The 
.■har-i;t-r of the other hf*u>es varied with their ownsr?. 
liut in ircueral they were old. dark, dirty and not fit for 
hiim.-;a habitation. A high grade of cleanliness waa not 
porslhle in the best of them, and in the wor.;t there was 
crattiiiilly no sanitation. The cellars were damp and 
Ml of rats, the halls wwe not even lighted by jjas joti, 
rhe four flati on each floor were served by two toilets ija 
the hall, the plumbing was old and often out of repair, 
M that the air wis foal. The airshafta and the narrow 



330 



The Qolden Age for Fdimary tS, igzo 



court sX'Sees between the rears of the teneininits were 
littered Tvith the Ti-osta and garba^ which the tenants 
l>ad thrown out. Fhvsiciaiu attending cases of iUneia 
in the block traced them La many in>t;iuces to this filth. 
E:ccept in isolated cases, no g^reat overcrowding of indi- 
vidual families was found and little of the extreme 
poverty •5-^ii<:h the inexperienced investigator would as- 
pect to find in houses of this type. These ■v^s the 
homes of the general rtin of wage-^arcets in ^few Yoi!;. 
They are possibly a iittl.? bottor off with, the high wp.^es 
eomnvantkd by hibor to^Iay, bnt ti-.pir personiil ^stacJard.' 
had not ri.-sen, iiiaimach aj there v.-ere no better hoiisea 
to 1» had." 

A nnmber of rpmedip;- are suggested by the 
E.^construetioTi CotimiLtitiioii : 

1. "Kelaxalion of restrictions upon btiilding 
imposed by the tenement-hou<e laT\-3 and build- 
ing codes." This would re^iult in a little more 
bnilding of n still inferior type. It is hard to 
keep thfl hoiisRs for tiie poor decent to live in, 
nnd an.'^enipulous l.uildor.s avA Lindloid?; vroiild 
ba qnick to make things! worrit; at loss eo5t to 
thftnselvcs it' grftjili.'d tho opportUJiiiy. 

2. "Raising a i'v.ml ,))y general subscription 
for new tenement?." Such a pa!3?ing of tlie hat 
arorund sarors of the ijeg^^ing motliods of rp- 
ligioas institutions, and would be likely to result 
in the minimum amount of funds. 

3. "Esenpting certain Ij-p^s of buildings and 
moTtgagcfi thereon from taxation for a period 
Ions: enough to encourage investors to put their 
mon'?y into thorn." It i.s partly the high taxation 
of this chiss of invps-tiuf-nta that had kept money 
out of building operations, and the opening of 
this door would doubtlosa accomplish something 
in th« riirht direction. Ert^n tlipii, the high co.st 
of bnlldin? raatf^iials and labor stands as an 
almost impa^'^able barrier to the t;mployiiieut of 
funds in building. 

4. "State credits to encourage the erection of 
adequate accommodations for the lower-paid 
wage-earner?." Thi3 inisiit be a fir<t-class plan, 
yet it is "Socialism". 

0.' <5^ave iJie city buy up in advance cheap 
land in order to hau^o the futura population. ' 
Thi.s plan po^pe.sup.s much nu'rit and common 
sense, bnt unlortunatt'ly would '■uevifr do" here 
because it is '■Socialism '. 

Tlie plkin f-fict is that the poor and needy, to 
say nothif^of the well-paid workers, are couiing 
to a stone wall in (lie matter of housing accom- 
modations; for thcro is not enough building 
going on to provide for the natural growth of 
population, and btulding was practically at a 



standstill during the two years of the var. 
Eithet people have got to stop being born, or 
.something must be done ia harmony with th« 
law and the customs received from the fathers. 
The country debates and investigates, and does 
it over again, bnt fails to build houses. The 
authorities exorcise the flames, but do not call 
oat the fire department. Metnwhile the people 
begin to feel like a fifteen-year-old still in his 
ten-year-old suit of clothes. 

Some day, in the Golden Age, the nations will 
I'^arn that when the people need something done 
the regular thing "*-ill be to go ahead and have 
it done, it is the essence and spirit of the law 
that tlie people be taken care of, and properly 
provided for, but it is as true today, as v.-hen 
spoken of certain classes that the Master spoke 
of two iniMcnniiniis ago, "FuU well ye reject the 
conimandnient of God. that ye may kcf-p ynur 
own tradition, . , . malcing the word of dod ot 
none ofTopt tlirou^'h ynnr trndition -which yo 
have delivered: and manr sitch Hkn thinc;^ do 
y.j".— ilark T : 0, U. 

On tteadina Aloud 

IT lis a deplorable fact that the custom of 
reading aloud has almost passed away and 
that witli its passing, due to our modern habit 
of reading htirriedly and breathlessly to cover 
aS much ground as possible, the matter of an 
intelligent giving forth of the word.s rsad aloud 
and the matter of modulating the voice and the 
ttse of full tones where necessary, is fast becom- 
ing a lost art. In times gone by it was tho 
custom for a member of the fainily to rend aloud 
of an evening, and generally ."»ome work was 
selected that was a classic. In this way tltfr 
art of reading was acquired in its best estate, 
the various members of the family acting as 
critics, and at times harsh critics, especially 
when the paragrnph read was not clear to them 
and they ivere a bit irritated because the mean- 
ing was not conveyed to them as they thought 
it ihould have been. If litis old fustoa^ of read- 
ing aloud was rrvived, what a proiitahle way it 
T'ould be of sppr.diiig tlie long v.iuter evtniitgs 
aiound the f.nniily tirerr^ide, provided the .'-.elec- 
tion be an appropriate one, in harmony with 
truth and edifying to the listouera. 

Few realize how much they actually lose by 
rwoT niethoda of :=peaking. There is no more 
i-'Tectual way of improving one's delivery thaa 
reading aloud the best authors. 



The QcMen Age for Fehruary i8, 1920 




Fuel Engineering 

WITH the gradual consumption of the most 
valuable and most easily workable fuel 
deposits of Great Britain, and the encroach- 
ments made upon the coal areas of other coun- 
tries, great engineers are giving 'more attention 
to fuel problems, and with good results. 

In England Sir Charles Parsons has worked 
out the details of a plan for boring twelve miles 
into tlie crust of the earth, at which depth it 
is estimated a perpetual source of limitless 
power could be obtained. The time required to 
sink this hole has been estimated at about 
seventy years, although some engineers believe 
it could be' done in forty years. 

Meantime, other British engineers are dis- 
cussing means for maki"ng a better use than 
heretofore of the gases generated in blast-fur- 
naces. For some time, in the most progressive 
steel works, the plan has been followed of clean- 
ing these blast-furnace gases by electro-statie 
processes, and it is proposed to utilize this 
method more extensively. Gases thtis cleaned 
may be used direct in internal-combustion gas- 
engines, not needing, therefore, to be biirned 
under boilers with the -great losses in economy 
and efficiency attendant upon their use in that 
manner. They can and should furnish all the 
power required for the operation of all the steel 
works machinery, and may even be used to 
provide power for adjacent factories. The re- 
searches into fuel economy are going further, 
and steps are under way for a study of the 
slag problem, to see whether or not some way 
can be devised to recover and utilize the now 
wasted heat contained Ln the molten slag that 
runs from the blast-furnace in connection with 
the flow of liquid metaL 

'Fbese steps in economy and conservation are 
steps in the right direction. If the Lord of 
glory valued the miraculously created fish and 
bread so highly at the time the five thousand 
were fed, and later when the four thousand were 
fed, as^to ipake arrangements so that none of 
tiie foo4 should be wasted (Matthew 14:15-21, 
15 : 32 - 38 ; 16 : 9, 10), how reasonable and right 
it is for us humans, who can create nothing 
miraculously, but who are wholly dependent 
upon what he has created for us, to vise wisely 



for ourselves, and economically on behalf of 
our children, the blessings which God has placed 
within our reacL 

We believe that at some time during the 
Golden Age, probably just when it is most 
needed, a plan wiil be put into operation like the 
Parsons plan or some other good plan which ^vill 
settle the fuel and power problem for ail time. 

Cheaper Vanadium \ 

IT IS a benefit to humanity w^orth noting 
when an important raw material is produced 
at lower cost. A few years ago vanadium would 
have been spoken of as a Tare element, interest- 
ing because of its chemical peculiarities and for 
maldng dyes and ink. Today it is of great 
importance in the industrial world ; for a small 
amount added to steel makes the latter very 
tough. Vanadium steel is one of the prominent 
products of the steel industry. 

Ten years ago the methods of getting the 
element from the ores of Peru were so ineffi- 
cient as to extract only 36%. This was later 
raised to 75% ; but now the electric furnace has 
been tried, and gets 92%. The concerns that 
have been producing vanadiiun are enabled to 
work over the immense slag piles, and get 
enough out of them to yield one company alone 
a profit of $3,000,000 a year for three years to 
come. The public would be more interested if 
the improvement led to a lower price; but, as 
there is little competition, the benefits of prog- 
ress are likely to be absorbed almost entirely 
by the manufacturers, who, of course, axe en- 
titled to it, if they choose to follow that policy. 
In days when every one but the profiteer feels 
the stress of the cost of living, the addition of 
an extra di\-idend of $11 a share is greatly 
appreciated by the stockholders. 

But in the Golden Age it will not be so. Every 
advancement acliicved \yMl be hailed by all the 
people as for the benefit of all, and not for a 
few, however proper that may be now. The 
great men will be those that do most for the 
common people. The great news in the papers 
wdl be the items about things accomplished for 
"all of us". Money mil not be the chief thing, 
nor evert gold; for it is written that "I [God] 
win make a man more precious than fine gold; 



352 



The QoMen Age far February iS, 1920 



€ven a man then the golden wedge of Ophir 
[irom which tie iinest gold came]". — Isa. 13: 12. 

The Blast- Furnace 

ABLAST-PUENACE is always kept fiUed 
with iron-ore, coke and limestone. As the 
coke is burned away and the LLmestone is melted 
in the hearth, the column above settles and fresh 
quantities are dumped into the top to maintain 
the supply. As the molten iron and slag run 
down into the hearth they separate, the lighter 
alag floating on the heavier iron. 

Two tap boles are provided at different levels. 
From the lower of these the iron is drawn off 
into the pigbed or receiving ladle, while the slag 
is tapped into a tank of water know as a gran- 
ulating pit, or into a slag ladle. 

The air necessary for the combustion of the 
coke is forced into the furnace under a heavy 
pressure by powerful blowing engines. On the 
way to the fui-nace it is heated to an intense 
heat by being forced throaght hot-blast stoves. 
This temperature, being added to the heat of 
combustion of the coke, adds greatly to the 
smelting power and decreases tie fuel consump- 
tion in the operation. 

The gases resulting from the combustion of 
the coke are partially combustible and have a 
considerable fuel value. They are, therefore, 
drawn off from the top of the furnace, more or 
less perfectly cleaned and then bTimed, partly 
under the boilers to raise steam, and partly in 
the hot-blast stoves to heat the blast. 

A modern blast-furnace produces 400 tons of 
pig-iron every day, consuming 1300 tons of solid 
materials and 2000 tons of air in the process. 
There has been a change from the old-time mie- 
of-thunib plan of running a furnace to a method 
where evcrytliiug is cai'efully weighed and all 
charges are mixed in accordance with calcula- 
tions based on chemical analysis of the raw ma- 
ttu'ials-and accurate calculation of the charges. 
If tlie slag is too silicious the pig-iron \viLI bo 
unsalable, while if it contains too much lime the 
iron ^^^il refuse to rim from the furnace. 

One oj tha most common ills of the blast-fur- 
nace is a disorder arising from poor distribu- 
tion, called scaffolding. Instead of descending 
uniformly the material adlieves to one side ajid 
bnilds out a pasty mass. Occasionally, parts 
of this scaffold break off and fall to the hearth, 
deranging the working and damaging the qual- 



ity of the product. A scaffold once formed 
tends to form again and become as bad as ever. 

A slip in a blast-furnace is a sudden settling 
of the stock through a considerable distance, ac- 
companied by a more or less violent pni¥ of gaa 
at the top. In some Lnstaaces these slips are so 
seriou* as to throw out large amounts of lump 
ore, coke, etc., through the explosion doors 
especially provided for this purpose at tlie top 
of the furnace. 

Other troubles to which the blast-furnace falls 
heir are freeze-ups in which the iron and slag set 
into a solid mass oa the hearth, and which have 
to be opened by the oxygen blowpipe; sl^am ex- 
plosions due to the water jackets leaking into 
the interior; break-outs and gas explosions; 
some of these are harrowing and frequently ac- 
companied by loss of life. These blast-furnace 
troubles are not nearly as prevalent now as 
they once were. 

The best method of casting is to tap the iron 
from the blast-furnace into a large receiving 
ladle, where it becomes thoroughly mixed into 
a homogeneous liquid. From this ladle it is 
poured into iron molds, which are carried on 
an endless belt. This method avoids the sand 
of the time-honored sand-casting method and 
secures perfect uniformity of composition. 

The production of pig-iron, starting uith 
nothing at the middle of the last century, has 
grown at the rate of 100% every decade, until 
now it is the largest single manufacturing in- 
dustry (and the most spectacular), furnishing 
approximately one-fifth of the total freight 
trafSc of the railroads. 

The Scriptures show that even in the Golden 
Age certain Idnds of iron work will go on as 
usual, and this being so, pig-iron will be needeH 
and will probably always be produced, tJiough 
we think not to tlie same extent as now. The 
statement reads, "They shall beat their swords 
into plowshares, and their spears into pruning- 
hooks; nation shall not lift up sword agains^t 
nation, neither shall they learii war any more". 
— Isaiah 2:4 

During 1919, the jiroduction of pig iron in 
tlie United States (reduced by the steel strilces 
and coal strilies) averaged 84,000 tons per day. 
In 191S the average output was 105,000 tons per 
day; in 1917 it was 104,500 tons; in 19l(J it 
was 106,500 tons; in 1915 it was 81,000 tons; 
in 1914 it was 63,000 tons; in 1913 it was 
84,000 tons. 



The Qolden Age for Februarj i8, 1920 



53S 



L 



FI/NANCE-COMMERCE-TRANSPORTATION 



The Law of the Profits 

IT SEEMS to be the logic of the situation 
that under present conditions there is no 
escape from the profit system, although many 
lovers of their fellow men are vrorldng hard to 
devise some better plan. It is argued on behalf 
of the profit system that without the chance of 
making a profit there would be no capital avail- 
able for any enterprise. It is pointed out that 
many large businesses have a false front and 
are kept up only by new capital and new men 
coming in ; that many fail several times before 
they ultimately malce good; that many concerns 
go on for years without maldng any profits ; and 
that for every concern, which remains in business 
thirty-three years the chances of failure are one 
to three. Three percent fail every year. 

Those who have given the matter careful 
study call attention to the fact that the conspicu- 
ous successes in any line ai'e relatively few, that 
the only time of great profit in any enterprise 
is in its inception, that there are hundreds of 
businesses lite the canal business, carriage busi- 
ness, bicycle business, liquor business, sailing- 
vessel business, etc., that have had a day of 
great prosperity followed by the almost total 
loss of all the capital invested in them because 
they have been superseded by something better. 
They point out that many a man has succeeded 
in a small business, only to branch out to ruin 
in a large one ; and that the general rule is that 
a very small percentage one way or the other 
means success or failure. It is w^ell known, too, 
that while many holders of railroad securities 
have received excessive profits on their holdings 
there are others who have been rewarded very 
meagerly for their investments and some have 
losf^il or nearly all that they invested. 

On the other side of the question attention is 
called to the ftict that labor takes a risk in 
iiidn.strv ; and that while capital can recover itself 
by investment in another business, labor has 
but its one l^'e to jve, and if it makes a mistake 
and getS^into the wrong line of work, or gets 
discharged suddenly, through no fault of its 
own, it is running a risk which is greater than 
that faced by any investment of capital 

Labor knovs that enormous ixneamed profits 



have been made, not only during the world war, 
but before it It knows that in some eases those 
profits have come from adulteration of good;;, 
terrorism of competitors, private legislation, 
stock watering and j ust plain hogging. Ins tanccs 
are on record where, within the yeac. 19i9, 
three times as much money was piled up or 
distributed in profits as was paid out on the 
payrolL This was in the cotton business. In 
another case brought to light, a concern wishing 
to sell out offered their business for a fair price, 
$2,000,000; but when the Wall Street crowd sold 
it to the public ui the form of stocks it went at 
the price of $10,000,000. The workers in tliat 
business wiU have to earn the profits on the 
$10,000,000, or the usual howl will go up that 
wages must come down. 

It is fortunate that the incomes from most 
large forttmes go back into business. Not aU 
the businesses into which this surplus capital 
goes prove remunerative, however, bat whether 
so or not the worker gets a return in the form 
of wages, and while the enterprise lasts, he gets 
something definite in place of the ever-present 
risk wluch the investor must face. But the in- 
vestor's profits in the long run are greater than 
his risks ; else he would never take theoL 

Until the Lord readjusts the labor-capital 
problem, tl:e present arrangement is doubtless 
as good as fallen man can devise. Communism 
is entirely impracticable, and is not sanctioned 
in the Scriptures when rightly understood. - A 
redistribution of the good things of life would 
he futile unless the good tilings continued to flow 
in from field and factory; and the spur of neces- 
sity, on the part of both capital and labor, seems 
essential in order to insure the continuance of 
that flow. It is very sad, however, that the 
workers in so many factories must perform nar- 
rowly prescribed rounds of duties, without ever 
seeing the stockholders for whom they work. 
Doubtless those employers are moving along 
right lines who are doing what lies in their 
power to make the w^orking and social conditions 
of their employes as good as possible. 

The Lord's remedy for the capital-labor troub- 
les in which the world is writhing is not force 
and more force, hate and more hate, but gener- 



334 



The Qolden Age far February x8, 1920 



osity and more generosity, love and more love, 
in the endeavor to find the best possible balance 
between the interests of the nation, the commu- 
nity, self and the other fellow. Let us all try 
to take the other fellow's viewpoint aa mach us 
we can, while not forgetting our own, and re- 
solve not to do an injustice to anybody. Thus 
each in his own comer can make a little start 
toward getting things ready for the Golden Age. 
Better to be ready for it when it comes than to 
have it find us unready and disposed to try to 
interfere with the arrangements of mutual love 
and justice which the Lord will enforce in hia 
own good way in the new era now at our doors. 

Improved Highway Laws 

PENNSYLVANIA, once reputed to have had 
the most unsatisfactory motor vehicle laws 
of any state in the union, has a new law which is 
now claimed to be one of the best. It protects 
the public, and the drivers as well, by requiring 
that all automobile drivers shall be in full use 
of both hands and have normal sight and hear- 
ing. Provision is made for the issuance of 
learner's permits, and against the passing of 
street cars while receiving and discharging pas- 
sengers. Moreover, physical proof of owner- 
ship, in the shape of the car, must be furnished 
at time of registration, thus making registration 
of stolen cars difficult. The law also makes it a 
eriminal offense to deface factory numbers and 
to sell and transfer stolen automobiles. In prac- 
tice the law is found to work well. 

The care which is taken of the interests of 
the public in this country is truly remarkable in 
comparison with some of the customs abroad. 
In Paris, for example, if a person is run over on 
the street the one arrested is the one that was 
run over, the obstruction of traffic being the 
major offense. The same principle obtains in 
London, whe're the risk of crossing the street 
is placed entirely upon the pedestrian. The 
traffi;c4&ws of Paris, and tlie customs of London, 
are protably survivals of the time when the 
conunon people were obliged to make way for 
the royalty, who were theoretically supposed 
to be the owners ot' everytiiing and ditioiselves 
to be aboVe aij law. In America we do not do 
things that way. Here the common people are 
the sovereigns, and the laws are made at their 
behest and in their interest. 

Look, too, at the history of this nation. We 
'are far from claiming that it is perfect : we c&n 



see much room for improvement in every direc- 
tion, and are willing to admit that Americans 
can still leam some things from other parts of 
the world — r particularly from Great Britain; 
nevertheless no other nation on earth has such a 
history. We as Christians are opposed to war 
among truly Christian people ; and yet we mnst 
acknowledge that some causes of war are more 
just than others, and of this more just class the 
wars of the United States seem to have been. , 
The prosperity of this land is so phenomenal 
as to be the constant surprise of the world. The 
poor from all nations have become the wealth- 
iest nation on earth. And, whatever may yet 
become true, under the changing conditions by 
which the trusts are obtaining so great a con- 
trol, this land hitherto has certainly been well 
illustrated by the statue of "Liberty Enlighten- 
ing the World" in the harbor of New Tory City 
—the work of Bartholdi. The great truth thus 
symbolized is appreciated by but few. 

Public Utilities Troubled 

IT IS no fun to own a public utility company 
like a gas-producing company, for example, 
and then bav^ an unexpected war come on and 
boost the costs of maldng the gas away up near 
the price which, by law, the said public utility 
company must charge for its product. Some 
of tiie public utility companies in and about 
New York are now feeling the pinch, the costs 
for the oil, labor and coal used in each thousand 
feet of gas now running to about 60% of the 
selling price. Atop this, cast-iron pipe and steel 
pipe, of which large quantities are used in the 
gas business, now cost more than twice wliat 
they did in 1915, and the sheepskins used for 
meters cost two and a quarter times the price 
formerly paid for them. 

Of interest to the gas companies is the ruling 
of the Court of Appeals that a law which was 
constitutional when it was passed becomes un- 
constitutional the moment it becomes confisca- 
tory. We think this is a wise ruling, good com- 
mon sense. At the same time, we have no doubt 
that these gas companies, which receive all their 
rights from the franchises given them by tlie 
people, should be limited to. a very modest re- 
turn upon their investments, and that the state- 
ments which they render in the effort to obtain 
higher rates should be scrutinized carefully to 
make sure that the facta are properly and truth- 
fully represented. 



The Qolden Ags for Februarj iS, 1920 



335 



POLITICAL- DOMESTIC AND FOREIGM 



\ 

J 



Farmers in Polities 

SHOULD the farmers of the United States 
make common cause in politics they -sFooId 
be an irresistible power. Of the 43,232,911 in- 
dustrial population in 1D17, 44%, or 19,070,843, 
are engaged in agriculture or animal husbandry, 
and are farmers. At the 1916 Prc-sidential elec- 
tion the voters numbered 18,256,743; and if the 
44% ratio holds good, the number of farmer 
voters is over 5,000,000. Tlii?, if cast in a solid 
block, T\-ouid carry any election. The farmers 
have it in their power to exercise complete con- 
trol of the affairs of tlie cotmtry, and of nearly 
every state in the Uoion. 

TliG universal cause of unrest — the liigh cost 
of living — ba.> not left Uie fiirnier uutouchcd. 
Tho aETficultuial Titan is waking up, because in 
his slefp things have gone against him. The 
rise in price of food products appeared to 
benefit the fanner unduly, but not so in fact, 
since tho purchasing power of his products just 
about kept up with the cost of living. Tlie 
farmer feels the pinch as much as any one ex- 
cept the clerical classes; for while profiteers 
Tvore permitted to ask almost any price tho 
fanner T\'as he]d to a Gorernment-Ssed price, 
and could not take a^^lvantage of the extraordi- 
nary opportunity for money- maldng afforded by 
the world war with its soaring prices. 

Now that the war is over, tlie farmer is tak- 
ing invoutoiy to find who has been piiiclting 
him, and he is inclined to tliiiik tliat it was done 
by labor, by the wealtliy, by the railroads, and 
by Government prices. Especially he is in- 
clined to think tl'.at when the big move to reduce 
the cost of living took plnce in 1919, he was the 
unfortunate victim; for the prices that tumbled 
wcrft..the price.s for farm product?, and he -saw 
valti-'^.i \':ii;i>ii to t'je ainou.-it of huiidrcdi of 
millioiio of ilollai's. Whe-n p^rk droppcrJ nearly 
hiUf in prico, tl'.o lo.s? uli.on the farmer, at a 
time when furniture, house furni.>iungs, clothing 
and otlter articles kept on up the lull, and retail 
butei;er4ehargTjd no le.'is for povk cliops. Ha fig- 
ures that when sugar went up to seventeen cents, 
Ihe benpftt went to the protiteor and the refiner, 
and v.tjuI(1 not have risen if the far7r.??r had ber-n 
kept in mind. He naturally cannot see the equal- 



ity- for-all when he wns held to $2.26abti.'!hel for 
wheat, when the demand would have given liiin 
$5.00 wheat and enabled him to pile up a reserve 
such as the rich corporations heaped up by the 
billions of dollars dnring the war. Any worm 
is liable to turn ; and the farmer has about de- 
cided that if tlio agitation for lower food prtcr^s 
ii continued vvith further success, he may stop 
producing food that does not pay hifn to plant, 
rai.se less, and let the rest of the people look 
out for themselves, if they can get along without 
Ills cordial coijperation. 

The farmer has decided to act. He has deter- 
mined that 1920 shall signalize the formulation 
of a definite agricultural policy designed to give 
him a much greater inftufucc in the manage- 
lufnt of Am.-rican aifairs. The little farruer 
organizations are rapidly amalgamating into 
the hngpst units ever Icnown in American poli- 
tics. These immense atsociations are made up 
of millions of detomiined men, and, as stated by 
the president of one of them, "We shall elect 
a President to guide our policies in conjunction 
with a cabinet composed of farmers from every 
state in the Union". 

At this juncture the farmer finds himself 
blessed with an unprfcpdonted popularity. He 
is Eurroundod by politicians, telling him all his 
good qualities, predicting great things for him, 
and offering to guide his foct into ways that will 
save tho industrial, economicj political and in- 
ternational situation— if only the farmer-Mall 
follow liis sudden friends. The real object of 
the politicians is to break up the farmer move- 
uiont into small units, and render it iimocuous — 
anything to keep the farmers from achieving 
tlie unpar.i.ll.^lftd jucces.^ jitst v.-on by the united 
fanners of Cnnr.da. 

E-.'cti thongh tl-.o politician? do tell the farm- 
ers so, there is r.o question that the farm with 
its hard wovlc ;ir.d nieagc-i' return.'?, with its near- 
ness to nature ar.d its enforco>i opportunities for 
lefiection and meditation, creates the most con- 
.'5Gr\-ative body of men in any nation. Many are 
tlie assurances to that effect: 

"The faQure of the industrial confrrence to accomplish 
;'.r!y concTrte Ihin^ raafci'ii nocoss.iry an otT(>n.iiva inrl 
defensive alliaEce betirecn all ccnstructire forces of the 



336 



The Qolden Age for February iS, 1920 



country. In thia crisid the faxnier must get to the helm ; 
aad he mtist stay aX the helm until the sliip ol' state u 
brought safely into the haven of rest." 

'"There is a growing conviction thai agriculture muit 
be the intercfissor between the warring fiictiona, that Uie 
i"armep muat stabilize conditions and make hia great 
influence felt at thia time." 

The I'armf r is now assured Uuat the poliLiclans 
and the ricli all along rcaUzed that he was the 
onlv person -R-ith sense : 

"The fanner ii the only man who has hii feet roally 
on the gTouud. He must romaia iirroly at his post; and 
while reiLisin;; to surrijndiH' any rig'hts which are his, he 
should hy e.varnple and precept e:;er('L-;c such an iafluence 
a? will r.-'.;d to bria^- ralmne-s to labor and awuraace to 
capiial. i; tl'.e .-aine time makiQ;| it clear to each that 
notJiicg that ruakc-s for industrial pro.gresa and commer- 
cial solidariiv can be aceonipli^hed without the aid of 
ajricuhv.r';."' 

Tiie farmer listens to these blandishment?, 
but remenifcer*, and ^vonders why all this was 
not found out before tlie ffi'eat industrial confer- 
ences, dt Washington, to none of which he re- 
r-eived so much as an invitation. The popu- 
larity is too sudden to be real, he meditates ; and 
liG ends by deciding that the safe course is not to 
let his movement be broken up or misdirected 
by desicpiing '"friends", and that as heretofore 
he bad hotter go it alone, so as to have some 
ehancp of getting something done the way he 
thinks it ought 10 be done. 

There is quite an impression that the Amer- 
ican farmer is inclined to hitch up his horse with 
that of organized labor. On the contrary, most 
of the great meetings of farmer organizations 
disclaim sur-h an iuiention, in some instances 
^vith stroi'LC pxpres-sious. One farm congress 
rosolvt-Mi ■■roiHU-ninaiion ot' the unions for their 
(•\T'•-^es. .-iifli as uuioni/.ing the police and 
ordering strikos and thus catling dovni the 
produi-rion 01 ner-.-ssiries'''. Another voted to 
"Ofjpo:'*' any r.iSrr.pt to force farmers to line up 
wlLii^rjriatiiz'.-d l:i!'..c. or to have agri<'ulturists 
)iarLi(.'ipaic iti uixu.^^i.m* or fonft-rf-dcos to sr-t- 
ile til'" dispinr-r. oi r-npiial ami labor". Concern- 
ing tl:'=' I'lnnib Phut f.ir]aborc.iuiri)li-ii' railroads 
the vot»' atruinod ilmi t!ti> farrnrv.-* regarded it 
a'* dnniT'-rr.tis fur lln;- wi-li'ari- oi' iln' country, 
iiepanii'hg <iov.Miun«'ni iiwiit'iship ol railroad.-; 
and othi'r industrii^.';. ihr- farmer cannot forgot 
that bo i.< tiif ow.H-v III' ihf farm; and ?o ho 
says: '■Suh.^tantinl ronnlry jtoopio want tite rail- 
ways rolurmd to I tie o-svni-rs at the earliest pes- 
sibif moment, under such conditions xs will ia- 



sore reasonable returns on the value of the prop- 
erties and reasonable rates for transportatioa 
through the country. The farmers are dead set 
against this scheme to enmesh them in a web". ^ 

The principal reason for the conservatisdi of 
the farmers is that they are themselres fairly 
prosperous owners of property. They have .seen 
Russia make the farm the property of the nation ; 
they have seen the high wage.s of the cities drate 
labor off the farm to the factories; they have 
felt the pinch when the relatively incompetent 
farm laborers that remained insisted, on $5 to 
$7 a day and an eight-hour day, when the owTier 
was working nearly twice that long; and they 
have not forgotten Low- the city strikes cnt dov:n 
production of manufactures and raised prices. 
To the average farmer, as to other property 
owners, the labor movement is anathema, be- 
cause it works against the interests of employ- 
ers of organized workers. 

There is, nevertheless, a strong movement 
among the farmers that would link up witli 
labor. Farmers that are not doing very well, 
that do not read the big New York dailies, and 
that are not too illiterate, are out in favor of 
such reforms as recently srwept Canada, and 
which the conservative wealthy agriculturists 
would not think of touching. This class of farm- 
ers is fotmd in the states of low or irregular 
rainfall, from Texas nortli to the Dakotas, and 
also in the South, on the Pacific Coast and in 
the Northwest. They are exemplified in suoli 
orgauizations as the National Farmers' Cotmcil, 
which are glad to affiliate with the labor organi- 
zations and approve their programs, thongh 
diffident about submitting to the riiiership--oi 
the American Federation of Labor. These fam 
organizatinna have gone on record in favor of 
the following: 

1. 'iTiorough Governmental regulation of the packing 
industry. 

2. Government ownership of railways and Gov.-m- 
mezit control of the meiThant mmme. 

J. Nauocaliyation oi iiarural ret-ourees. 

■L Keeping the hi^h war tares on the wealths &sA 
•.he great corporations and purtLng xh^m on land ht li 
for speculative purpose:!. 

u. Taking ihe credit system away from ths baji'.. r* 
and putting it oa a cooperative basid whi?a'e the sirail 
merchant and the fanner c»a get some tseaefit from it 

i). 'ITie I'ederal women's saffrage ameTjdraeat. 

'. Reniovai of ihe tax an oieomargarine. 

ITiese are all measures calculated to beuellt 
the poor and the worb'ng people, and are not so 



The Qolden Age for FehriuLVf 18, 1920 



337- 



well thought of by tie -wealthy farmers who 
doQunate the farm organizations of the pros- 
jji^rous xVliddle West, and whose sympathies are 
more wath tlie other well-to-do from Wall Street 
down to ihe less influential oaes. 

The National Grange is an old organization 
and rans true to the traditions of tie farm of 
decades ago. It stands for no change that -wOLdd 
not directly help the farmer, and is a po-^er 
for the preservation of things-as-they-are. It is 
interested deeply in the present opportunity for 
the farmers to come into their own, and ■would 
v.-eleome control of the countrj' by the farm in- 
terests. The Nonpartisan League has its 
strength thus far in the Northwest from, the 
Dakotas west, and is oat for immediate and 
direct fariner-lalwr control of Government, not 
through new parties, bnt by inside control of the 
existing' popidar parties. It has been showins: 
no little strength and will be a movement 10 he 
reckoned with in the 1920 elections. 

The situation of the farmer in politics, in 
brief, is that there are enouph farmers to con- 
trol the Government from "Washington down, 
but they are divided, and by keeping them apart, 
insidious efforts are being made to prevent 
them from making common cause and taking 
the management of affairs oat of present hands. 

The average farmer is a lover of fair play. 
As says the Missouri Fanner: 

"As a priniB facie pTopositior. rhe farmer is not ir.ter- 
ested in eiiminatinj the Isgitininta middleraan or ai'.y- 
body rise who serves a luef ul purpose in our sociaj f2!)rio : 
for to do 30 woulfl be w destroy a ^ood ciutomPT f^r t':? 
products or I'ne farm. Xor hr.< hp auy quinv-1 ■.vitii I'Jir 
iJiisiaess, so long at! it bohav^i ii-oli — ;o Ion:; a- it '!o. - 
not step on his top^ and i? r?2..-o!i<ii>Iv- .Accent ?o rh^^ hj!- 
suicc ai iociety. Bui %\h.it ho != frc-m.^nilon^ly i]..:-:. ■ .-l 
ia is the compslling oi' a siina!'^ Jfci I'l it:" rui-iii'i- 
placa for the pro<lue'.,s of hi« -v, at 2iii loii ; a;!cl i.T \\t'-. 
unless, we are very raxioli rni^ra'-:' 11. U* u- ahoiit to siv? a 
demon?t¥n,iioD of siaodip? no on hi'J 'I'P.d ]'^;z- thai ■. ili 
e-itound iho oldr-t inh:!l:r.;r r. When \ r.^ smo'.e vi' hr.ti '■"■ 
rolLs away *e hoiii-'vo }■.■■• \. a! *a:'"r;' fi.-in !''.e ' •/'' '■■ " 
in a position wh'-r'?!:-? w'll. ■■'. ih-= i ..iTr. i-.-.v- •'!■•■,'''": 
ViTT ije;lail'= 10 -:.y aOo:^l w; .:. L:^ ■[^s.li n ..-s- .'•.;■ r: ■ 
iniitsoi hJfl I'eh;-: ar.rt iVc.l lot- - >•. l;.rt> h^ wUl rio lo-^j--;' 
be l-'icked af.d t-jft'etl abuur brm-'a Curi'f-^ vii'.ii i\ oq i';'- 
one hand t-fil him hoi/ muili hr' haii pay for th^ir -■.•1;', 
\ihile upon the other ihry iiil hiin \wrh <=riual I'ranUir-- 
Iiow mut'li he shaJl reooi\e I'cr h'n yeas'' afJiiOii- \v>'(':. 
And once thui orgi-Lniwd, the Arr.oricaci fartTi.;r wLU ir- 
iTiPdiat*ly becoTT.e iho grt-al. r.-.u-r.-ative balance- fthp>'l 
of the cation, an arthorase lor :c-l: rjlimt icdiiiiiua!.- 



ioD and tbe rights of private propttrty as i^iioft tho 
socialistic agitators of our time, and a bulwark for this 
Rffoublic 01 the Fathers, against which the Lnn? ol* \\:j 
future will hujl their fury as harrnlefsly as the wav.-s 
that beat upon the sentinel rocks that guard the sea.'' 

Dou))tless the farmers may have their chance ; 
but ilie saving of a world from ita desperate 
plight is something too much for even the fann- 
ers, especiaJlv when their unwisdom and liability 
to imprudent mass action is recalled in connec- 
tion with the fiat-money greenback and populist 
crazes of .some decades ago. To handle the in- 
tricacies of trade and of government calls for 
more than good intentions and there is little 
evidence that the American Farmer fully grasps 
the dangers that attend even slight errors, for 
example, as in the handling of foreign exchange 
r»r of credits to foreign nations, to say nothing 
of innumerable other problems of like impor- 
(ano. For it is stiU trae that the less one knows 
about a task the surer one is that he can handle 
it, and that ^ith all due respect to good inten- 
tions, "Fools [those not understanding] rush in 
where angels [who understand] fear to tread". 
According to the Good Book, "The -wisdom of 
the pntdent is to imderstand his way; he looketh 
well to his going; he is crowned with knowl- 
edge." (Proverbs 14:8,15,18), Even the farm- 
ers, now in the pride of self-reliance, may learn 
that "a prudent man foreseeth the evil, and 
liidoth liimself ; but the simple pass on, and are 
puiiisliod". — Proverbs 22 : 3. 

Anarchy— Common or Preferred? 

IS TEIE Fourth Volume of his wonderful 
sp ricis of ScBiPTLTj^ Studies, that eminent 
niblo iuident. Pastor Charles T. Russell, said-r 

••'n*.('' rr.a=-es will be restless under their restraint*, but 
v.-;;! be Lir.-eions of their vTeaknpss as compared »ith u\n 
l:!,!'.'- arid pi'inocs. iinani'ial, social, religious and poliii- 
osL v.i'.o will then hold s^ray. The majority of the poor 
C!'il r.'.'iJ'r oIa?sc-s prPlVr peaioe at almost any price. Tha 
i ■.:•- - hi'.'e uo syrnpaLhy wich anarchy. They reaiivi 
T r.: 'I-.? i^or-i [■■>rrr. oi ,T0Vi-'nim^Tit is bi^tt^^r than no"^'. 
'I'' ,-. 1. ,iu„.. wiil spf»i. reliof ilirotigh the ballot and ihs 
'..>,■;.-. ;,il r,\>!jir.-::ffi.-iil: of ea.-ih'.s al'airs for ihe fllmL'--.- 
; r 1 01 ,-,1!. for lb-' ularicg of moaopolies and uuliti,' 
r,-.i'i th.> nipinici of nature in tiie haiid.j of the p."p'.\ 
('■If tb.p puLlio cr^>oii. Tb"* crisis will be reached when the 
■ tH.-.-lo uuliold.^ri of the !a>v shall bi-^ome violato-i .->-C 
i'"i !ii. uQil r.'.-isteri oC the will 01* the majority 4^ c-:- 
]!■: ;,v(' by ihr» balio:. l''"ar for the future wOl goad tiif 
v.^ll-m. snjpir mn'.^s to de'pTatlon, and acarcby will 
r^-'^iilt vihen Sociiiiira fails."' 



33^ 



The Qolden Age for February 18, 1920 



>* . 



Readers of Tni; GotDEjr A02 know that ■*'(? take 

no partisan position on qticatiotis now ag-itat- 
ing the pabHc mind. We are for peace, always 
for peace, nnd nt-ver for violence; for ^e could 
not be otlieruise and he follo'-rers of the Prinoo 
of Peace; bat we think no reasoning mind can 
bliiuie n$ for asking some pertinent questions 
just at this time. 

We would like to know which i« the more 
danseroua follow, iho. anarchi'-^t \nth little or no 
power at his command of the anarchist %rith 
,!7foat powPT at hi? fingers' endr-. The great to- 
do -^vhich the -r^merican aristocracy i.<« making' 
over the few iiltra-radicrd agitator? who arc 
talkin,^ re.^h tbinprs cannot quite hide tlie much 
more dangerous "plui^-hat aiiarelusni'"' which 
does not lurk bat is hlatantly and (lamboyantly 
heralded in most of the "responsible^' org'ans of 
the coniitry. It would be nnnecossary an<l proT> 
nhly UTitpae (o ■'ny tlifit 'I'tth-.^r the rs^d-slurted 
0? the Chamher oT Commerce vari'^ty are iu- 
pincore. They MUito po5;^ihly think that th.R ndc 
of men is more opportune than the rule of law. 
Many of ns down here on the common level have 
wondered why the nalwos should object .S'o s'^ri- 
ousfy and make po m,uch noise aliont rule hy 
\-iolonce when it is the method of all methods 
which they most heartily approve. But now it 
peema thai it is not 30 much the method that ta 
objected to as thf few individuals who are talk- 
in,? about wrpstins: the adniini.^tration of the 
nif'thod from their venerable fimrcrf'. 

The Xovembor lotter of the Alexander Ham- 
ilton Institute, certainly an exponent of aristo- 
cratic business, contains tlio following: 

"The country oircs a rot; of thnnk; to Juo^p Gary 
for his unequivocal Jeclaration of tl>o i-sue itivolved in 
the general labor sittmtioa !.hi;'iiig his testiniuiiy bcfoi-e 
the S^enate Committee iiiTc>'t!;.'3tirg ihe steel strike. 
Thn i.vnie is whether inda»t:y is io be iiirect>;-<l by ?uoh 
'reiU' as Foster, the sCfel strike orciinizer. or by employ- 
er3~*b^arc ,=incerply intPTo«t>'d in tb.e condition ot' laiior, 
a< well as the profit- oi! caniral. such ii* Jud/ze Gary. 
Ai importiir.t phni-.^ . f rh" v-^m n' ?;a.kp is v.h.'thL-r labi.T 
.ird the cpr.Hral piiijlic arc s-y.zi-^ to r^cugrii-,' ihac capi- 
t".l i:' entif'-d ti"> A i ;:"-V'-'V ir.'.OTivi V. Ii<? dii'^c-tioa L-an 
i;'..i!;c it jroiriiC"." 

Thes^ v.'ord." are perfectly plain. All one 
would ne"e<t to do to prod\:ce the wilde.«t ."^o-called 
radical UteraLure would be to change two vrords 
in that last sfutence and say: 'The important 
phase of the idsue .^t stake is whether oapitaJ 
and the general public are going to recognize 



that labor [skill-and-e.\perience capital] 18 fiiv- 
titied to whatever income wisa direction can 
maks it produce'. That, of course, would be 
red-handed anarchy, seeking to overthrow th9 
Constitution, to wreck the social fabric of our 
country, to stampede the land with Bolshevist 
ideas, to throttle the established lustitutioas of 
the Ajiglo-Sason peoples, etc., etc., etc. 

The choice, Uierefore, which the Ajuerican 
people are asked to make is not between an- 
archy on the one hand and Uw and order on the 
other, but between anarcliy less conventioually 
atti red and anarchy gownud with Fifth Avenue 
preci^:ion. T'ne term anarchy is here used in its 
literal etymological tneaning of lawlessness. 
Butli sides freely imply the use of force. Either 
could ])e the author of' the following words, but 
actually it is the capitalist side: 

"In .\mi'rica v,c m.iv ho .'uro tiiat th« 'Eghting o-iJr*'' 



H-n v.;;3 n^iRiiiju Hi 



satriijis who fiiu.idcd 



R:pu!)l;r is .-till pvosf-Tit in the great naajority ot" thft 
Ameriv^an ^>eop!i!, and v.'iU V? in evidecw wh.'>ni;v-?r an 1 
•ivVicrcver our toustitiiiional righti la life, liberty, znl 
{iroffrty are prejudiced.'' 

V.'ilh tlirents like this thrown at them it need 
not be surpri.*ing if, in answer, sotae youthfal 
Patrick Henrj- will jump np somewhere and 
shout: "Woof! woof! gentlemen; I repeat it — 
woof! woof!" If merely the* two kinds of an- 
arcjiists were involved it wonld not b« so bad; 
but the general public suffers and pays. 

Inspired by tin' recurring threat.s of violence 
mailo ijy well-dressed anarchists in high j^lacct. 
and realizing that these threats bode no good 
to the people 01 this land, The New Repuhlie in a 
recent ii;.«ue said: 

••.\mrTir:ui educstora and lau-yers no longer aetTs it 
r!;;; Govorr;im.<T;t ayd Coustitation of the Uuited Status 
is, ;is Jiioticc II..l::!Gs »ay,s, au e.vwriniunt which ctWfh 
■>: iic own .-iit'.t>- an agency of self-adjustment and 
wr.ii-h -QCiki it in t''.e utmost puiiiblQ freedom of opiuior. 
They act as gccd Catholics formcrlv actod in relation 
•.o the sovcrnmer.t iu:d tli2 crofd of ilie Catholic church 
— r.s ii ('rie i"!ijvor!'.!:u'nt a:-.d Couititutioa were the oif- 
j'-idLmorit o^ ult.iMtc pf>lifii.ai 3n«l social truth, wiich :i 
to 'le p(>r;:"tiiuu'd !iy pfrsotutiL'.^ aaJ (.•.xtcrminatiiitr its 
I'Qi'mie? ruthiT th:an liv vindiciitir.? i« own qualilications 
to rarn,- on ur.d-'T v.^vr cof-ditiors thi? difficult job of nip- 
rlyirg political .sUvation to mankind. If Jl!«y begin by 
?ici-i3cuig rreedoui of speech to what is supposctl to 
1.' '.he siiiety of cor.sciciitio.'^il government they trin prA 
\w jaL-riiltirg i^oniiiiutioi'.al ^'^''^mnient to' tlia ditta- 
l<irshi;> ot oao dms," 






The Qolden Age for February i8, ig20 



339. 



AGRICULTURE AND HUSBANDRY 



Beekeeping, a Profession 

nnHE familiat and insigniiicaEt little houey-bee 
-L is the most useful ixisect yet domesticated. 
Each, year these little insects gather and store, 
ready for consumption, tons of nature's most 
delicious sweet — honey — ^whlch would otherwise 
go to waste. Their value as food producers was 
early recognized by the Government ; and during 
the war steps were taken to increase their num- 
bers. Their valae as agents in cross-poUination 
of flowers cannot be overestimated. Many un- 
productive fruit orchards have been made to 
yield large and paying returns by the introduc- 
tion of a few colonies of bees. Thus, many a 
fruit grower has testified that his fortune was 
made, after he had almost given up hope, by 
aid of the bee finally called to his attention. 

When we speak of the bee our mind is apt to 
wander back to the old straw skep, or log gum, 
which years ago was a common sight -on the 
farm. But in the last few years beekeeping has 
& been revolutionized. The movable frame hive 

£ was introduced by Langstroth some thirty years 

=^ ago. Since then many other inventions have 

(r been patented and discoveries made which are 

•«' of untold value to the beekeeper. In the last few 

years beekeeping has come to be recognized as 
one of the professions and is now taught in 
most of the agricultural colleges throughout the 
United States. Mail order courses in beekeep- 
ing are also to be had for the benefit of those 
unable to attend coUege. 

In the West (Nevada, California and other 
states) there are many large beekeepers who 
produce honey by the carload and number their 
colonies by the thousands. There are records 
of single apiaries having 750 colonies which 
produce an average of fifty pounds per col- 
ony; and many large beekeepers have a string 
of a dozen or more apiaries, each about two 
miles apart. In a season single colonies have 
been Idiown to produce half a ton of honey ; and 
in a t^-day period, by test, ten colonics pro- 
duced slightly over a hundred pounds op.ch. The 
professional beekeeper makes valuable use of 
the motor truck in visiting outyards. With a 
special body made and designed for extracting 



purpose he makes quick trips to the distant out- 
yards and may extract from the comba a ton 
or more of honey per day, the amount depending 
on size of the extractor used. Extracted honey is 
more cheaply and economically produced than 
is comb honey. The empty combs are replaced 
in the hives for the bees to fill again, as soon as 
the honey has been removed from them. Thus 
they are used over and over again. This saves 
the bees lots of work; for it takes froia five to 
ten pounds of honey to make one pound of comb. 
Honey was practically the only sweet known 
to the ancients. Honey is a predigested sweet 
and is much more healthful than is cane sugar; 
and it contains iron and other elements which 
are lacking in sugar, comsymp, etc- Dr. 
Kellogg, Battle Cree^ Mich., is only one of the 
list of prominent physicians who lieartily en- 
dorse honey as the best form of sweet Physi- 
cians admit that the excessive use of cane sugar 
is a common can.^e of Bright's disease, and that 
the use-of honey in place of sugar would largely 
correct this. All these statements but go to prove 
that the advice of the wise old Solomoa to his 
son still holds good, i. e., "Eftt thou honey, be- 
cause it is good". (Proverbs 24:13) Honey is 
also the sweetest sweet. "What is sweeter than 
honey r'— Judges 14:18. 

Fittest Wheat Survives 

THt] principle of the survival of the fittest 
has been successfully employed by Pro- 
fessor H. L. BoUey, at North Dakota Agrhmt- 
ttiral College, in producing a variety of wheat 
that survives the ravages of rust. Millions of 
bushels of wheat are ruined annually by the 
rust ; and a rust-proof wheat will be a boon to 
farmers, in sections where that disease of the 
wheats prevails. 

The rust is a fungus, or minute plant, which 
j^rows as a parasite in the tissues of wheaL The 
last plant lias four stages, each going by tlie 
name of a particular kind of rust. The first 
stage of the life of the rust occurs in some other 
plant, such as the barberry, after which tli€ mst 
plant is transferred by wind or otherwise to the 
leaves of the wheat plant, and becomes m turn, 
red rust, black rust and "promycelium", growing 



340 



The Qolden Age for February i8, 1920 



on both the inside and the oatside of the wheat 
leaf, and destroying the life of its host. 

In man the chief factor in healtli is ability 
to resist disease; so in wheat the rust-proof 
■wheat has been developed by selecting from the 
field the stalks showing the best health and the 
greatest ability to resist the growth of the rust. 
Professor BoUey has been working on the prob- 
lem eight years, selecting the healthiest wheat 
each year, until he has found the answer. Tho 
new wheat is a red durum, "D5" ; and fields of it 
ore free from rust, when adjoining fields of 
other grades, such as the •TTS" grain, are ruined 
by the rnst 

It is expected that the new rust-proof wheat 
Trill become one of the standard wheats of the 
Northwest; and will assist the farmers of the 
wheat belt in their struggle with the enemies of 
Buccessfnl farming. 

It is doubtless by similar methods that the 
promises of the Golden Age may be made effec- 
tive, such as, "Then shall he give the rain of 
thy seed, that thou shalt sow the ground withal; 
and bread of the increase of the earth, and it 
shall be fat and plenteous". — Isaiah 30: 23. 

Good Bye to the Horse 

NATURALLY we hate to eat the horse, and 
to eat him for good ; but we have to do it. 
He is too expensive to keep and is in the way. 

Over 100 years ago a statistician said, "In 100 
years the world cannot feed itself". The only 
slip was that the statistician did not know that 
meantime the railroad would be invented which 
would enable the great plains to be cultivated 
and it3 products brought to the ports of the 
world, there to be again transported by yet 
Other steam engines. 

Only a little while ago the alarmists were 
again saying that the earth would soon cease to 
be able to feed itself, but they did not know that 
in' Jfhe meantime the gas-engine would be in- 
vented and with its perfection would come tlie 
end of the horse. In a little while from now the 
ox and the horse may be seen in the zooloeical 
garden and nowhere else. One little gras-eiiqrine 
will do Ijis much work as fifty horses and twenty- 
five mep. fevery horse replaced leaves room 
for twent>'-five humau beings to live in his place. 
The gas-eugineis taking over most of the labor- 
ious work on many farms, especially in the 
irrigatioii districts of the West; and nearly 
every far me r baa an automobile or a Ford, 



which will travel as well in tho heat of the noon- 
day sun as in the cool of the early morning or 
eveniug. And thus we lose the horse. 

Diener's Giant Hybrids 

DURING the war Richard Diener, a resident 
of California, began the production of a 
series of giant hybrids which have attracted 
much attention. The experiments htive been 
conducted on a piece of land, eight acres in ex- 
tent, which was so alkaline as to be supposedly 
of little value for agricultural purposes. 

Upon this little piece of land Diener has pro- 
duced wheat which jielded 150 buslicls to the 
acre, corn that grows twelve feet in height and 
produces ears weighing as much as two and one- 
half pounds, tomatoes up to thi-ee pounds in 
weight, and white beans which are as large as 
birds' eggs. He has grown potatoes so large 
that one wiU feed a family of fifteen persons- 
He has produced carnations eight inches in 
diameter, gladiolas of nine inches, and petunias 
so large that they w-ere unsalable. - 

By the scime principles of hybridization, the 
details of whi "i are kept secret, Diener has also 
developed a white leghoni rooster of more than 
twice the normal size. He thinks it possible to 
grow chickens that wiU be as large as ostriches. 

Farmer Should be Consulted 

THE National Grange objects to industrial 
conferences at which the farm is not repre- 
sented. It holds that the continual advances 
made to workers in the industries has created 
unrest among farm laborers, to the point where 
tens of thousands of farm-hands have left tlie 
farm and gone to the better-paying industries 
of the' industrial centers. If the process "con- 
tinues it will strip the farm of its workers, re- 
duce- production of things to eat, and still 
farther raise the cost of living. It will affect 
the whole country adversely; and if such con- 
ferences are held' with no farm representation 
tlie farmer disclaims responsibility for future 
advuiicts in prices both to himself and to the 
people at large. . 

The Earthly Image 

MAX is an animal being. Tlie original image 
of his Creator consistL^d in his moral and 
inteUectual likeness. It is diificvdt to_ judge from 
present human conditions all that is meant by 
God's image, because we have no sajuple of per- 
fect humanity for comparison. 



The Qolden Age for February i8, 1920 



.34» 



•\c 




Life of the Sauriana 

"C^VERY little while a-scienlifie expedition digs 
■L^ up a lot of bonos of tlie saurian?, the great 
creatures that passed away prior to the advent 
of man upon the eartli. At Tendagoroo, East 
Africa, there 'was recently found the upper arm 
tone of a diplodocus, a great creature eighty- 
four feet long, Aveighing 200 tons— as large as 
ten elephants. This great lizard lived in the 
water, its head and ueck stretched forty foet 
along tlie mud and its tail extending eighty feet 
beyond it. 

On the banks of the Red Deer Eiver, Alberta, 
Canada, a number of s.keIctons of various saur- 
ians were discovered recently. One of these 
-was a creature thirty-five feet long, able to stand 
on his hind legs and browse on vegetation fifteen 
feet above the ground. On his head v.as a great 
crest, used to receive and deflect from his body 
the discharge-^ of mud and rocks which accom- 
panied the deluges prior to that of Xoah's day. 
His body was covered with plate scales about 
one and one-half inches in diameter, serving the 
same purpose. This saurian has been named 
the corythosaurus casuarius. He had over two 
thousand teeth, lived in the soft mud, and from 
the shape of his head is supposed to have lived 
on the soft aquatic plants which grew in such 
great abundance in the Carboniferous era. 

Contemporary Avitli the alxtve-nanied saurian 
was the tyrannosaurus, a creature lit'teeu feet 
high and twenty-five feet long, built in such a 
way as to indicate that he frequently dined on 
other saurians. He had teeth an inch wide pro- 
jecting four inches above the gums. He wa*; 
equipped with huge eagle-!ike claws which woukl 
have made him a good steeple-jack if he coulil 
have found any building that would have stood 
tia,,weight. 

At the Red Deer River there was also obtain- 
ed the remaiiis of an anlc>'losaurns, a creature 
shaped like a huge barrel eigliteen feet long and 
six feet in diameter. Hi? head and body were 
litewrae ^oteeted ^^-ith bony plates, and for 
the saflpe reason, namely, to ward oft" or sustain 
the shock of the showers of rocks and mud. 

The saurians lived in what intelligent Christ- 
ians denominate the fifth day or epoch described 



in Genesis 1 : 20 - 23. The carboniferous quali- 
ties of the v/ater and the atmosphwe having 
been absorbed into the cretaceous organisms of 
the sea, which formed beds of limestone, and 
into the rank veaotation which went to form the 
coal bedsj'the atmosphere of earth began to be 
pure enough to permit life in breathing animals; 
To tliis period, therefore, belong these amphib- 
ious developments of animal life. .Birds belong 
to tlus period, and in the latter part of it ap- 
peared the great mammoth and the sloth. 

The conflict between Evolution and the Bible 
has been sharp. Nevertheless, uncnecessary fric- 
tion has been generated. Only in respect to man 
does the Bible declare a special, direct creation 
of God. The statements of Genesis in respect to 
the lower creatures rather favor something 
along the lines of specialized evolution. God 
said : "Let tlie waters bring forth abundantly the 
moving creature that hath life, and fowl that 
may fly above the earth". (Genesis 1:20,21) 
This is exactly in harmony with our scientific 
findings that the beginning of life came from the 
waters, and later extended to the birds, and 
later still to land animals. 

The Darwinian theory has disappointed those 
who swallov.ed it without a sufficiency of demon- 
stration as to its truth. (1 Timothy 6: 20) Re- 
cent demonstrations show that every mixture 
of species and kind, even where partly success- 
ful, means a reversion to the original standar Is 
witliin the third or fourth generation in plants, 
flowers, fruitri, and animals. — 

The correct thought would seem to be that 
under divine supervision various orders of cre- 
ation were brought to a state of development 
and axity of species, not to be turned aside nor 
thereafter altered. Xot one suggestion is offered 
respecting human evolution from a lower crea- 
ture ; but quite the contrary. As the carfaon-ladfU 
atniospherc became more pure, vegetation be- 
came less rank. The animals changed corre- 
spondingly. The heavy-boned sloth and mam- 
moth gave place to less bony varieties of ani- 
iiial;-, conmion today. 

The specialization in the case of man's crea- 
tion is sho^vn in hia vast superiority over the 
lower animals. 



343 



TTie Qolden Age for February 18, 1920 




(PLORCCMAi^AcTER® 



Slut 



OnUr 




The Secondary Colors ^ 

THE combination of any two primaries forms 
a secondary or binary color. A secondary 
partakes of the interest and nature attaching 
to both its parents. For instance, green is much 
moxe interesting than either of its constituents, 
yellow and blue. Violet is 
more pleasing than either red 
or blue, and orange wiil hold 
the attention longer than 
eithe.r yellow or red. 

When yellow and red are 
combined we have a fusion of 
the ideas of light and warmth, 
of cheer and action. The result is splendor in 
the realms of objects, or vivacity in the domain 
of conduct. Orange has great decorative quality, 
as seen in a bed of nasturtiums. Its complement 
is blue. Too much orange is toned down by the 
presence of quantities of bine. Gold (which is 
orange in color) shows to best advantage in 
small quantities on garments of blue. 

Red and blue combined form violet — the 
deepest color on the scale. It is the child of 
vitjdity and dignity, and its nature is therefore 
one of serenity, majesty. In its tints, such as 
lavender and lUac, it becomes distinctly feminine 
in delicacy and refinement. Its complement is 
yellow. 

Blue and yeUow give us green. It is more 
cheerful than blue and has more repose than 
yellow. It may, therefore, be called restfxd. 
Heaven has graciously given us the grass and 
]fal4age as a relief from the warmth of the sum- 
mer" sun. The complement of green is red. 
"And through the gaps of ler.ning trees 
Its mountain cradle ihows, 
The gold against the amsthyat, 
\ lihe green against the rose." — rriiittur 

A Trtigedy of Long Ago 

IF A man's remains are found ^-ith a drinking 
cup pressed to his lips, it is a fair supposition 
that he was drinking when he died, and that he 
experienced a sadden demise. 



That is the attitude in which dead men were 
recently found in Alaska, each body encased in 
solid ice, and in a perfect state of preservation. 
The P^sldmo Iniow nothing whatever of the race 
to which the dead belonged; and judged from 
the clothing, tools, utensils, weapons etc., they 
belong to a diirerent race from the Eskimo.^ 
Indeed the Alaskan Eskimo do not even have a' 
tradition of such a people as the hundred odd 
jnen, women, and children whose bodies had been 
so curiously embedded in the native ice. Evi- 
dently the dead met their end hundreds if not 
thousands of years ago in some cataclysm of 
stunning suddenness which instantaneously en- 
veloped them in a deep shroud of snow, packed 
it into ice, and froze them to death. 

This strange discovery was made by Professor 
VanValin of the University of Pennsylvania, 
who went to Alaska t^'o years ago to learn what 
he might be able about the Eskimo. In Alaska 
there are great stretches of ice of ancient origin, 
and covered ■with many feet of tundra, soU, and 
snow. These strange people were found buried 
beneath four feet of snow, tundra, and ice. 
They had huts or igloos, different from what 
the Eskimo nrnke, and wore clothing made 
from the sldns of birds and of polar bears, and 
some of them were lying on beds made from the 
skins of the musk-ox. 

The explanation offered by the explorers is 
that these people were overtaken, m\ich as the 
inhabitants of Pompeii were, by a sudden do^Ti- 
fall of snow, freezing them to instant death, in- 
stead of burning them to a crisp as did the 
volcanic downfall the unfortunate Pompeians. 
Just when the cataclysm occurred that doubt- 
less overwhelmed thousands of the ancient 
people of Alaska cannot be certainly kno'wn; 
but it would be interesting if the do'wnfaU of 
snow was that immense precipitation of moi.-t- 
ure which at the time of the Flood, some 4,392 
years ago, came down in a deluge of rain in the 
warm regions of the earth and as the avalanche 
of snow that almost instantly created tlie polar 
ice-caps and the mile-deep glaciers of the ice 
age, of which there are abundant evidences 
throughout nearly the whole of North America 
north of the latitude of Philadelphia. 



The Qolden Age for Febrwxn t8, tg2o 



343 



HOUSEWIFERY AND HYGIENE 



Twenty Millions for Medics 

TWENTY million dollars have been eontribu- 
, ted by John D. Roekt'eller through the Gen- 

eral Edncation Board to be spent, botli principal 
nrtd intorost, in tho next litty years for the im- 
_ pfovement of medical edupation in the United 

rstatos. We are told by the secretary ol' the 
' Board that the flrst stap taken will be to make 

'"a general .«urvey or" tl^e medical scliools oi' the 

• 'V country, wliich would detcnnine not only vvhich 

ones could Ije improvpd to the general good of 

the country, but also what are the specific needs 
I in each instance". 

^■' It is somewhat slspiifcajst of tl'.e trend of the 

times that in eorjimc-iaiu^ on this sjreat ix'n&fac- 

tiontlie,N'''v> Vi-rk Sun i^poahs of the v.-oTuli-rfn! 

opportnnity v,-hioh tlv r-xpfriditiire nf tiii;? 

amount wcjuld oiu-r for ih^^ utilization "t'or the 

bonolit ol the rcwe ot' ilio lessons tauglit by cx- 
f porienoe in surgery, preventive medicine and 

sanitation to nulitary and ci\ilian practitioners 

in the period of tlie war". 
, J It might lie well for tho race to <jct all the 

lessons ot" experience that is possible Otit of this 
■ /?reat vrorld war; for tho time is near at liand 

when lesstins from .<rach ^^'al• rxperienee will be 

• impo-ssibie. For the Lor;' ■•rhr.il jr.dgo ainonjr 
the iiatiou:'. and shall r'jlm'co luany pfOp!ot and' 
they sh?J( ix-at their sv.ords ijiio p!ov.;hcirc5. 

I and thinr c-pcars into pruiii:-,^:liook.s ; nation f liiili 

not lift up svronl against nation, neither .shall 
they leani v.-ar any r.inrir." — I:-aiali 2:4. 

The expeiiiliturc ot" tnuuty nuliion doUari*, 
principal and intertst, in iifty yearp woukl mean 
a little over four hundred thot:,-f.ud dollars a 
year: tliis ainn if properly CKpon.lod for flte im- 
provement of the pcioiico of medicine and stir- 
' .o;**ry. should do niisch ton-:\!-d thi- relinf of htiTfian 

"ilbfM^ssiMy by ti;e cr,.! oi the fifty rear?" there 
will hf lo.-s r.'.-:-d iVt ! ■■- ■■■•n>: if. .-arg'Cfy r.r.-l 
nv^dlL-al ^cierr-i ilian ni/v. r^ir.co ti'.at in ;';■'• 



CroMt-li 



,i:-t (ii;\;i:;;.:; 



))Und sh-'-l V opcH'^d, r.nd th? ravr> of tli^ di-nt 
shall Ix^ uiVs^t(-.ppod: th'-n ■^luiU the lamp !>;ivi 
losp as.i#n ]iart, a!:d tiie ton.^nr" of the diinn>i 
sin?". (Isaiah Co: -j, G) And ail this; without the 
aid of medical k-ionce or furg'^ry, aird without 
the fxpeiidilure of niiMK.y: bitt dimply heean:<e 
'•'the Lord hath spoken it".— I.'aiah 1:20. 



Adenoids and <hteopath» a, Lactn u. aan. u. a 

I WISH to call to your attention two articJos, 
one on Adenoids and one on Osteopaths, in 
a recent number of The GocoEy Ace. 

In the Adenoid article appears the state- 
ment, 'Too much milk is not good: iox it is too 
rit-h a food, unless the child is older and gets 
plenty of oxerui.se". To any one ^ho will reason 
out tins statement the fallacy of it ia' at once 
apparent. If milk is not the proper food for 
children, why is it tliat it is the food that OTir 
Creator has seen fit to have prepared for as as 
the first food we are to have, and that tqpon milk 
we gain in weight and strength more dtiring the 
first two years of onr lives than on any other 
kind of food/, 

A.<« to tho cause of adenoids siven, I hare been 
treating throat condition.'* for lifteen yeats, and 
I am sure my ob.^ervations will agrM with those 
of others wl:o treat the throat, that the caose of 
adenoids is nnlmown. While it is eoiBIllon to 
find enlarged tonsils where adenoids are j>res-, 
cnt, we sometimes find adenoids wherd the toQr 
sils are apparently norniaL We somet!Qie4 find 
them present at birth. St^rely had tonsils * 
never cau.se these adenoids. 

As to eryinsc, that is 3lx)nt the first thin^f ^e 
do when we come into the world, and most 
1 nbjf s cry loud, long and often, yet the majority 
of children do not have adenoids. This article 
on the whole is very misleading, and some cf 
the statements therein avo manifestly false -to- 
iny opinion. 

A.? to the Osteopath, he is usually a charming 
follow personally, and like the Chiropractor, is 
freouontly too enthusiastic in his statennnts. 
Wiiile Iwth have done good, many of the daimH 
nii\d.i> l5y both are exaggerated and untrue. N'o 
^1: .'.t t'v'.ll.o!- j=lin oft the curb ever displaced the 
pi ;••:(■ l;iii '.-1 and to delay sane counsel or t^j 
;!!!■ ^v n (. hi ro praetor or Ostiiopatb to "make a 
.-riiiial analysis and ad.iustments'"' in a case oi 
PMppni'ative appendieiti.? u.^ually means the 
^;ir'1in^ of a death certificate. 

Dislooaiions of the bony structures wherever 
i.Mif.d iH-'ir a similar relation to each other. The 
treatment consists of tl>e reiluciion of the dislo- 
cation. A surjeon will make the reductioa at 



344 



The Qolden Age for Fehniary 18, igao 



onoe. n.yn] oiic- v.-ould iliiiJclilm a very unqualided 
person wiio ^vo^l]d make twelve or nioro at- 
tonipts before h<' srcweded. Yet this i.^. ae:-ord- 
ing to their statements, just \vhat boih thf; Chir- 
opractors and 0.-?tsopatlis do, and tiioir lavorilo 
method for any so-called dislo^^aiioti is to sell 
the patient a ticket for twelve In^atiuijriis, ail so 
that the dislocation can be redufpd. 

\Miile personally I have no fllQeroiieo -with 
either of die above classes of persons, and hav- 
treated the famiiies of both for the very trouble 
they claim to cure, yet I cannot allow to ftii un- 
challen|:ed the .statements appi'aring in your 
periodical, not alom? becaase of the fallaf^ious 
statements appearing therein, but because one 
might easily conclude that the artick':i v.ere 
written by a member of the class referred to, 
that the gentlemen ■were interviev.'ed by members 
of your reportorial staff, or because it might he 
a paid advertisement. 

Any one who knows the truth of the subjects 
referred to cotdd well sustain the conoments 
herein mentioned, and the publication in your 
periodical of articles supporting the claims of 
any method of healing shows decidedly bad 
taste, even though such claims were true. 

CWe print Dr. Clark's article because we have 
no axe to grind and wish to treat all fairly. We 
remark, however, that onr article on adenoids 
was prepared by one who claims to be an author- 
ity on that subject; juad one who has received 
the benefits we have esperienced from both os- 
teopathic and chiropractic treatments, as well 
as from the services of sldlled homeopatliic and 
regolar physicians, is loath to give all the credit 
to any one sdiool of medicine or all the blame 
to any other. Our osteopathic article was pre- 
pared from data supplied by a compptt-nt osteo- 
path froDQ; whom we have perspnally received 
great benefits. An article on chiropractic will 
fcfU^ in doe time. Be patient] 

MiURn and Other Recipes 

Muflit^, Ntunber 1 

2 t^g^, beaten light, i tea.=!poon ?alt, L tabl>^- 
spoon ^ttfr, molted, 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 
onp sweet iailk. 2 teaspoons hakiii.ff ponder' 
eif ted ii^o 1 oup pastry flour. Add flour to make 
a mediimi batter. Bake 20 minutes in iiuick 
oven. This makes one dozen mufir.s. 
Mufjlns, Kumher 2 

2 cups fionr, 1 teai^joon salt, 3 hfaping 
teaspooiis baking powder, 3 heaping tablespoon;3 



In.rd, 2 tablespoons sugar, IJ caps sweot milk. 
.Mi.x flour, snlt, fiigar and baldng powder, silting 
iwic-c. Add lard and railk. Bake in nmSiti tins 
for 20 minutes. 

i!,i,1fins, Xumber 3 
1 cop graliam or entire wheat flour, 1 cup 
white flour, i oup sugar, 1 t.aspoon salt, i cup 
.niilk, 1 pga;, 1 teaspoon melted butter, 4 tr-a- 
spoons baking powder. Mis and sift dry ingre- 
dients. Add ffraduaily milk, ogg well beaten 
and melted butter. Bake at 375" for twenty 
minutes. 

iiu^ns, Xumher 4 
1 cup graham flour, 1 cap wheat flour, J cup 
sugar, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 cup milk, 1 agz ^^U 
beaten. 2 teaspoons baking powder, 1 tablespoon 
melted buttpi-. Sift together thoroughly the 
flour, sugar, baking powder and salt. Add grad- 
ually the m.illc, egs and butter. Bake in hot 
buttered gem pans 25 minutes. 

Mziffins, Number 5 
1^ cups graham flour, ^ cup wheat flour, 
i pint sour milk, 1 egg, 2 teaspoons sugar, 
i teaspoon salt, i teaspoon saleratus, 2 tea- 
spoons lard. 

GraJiam Bread 
3 cups graham flour, * cup molasses, 1 tea- 
spoon cream tartar, ^ teaspoon soda, 1 teaspoon 
salt, i cup sweet milk, 1 cup cold water. 

Qrdham Loaf 
1 quart graham flour, 1 pint sweet mill;, 
i cup molasses, 1 teaspoon soda, \ teaspoon salt, 

Boston Brown Bread 
1 cup black molasse.s, 1 cup v.-hite flour, 1 eup 
rye, 1 cup graham, i cup com meal, 1 pmeh 
salt, I teaspoon soda in the molasse-s. Add _ 
f aps nulk, then the otlier ingredients, and steanv 
three hours. Be sure to keep the water boiling 
nil the time. 

BroiL-n Bread That Keicr FaiU 
1 cup entire wheat ll.jur. i cup rye meal, I 
rup Indian meal, 1 cup graham meal, 1 teaspoon 
•alt. 2 teaspoons cr-^am tartar, 1 cup molasses, 
iatu whlcli 1 teaspoon soda has be-in ihorouglily 
stirred, 1 cup sweet milk. Stir thoroughly antl 
turn into w^ll-greased p.til and cover tightly. 
Fut iato 101b lard pail with sufncieat boiling 
water, covet and stuam 3^ hours (ia oven). 



*: 



r. 



The QoUai Age for February i8, igzo 



245 



RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY 



Has the Good Shepherd More Than One Fold? 

A.v Orr-HisxePLUM Text ExrunxtD — God's Psovisios fou tme "Othek Sazzp" 
"OlhtT shctp I have which are not of this fold; them aUo I must bring; they ahail hear mij voice; and Ihert 

nhall be one flock and one shepherd." — John 10:18. 



WHO are the other sheep here mentioned by 
our Lordt We cannot answer this ques- 
tion \vith.out knowing what is comprised in the 
expression "this fold". The popuJar theological 
explanation of theise words io that, say, the Bap- 
tiat chorch is his fold, and that the otlier sheep 
are the Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopal- 
ians, etc., and that in some inscrutable manner 
tlie Lord will extend his favor to take in and 
deal •mth these people even though they are not 
Baptists. But we cannot agree that this was 
the thought our Lord had in mind. Wq are en- 
abled f;o get considerable light on the subject 
from the preceding verses, if Ave exanLine them 
in the light of other Scriptures. 

Our Lord in the foregoing verses of this chap- 
ter gives two little parables, in one of which 
he describes himself as being the shepherd of a 
sheepfold and in the other as tlie door to the 
sheepfold It would be childish for us to sup- 
pose that our Lord Jesus was attempting to in- 
struct the Jews, many of whom were themselves 
shepherds, in some of the most rudimentary 
facts concerning shepherrling. Our only reason- 
able conclusion Is that he was speaking in a 
parable and that while Ids words were true, the 
literal meaning was not the thought to be con- 
veyed. This is true of all parables: the thing 
said is not the thing meant. 

More than ISOO years before our Lord's ad- 
vent the Jewish people, at the hand of Moses, 
entered into a covenant with Jehovah whereby 
they promised him obedience to his law and ho 
in turn promised them everlasting life for their 
obedience. This covenant, taken together A\ith 
thelr^iaptisDi into Moses in the Red Sea and in 
the cloud (1 Corinthians 10: -i. sopaictof[ tJicn: 
from the rest of mankind ai;il n-.tido ot i;hi^ni a 
peculiar nation. At ilount Siaai thoy entered 
into the, Law Covenant sheepfuld. A sheepfokl 
is for tlie protection and benefit of sheep. So 
the La-w-i Covenant afforded the Jews certain 
divine favors, blessings, and protections, which 
they would not have 'had as a nation of (ho 



world. But even the most perfectly constructed 
sheepfold requires the assistance of a shepherd, 
if the sheep are to get full benefit from it Sheep 
shut up in a sheepfold with no shepherd to coma 
and care for them would be shut up unto death. 

The Apostle Paul tells ua that the Law Cove- 
nant Mas peH'ect and holy and good'(Komans 
7: 12), and that there is no oppoitanity of find- 
ing fault with the covenant or with the law 
upon which the covenant was built. Bat they 
were wanting an adequate shepherd. Moses did, 
indeed, conduct them into certain blessings ; bat, 
being hixnself an imperfect man, he eventuaUr 
succumbed to death, and they were without his 
help. After his time there were those who sat 
in Moses' seat and who in some slight respects 
acted as shepherds for the people of Israel. 
These teachers told the people of the divine re- 
quirements, conducted for them the sacrifices 
and maintained for them many advantages. It 
was more advantageous for the Jewish sheep to 
be shut up in the Law Covenant sheepfold, even 
thougli they found themselves dying there be- 
cause of their inability to keep the lawperfcctly, 
than it was to be wild sheep. They were in a 
better situation than were the wild sheep or the 
goats outside of the divine arrangement who 
were browsing about or wandering upon the 
mountains, having no shepherd and no special 
protection. The Apostle tells us that the Jess 
had much advantage every way, not that they 
attained life but that their hope was cheered 
and their love for righteousness was encouraged 
by tho messages God sent them through the 
prophets. (Komans 3 : 1, 2) In our Lord's time 
it was said of him as he looked upon the multi- 
tndf" : "H'-' was moved with compassion on them, 
becc'.us'> they . . . were ... as sheep having 
no sliephord". — Matthew 9: 36. 

Before our Lord's time many had come, espe- 
cially during the period after the great captivity, 
who had claimed to be the Messiah, the good 
Shepherd who would be able to lead them out 
and fulfill through them the great promises God 



345 



T7u Qoldcn Age for Tdmiarj i8, 1920 



I:;'.'] \or.;z r.C'i '.:ive!'. to '•lu-ir aiirp'-tor Alirf.iinrn. 



Kis there as ridovcs and roh- 
>!i(l ridl ,2fo tlii-oii'.'!'. th<-' door 



Eiit cur [.Old 

l-f'r?, I)rf.Mi--e 1 

iiii.o ti;o :i-.cf!>f')ki — lljcy diii not fulnll the rc- 

r;viircnior.t3 rr tlic Inv/. Thoy were thieves and 

rol'bors in tha^ t'-.i-v .>to!e approval anrl loyalty 

from their followers on the false sqppositioti 

thnt thoy u-ore tlie Mpi?iiali. 

Onr Lord Jpru.*, being a perfi^ct rnan, was 
ahle to fulfill all th? roqniremeiita of dmne law 
and tlins to dcmonstrato that he was the riq'htful 
owT.srof the 5ili(?ep and the only one able to open 
CT) for them the blesdings of life and happiness 
Ttliioh had been promised to them aa a reward 
for keeping' the law. 

The porter, dmne justice, gladly opened nnto 
our Lord all tlie prizes and trophies which had 
Iweii promised in connection ivith the Law Cow- 
nant. And onr Lord, as the great Shepherd, 
cnllod his own sheep by name, and thpy heard 
his voice. During our Lord's (ir?.t arivont he 
ve-iit farth the me'«pafire Ibrouglimit Piilf/i-t'iie 
that the Idiigdom of heaven wsis at hand. This 
n\essa,iro, or voice, had the effect of attracting 
th.e attention of all those Mhose hearta were 
lonnina: for the ~reat ilesfiiali, long promised. 

Onr Lor<i oallod his ou'ti sheep by name in that 
!u3 messa^^f^ was? eo framed that it proved at- 
tractive to those of a certain stamp of char- 
after, Naais r.«na!!y meanB r-haracter in ihe 
Hible. T!iO»5c tow h.undred people who dntnon- 
strated thon;r^clvc3 {o be in harmony vrlrli tiie 
dirine purposes v.-ei-o lod out by our Lord from 
the Law Covenant Lold. Using another li:^jre, 
the Scriptures speak of Jaws as composing the 
'house of sen-auti". At Pentecost our Lord, 
having finished his sacriJicial work, having been 
raised from the dead a glorious new creature, 
having ascended on high to the Father, and hav- 
ing prc'senting the aorit of his ransom aacriiice 
on behalf of he!iovGr«. led oat from tlie house of 
servants all those who were of the true ?heep 
f!as?. and with th^iu formed the nucleus of a 
new:sheepfold. the r-i^Iieiue of which was Jewish, 
fe.Hp(lN»]«pwhere \n t'le Soripturos tl'.e Tiou.se of 
ton;'', t'ii- eM';;'.'!\. llv i^ride ijf (.'hriiU. his \^:\y. 

\\\ i;M" imYp-vs fi S-Alaii. the n■.!^•l•t•^^■^ry (.T il: 
(bureh. all i.hf ail'-H'^iViOiit'; of ihc •• orid, :i:i'l rM 
th:» entiV'gl'-n'.rtr:?;: f.|' Mie fler-li liaee ii':'. hov--. 
able to ar'''HTi in the 'icaris of iho true .-ii'-ej) 
class thc"%oioo or message of th-^ IrU'' Shi'[.'lir-;'i. 
Thronptout the past nineteen centurie.'s lii.s voJe':: 
has been the dominant and controlling ini?ueuee 



in their lives. "ThGy know not the voice of 
strangers.'' Their ears ,ire open to his voice. 

Had there been a snftieient number of believ- 
ing Jews to cciinpose the entire predestined 
iip.mhor of Christ'.': nivf^tical Ixidy, the inference 
is that no call woidd have been cctended to the 
Crciitiles. The Apostle explains in Romans 11 
that Gentiles are called in merely to fill up 
places wliich might have bc«>n occupied by Jews. 
tJut God forelcnew that the Jews would be unbe- 
lieving and that only a fcv/ of them would re- 
ceive him. 'He came unto his o^vn, and his own. 
received him not. But as many as received him, 
to them gave he ]>ov.er to become the sons of 
God even to them that believe on his name," 
(John 1:11,12) The gospel-elmreh-fold, the 
first sheep of wliich were Je^'ish, needed tp be 
oponed up so that Gentiles also could enter. 

But Crentilcs were not in covenant relation- 
ship with God. They did not have the benefits 
of the typical atonement day such as Jewii had 
It was therefore nocosisary that some means of 
access be arrang-^d for tiiera whereby they could 
enter into "this fold". Thoi'efore our Lord de- 
scribes Iiimsclf as being ''the door of the sheep. 
... I am tiie door: by me if any man [Gentile. 
or even Jew after 3G A. D.] enter in, he shall be 
saved, aud shall go in and oat, and find pasture". 
Entrance luuit be by the door. 

In other words our Lord Jesus, by virtue of 
liir, appearance in heaven on behalf of believers 
of this gospel age (liebrev.-g 1:3; 9:24), and 
by virtue of the arrangeraeuts for this gogpci 
made for accepting believers fi-om among the 
Gentiles, became the door, or only means of ac- 
cess into God's aiTangcments for this gospel 
£ige and into the lilessLngs and privileges of the 
elmrch. Jesus Christ, by his merit, becomes 
both the door into the church and the goo<rsKep- 
iicrd or caretaker over the sheep after they aro 
in the gospel-eiiureh-iold. 

further our Lord says: "I am the good shep- 
iicrd: the good shepherd giveth bin life for t!;e 
sheep". Xi;ne of th > .-:i.;ep could aavo life, could 
I'-'m -\\\ ,uid decth, had not our 
::. ;■ ■ --t !:i:KVAii litV' as a rar.'ioiu 
i'.-' !.!,'- sill '-X A'liun and his tios- 
. r •■ii;-.i.'"r::i;~ ; ln.night is g^^vn 
■f r.ji. thi^ g-^'-'d s'lppiiorcl, and 
I, ar.-i -.WW known of mine'. W<: 
I.'; \ii.-doni or spiritual insight to 
discern v.iili u!::rring accuracy who are the 
Lord's sheep and who have too much of the goat 



\mi 


redi'O' 


mod 


\y. 


'■>.' n 


( ; ■ 


,, * 


-; ;\ . 

!.:i 1.- 


.\;, ; 


1. . 


tj':,' \y\\ 


I 


\:v. 


v: not 


• '-£* ' 



The QoHen Age for Fehruary i8, ig20 



347 



disposition. Some who xriU ultimately be sheep 
are more or less attracted and confused by the 
glamour of the mountain tops and the beauty of 
the scenery outside of the fold. They love cul- 
ture, refinement, moralistic and humanitarian 
activities more than they love the shepherd and 
his voice. The various phases of the time of 
trouble will teach these the folly of their way: 
and though it will be too late to gain the chief 
prize, they may retrace some of their steps and 
have the privilege of everlasting life. 

It is after thus explaining that "this fold" is 
the church of this gospel age, all the finally 
faithful and more than conquerors, that our 
Lord says that there are other sheep which are 
to be brought and which will eventually listen 
and hearken to his voice, his message. Mani- 
festly the other sheep cannot be the same as thiis 
gospel-age-church. 

These other sheep are mentioned by our Lord 
in the often misunderstood and misapplied par- 
able of the sheep and goats. Confusion has 
reigned in the minds of many Christian people 
regarding this parable because they have made 
the mistalre of applying it to the end of the 
gospel age. But even a casual glance at the text 
is sufficient to demonstrate the fact that it does 
not even begin to apply until our Lord's second 
advent and until the time when he takes unto 
himself his great power to reign. ilatthew 
23 : 31 says : "When the Son of man shall come 
in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, 
then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory". 
Our Lord ^nll not occupy the position as king 
over all the earth until he has finished the work 
of this gospel age, has chosen out and finished 
dealing with the members of his ohnrch. They 
are to be seated ^nth him in his throne, even as 
the Master promised them : "To him that over- 
cometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, 
even as I also overcame, and am set down with 
my, Father in his throne". (Revelation 3:21) 
The/tKe to be members of the church, are to be 
joint priests and kings with Christ, to reign 
with him a thousand years. — Revelation 20 :4. 

The parable goes on to say th.it all nations 
shall \3e\gat^ered before the glorified Son of 
Man, the PriAce of Peace. Much is involved in 
these words; for most of the nations of the 
earth are dead, they "sleep in the dust of the 
earth". (Daniel 12: 2) For these the first part 
of the gathering ■will mean the calling of them 



forth from the death state. Jesus promised 
such wonderful things when he said : "All that 
are in the graves shall hear the voice of the 
Son of Man, and shall come forth". (John 5 : 28) 
Having been gathered out of the tomb or death 
state, the nations of the earth will next be gath- 
ered to the point of appreciation of the divine 
principles of wisiiom, justice, love, and power. 
Some of the individojils may not choose to fol- 
low these principles, but they shall know about 
them and understand clearly that they are the 
rules of conduct laid down by Jehovah himself. 
"They ahall all know me, from the leas* of them 
unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord."— 
Jeremiah 31 : 34. 

This gathering work will require the greater 
part of the thousand yeare of Messiah's benefi- 
cent reign. At the end of that time, when he 
shall have turned over the kingdom to God, even 
the Father (1 Corinthians 15:24-28), then 
shall take place the final testing and separation 
of the classes of mankind — those whose hearts 
and lives have responded to the kindly influence 
of the Sun of Righteou-sness; and those whose 
hearts have entertained selfish ideas, schemes, 
though outAvardly they have rendered obedience. 
The sheep will be granted the place of divine 
favor, the right hand; but the goata shall be 
given the place of disfavor, ""nien shall the 
king say unto them on his fight hand [the 
sheep], Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit 
the kingdom prepared for you from the founda- 
tion of the world." 

Some liave confused this statement with a 
similar one by our Lord Jesus which was man- 
ifestly directed to his disciples — they in turn 
representing the whole church. The Master 
said: 'Tear not, little flock; for it is your" 
Father's good pleasure to give you the king- 
dom". (Lnke 12:32) The kingdom and the 
shee-p are mentioned in both instances; but the 
occurronces are one thousand years apart. The 
kingdom which God originally designed for man 
to have was the dominion over the earth- "We 
read that God spoke to Adam, saying, '•'Be fruit- 
ful, and multiply, and replemsh the earth, and 
subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of 
the sea. and over the fowl of the air, and over 
every living thing that moveth upon the earth". 
(Geneais 1:28) From this we observe that 
Adam was made to be an absolute monarch on 
the earth, and this thought is again presented 
by the Psalmist in the eighth psalm and comr 



34B 



The Qolden Age for Fehriidry i8, 1920 



mented upon by the Apostle in Holn-ew 2:0-9. 

Tliat domiiiioc wan lost throug-h disobeiiiencu. 
For IG06 years God allo-wed the dominion 01 the 
earth to be iu the hands of angels. (Hebrews 
2 :5) Since the time of the flood God has allowed 
Satan to exercise creat power over liumaii 
affairs. (John 14: 30; 2 Corinthians i:i) Je- 
hovah has neither approved Satan's dominion 
nor appointed him. He is therefore not a right- 
ful monarch in earth's experiences. But loa^ 
before our Lord's first advent the Prophet had 
said of the faithful Jesus : TTnto thee shall it 
come, thon tower [shepherd] of the flock, even 
the first dominion'. (Micah 4:8) The ftr.st 
dominion, or the dominion orii^inally given to 
Adam, was the direction of every living thing 
Vvhich is on the earth. 

Our Lord, by his faithfulness and obedience 
to God's law, proved himself to be the rightful 
heir and monarch of earth. "When he promised 
his church this kingdom it must not lie thought 
that they were to have the Idngdom apart from 
him. He is the 'liead over all things to the 
church, which is his body". (Ephosians 1 : 22, 23) 
These joint-heirs with him in liis kingdom, re- 
ferred to in our original text by the word.s 'this 
fold", have been sought out and selected accord- 
ing to character and faithfulness during the last 
1800 or more years. As soon as this class is 
completed Christ will take unto himself his 
great power and reign — he will assume absolute 
control of earth's affairs and of ovory individ- 
ual on earth or in the earth. Ho will hccoiuc 
king of the earth for the benefit of mankind ; for 
they, heing fallen and imperfect because of sin, 
have not the Avisdom nor the justice nor the love 
nor the power necessary to establish a perfect 
and righteous government capable of conduct- 
ing earth's affairs in such a way as to bring the 
blessing of everlasting life and of reinstatement 
in the divine favor to every himian being, now 
Li\4ng or now dead. 

The kingdom shall be exercised for a tiiou- 
sand years, and is designed to be only a teiupo:-- 
ary arrangement to help, bless, strengthen and 
cnconTage manldnd back to perfection. This 
glorious opportunity for human i)eitigs lias boon 
arranged i'6i.r them by divine men.-y- <inil made 
possibles for them by the lo\-ing and loyal coop- 
eration of our Lord Jesus, wlio gave himself a 
ransom for all. 

The kingdom will be the desire of all nations: 
for in it they will experience the fulfillment of 



all of their best hopes, longings, and endeavors. 
-ifter careful and painstaking putting do^^-n of 
all opposing iniiuonccs, human tendencies vchicli 
would not glorify God or enal)le their possessor 
to on joy liini Tor ever, after Messiah has finished 
die y.ork which was desigTied for him to do dur- 
ing those thousand years, he shall deliver up the 
tlien perfected and educated ma.sses of manldnd 
back to God, even the Father, Satan's inimical 
influence will have been so restrained during 
those thousand years that he AviU not have the 
pov.-er of deceiving the nations. ■ 

Jehovah's design is that man shall govern the 
eartli as soon as he is capable. The-earth would 
thus again bo admitted as a province in the 
divijie empire. And it is reference to this read- 
mission that is contained in the Avords, "Come 
[now], ye blessed of my Father, inherit the 
kingdom [the dominion of eartli lost by Adam, 
temporarily exercised by the angels, wrongfully 
usurped by Satan, riglitfully given to our Lord 
Josus, shared by him wth his chnrch, esercised 
for tlie thousand years for man's benefit, turned 
over or relinquished to Jehovah, and here 
turned back to the then perfected members of 
mankind] prepared for you from the foundation 
of the world". These are the oii^er sheep which 
will never be of the fold of tliis gospel age; for 
a special reward is given to tlie sheep of this dis- 
pensation, l)ecausc they have endured a great 
light of afilictions and have "through mnch trib- 
ulutiou"' entered into the kingdom class. 

Our first text says tliat the final outcome of 
God's glorious plan is that there shall be one 
(lock in all tlic universe, and one shepherd. The 
King .James rendition of this verse erroneously 
sa}s that there shall be one fold and one shep- 
herd, Thei'c are two very different Greek words 
employed in this verse, the first one meaning 
fold, i;nd the second signifying flock. It is not 
t rue that there shall be one fold or plane of exis- 
lence; fur th.pre are already many planes of 
Ijclngs — the human piano, the angelic plane, the 
r-oraphic plane, the cherubic plane, the archan- 
■::fli'^ piano, and tlie plane of the divine nature. 
Tlic^e we knov.- abont, p.nd doubtlpss there are 
nmny oiher?:. Our Lord implied that there 
would be many planes of being when he said: 
Tn my Fatlier's house [the universe] are many 
mnn.-ions [literally, abodes or planes of being] ; 
[nevertheless] I go to prepare a place [a special 
place of honor] for you"— the gospel-age church, 
'"this fold" in our text. 



The Qolden Age for Fdmiary 18, 1920 



349 



If we were to translate this statement into the 
figure of onr text it would read : In my Father's 
bam are many sheepfolds'. The glorions resnlt 
of Messiah's kipgdom will be that which is de- 
scribed by the Apostle Paul in Ephesiana 1:8- 
10 : "He hath abounded toward ns in all wisdom 
and prudence; having made know onto ns the 
mystery of bis will, according to his good pleas- 



ure which he hath purposed in himself: that in 
the dispensation of the fulness of times, he 
might gather together in one all things in 
Christ, bothwhich are in heaven, ahd which are on 
earth ; even in him". Every being in heaven and 
on earth shall be mider our Lord, as the great 
Shepherd; and above him yet shall be Jehovah, 
God over all, blessed for ever. 



.1 



JUVEMLE BIBLE STtTDY 

Ob* <riestlo9 for c&efa day is provided hj tbia }«nraaL 
Th* parent will find it Interesting and helpful to hav* 
the child take np tbe qaesdoQ each day and aid it in 
flniftng the answer In the Scriptures, thns deTcIoping 
a knowledge of the Bible and where to find ta it the 
OiiocB desired. 



1. Does Ood reign only over ihe earthf 
Answer; See Isaiah 40: 22, 25, 26; John 14: 3. 

2. Bid God h<ive a beginning? 

Answer: See Genesis 21:33; Psalm 90:2; 93:2; 
Piaka 145:13. 

3. Will God's kingdom ever endf 
Answer : See JTereiniah 10 : 10 ; Daniel 4 : 3. 

4. Was God once all alone in the universef 
Answer: Yes.— Psalm 90 : 2 ; Isaiah 43: 8; 1 Coria- 

tUans 8:6; Deuteronomy 6:4. 

5. Was not our Lord Jesna whom God sent to 
he the Redeemer always with the Fatherf 

Answer: la his prehuman eziftence Jesna was fho 
Lo^oB. (John 1:1-3) He was "the beginning of the 
creation of God" — "the firstborn of every creature". 
(Eevelation 3:14; CJolossians 1:15) He was with 
Jehovah the Father from the begianing of creation. — 
John 1:18; 14:9. 

6. WTiat are the Divine attributes? 
Answer: They are the elements (parts) of God's 

character — Wisdom, Jnstiee, Love, and Power. — Psalm 
89 : 13, 14 ; Isaiah 40 : 13, 14 ; 1 John 4:16. 

7. What is the meaning of God's name, 

'Jehovah? 
Aiisjrer: Jehovah means self -exist inj, or immortal. 



one.— Psalm 83:18; Exodus 6:3; Ifirk 12:32,33; 
Hebrews 11 : 6. 

8. Has God a great plant 

Answer : Yes, he planned before he began hia Work of 
creation, and fciiew his plana from the beginning to tha 
end.— Acts 15:18. 

9. Has the creation of the earth and {he fSling 
of it with a variety of living ereatureSt intelli- 
gent and unintelligent, been a part of Go^s 
plan? 

Answer: Tes.— Genesis, chapters 1 ud 2; Psalm 8; 
Acts 17:26,27; Hebrews 11:3. ^ 

10. Was God lonely in that great eternity 
before creation began? 

Answer : Ko. Human loneliness is dn« to human de- 
ficiency. What we lack we seek for in otheis. Even . 
when alone, the great Jehovah lacked nothing; he was 
complete in himself. He did not need emnpamoiuhip 
to complete or increase his happineat. It ma hia pleaa* 
ore to create, that his ereaterea might ham Joy iy re- 
flecting the divine attributes. — ^ReTelstionlO:6; 4:11; 
Psalm 115:3; Ephesiana 1 : 4 - 10. 

11. Does God know the end from the hegii^- 
ning? 

Answer : Yes. — Isaiah 46 : 10 ; Acta 15 : 18. 

12. Can God do everything? 

Answei:: SeeTitual:2; 2Tim.S:13; Jamesl:13- 

13. Can God eiier die? 

Answer: No, because he is inunortal.— Malaohl 3:6; 
Psalm 90 : 3 ; Erodns IS : 18 ; Romans 16: 86, 86. 

14. Will Gad eternally torment anybody?. 
Answer : Xo. — 1 John 4:8; Psalm 86 : 5, 



INVOCATION TO LIBERTY 



Bum, h':m, nndyins fire. 



BLo^-n oOL by Go. Is "U'si-o 
"VVtlch moves la wide, .slow volume lUroajh the world. 

We fliew not ot thy tuuse 

Nor uadersl:lnU 11 Ls lu'.vs 
By tvhii-h (he {-.lUa -'ods in thy flame are hurled: 

But while the ir;i':it winil blii«s 
Born Tlf> yonr be!i.-<tliBes.s before the heavens close! 

As a wild bouUre burn 



Till all the Natlnnn sltr 
Th(? pettiness that tre huve treastired here 

Till all the Xutiuns stir 

I'o see Tx>ve's harbinger. 
.\nd girri Truth's armor on and cast off fear, 

And Mammon In his mleht 
Siukd co^eriag for cover throneh the flaae-stabbed 

nii;bc ! 

— n, L. itegros in TTafl Street Journal 



cc 



TALKING 



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March 3, 1920, VoL 1, No. 12 
|9 Pttbliaktd every otbsr 
IG3 *<^m^ <^ ^^^ Broadway, 

Ten CenU a Ospr— $1.50 » Tear 

Foreign Subscriptloa Price $2.00 



CONTENTS of tke GOLDEN AGE 

LABOR and ECONOXICS 

Coadiieton ind Gn«liiMr« Shopman'i Wascm. :..ajT 

\«t OrerpsitU SSS PradliioiM Plunder«ri___38T 

0»>)du«t«n' wascu. 3S5 W«rkliir for Proflt_____J8« 

Xnglouan' Wacen 340 AtutnUiaa lt«B»»,_«____JM 

SOCIAL ud EOlTCAnOMAI. 
Honrtreda •( Miillam car TtrnDaranc* a JfastB 

Komla _.- J50 VlrtJM SM 

MANUFACTURINO and HIKINO 
Powtc rroacwcu.. — ..__».303 P«war Proapecta <Caaf it)_tOT 

7INANCB, COUUERCS. TKANSPOKTATIOH 

An Bra erf Pro««M 3M Ubarty la Amarlca. ___JW« 

BncUod'a New AdTanta«a..368 ^'""^"^ "» ««™ru:« ooa 

POLITICAL, DOMESTIC and 7OSBI0H 
iimtie* rud tli« Poor .'<a7 The Uot« KzceUdt War—SM 

A01UCVLTUX£ and RUSBAHDKT 

s^tSTrJSS^'^ ""-^ N« ""»«'■ -3^0 

Awakanbis 368 Auitralla MAku rrotT«*a_370 

•CIEMCE aad INVENTION 

n* notary Oaa «Tic»nA_.371 The Iron Bur. ST3 

JkTXkttaowtleal Prodlajr.. JT2 Wbo bsvcntcdllt Mi 

TXAVU, and MJSCBLLAinr 

•nmnrOirr Cote^ 3T3 Vewniy »T4 

OKMlan Alt Comlsc t« iniAUcr KrwapaDcn 314 

Usbt .-373 Vbn data tba iloaar). -STd 

aOUSBWIPESY aad HTatSHB 

note Ttat KsorUh 37S Baalth Po«d ''■rHrM,,.,.....IM 

XBLIGION and PBZLOaOPBT 

Opn Daon ta 8n«rtttgiB...JJ7S , „ 1^ 7r . 



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New York. Wcdneaday. March 3^ 1920 



Kamlwr 12 



Conductors and Engineers Not Overpaid 



OCCASIONALLY an item from some alleged 
financial "authority" steers us for a time in 
the wrong direction, but not for long, we think; 
for we have a lot of sharp-eyed, friendly, 
interested readers, who no longer believe every- 
thing they see in print and will have nothing 
kss than the truth on all subjects. The story 
that engineers and freight conductors were 
making high wages was widely published, and 
was manifestly unfair unless accompanied by 
the fact that it represented nearly two months' 
work done in one month. We received no 
thanks from Wall Street for publishing their 
lies and now they will probably be sore at us for 
giving wide publicity to the truth. But we think 
our readers prefer to have us try to tell the 
truth at all times, rather than to follow a too 
common newspaper custom of telling lies and 
never correcting anything. The man who edits 
a magazine of this sort will inevitably make lota 
of mistakes. Shall we cover up these mistakes 
or "face the music"? Wliat do you sayt 

Conductors' Wages 

A FREIGHT conductor in Missi.?sippi writes : 
"We are considered as having one of the best 
contracts in the country in the way of working condi- 
tions., and I presume you loiow the rates of pay are about 
tiniform throu^rhout the country in the same classes of 
ecn'icc; I know of but one mau on the Mobile Divi- 
fion of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad who makes tlie 
amount stated in your article, and this man has been 
in the service since 187-1. 

'Tor more than eleven jeam I have served in the 
capacity of local or way frripht conductor, and during 
that time my increase in wages ha.s by no means kept 
pace witli the .ever-climbing cost. of linng. I have had 
an increase of $1.32 per day since 1914; or, to be exact, 
for a month of twenty-six working days of eight hours 



each I receive $151.32. Do yoa think that an ezoaiive 
amount for a man who tries to b« honest and who has a 
wife, three childrea and a widowed aunt to support? 

"*! have used the same winter suit for tliree winters, 
buying a new one this Fall only from dire necessity, 
and I owe the tailor a balance of 920 on it Mj wife 
made over a dress she had in 1917, and waited until th« 
season was more than half gone before she bought her ]uA 
and cloak; in other words she waited for the 'sale prices'. 
We have not had an egg on our table since w« had via- 
itors, just three months ago, by actual oount We own 
our own home ; and I do not Imow how thoee get liaag 
who pay rent and have large familiea to support. 

"Are you going to call men robbers and high^^^TSien 
because they want enough to ni«tTitj.wi their loved ones 
in some degree of comfort and see that they get proper 
food ? It may be true that the heads of the four brothsr- 
hoods did hold Congress up at the point of a gun, in a 
manner ; but they were forced to do this by the men in 
the ranks. All were ready to bring the wheels of trans- 
portation to a standstill if demands were not granted. 

"I have given the best part of my life to this work; 
I don't know anything else ; and I suspect I would have 
a harder time making a living at some other trade than- - 
railroading, and there are thousands upon thousands in 
the same boat. But do you think it just and right that 
these men, who are necessary to our national weU being, 
should be denied the right to a living wage because some 
few among them wear silk shirts? I have been in the 
service seventeen years, and during all that time I have 
never had a silk shirt. 

"You spoke of some of these men as making almost 
as much money as the governors of some of our states. 
Well, why shouldn't they? The governors of all the 
states might form a conspiracy with that wonderful 
law-making body in Washington and all quit ; but some- 
how the country would rock along and people would not 
miss them very much except at tax-paying time. But 
you let the transportation men cease to function and 
see how long it would be until things would be in an 
uproar. 



356 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



"Did 70a ever stand behind an engineer and watch 
biTn as he bored his waj through the blackness of the 
sight at a rate of sixty miles per hour or more, and 
note with what keen interest he watches everything? 
He knows that one mistake on his part or the failure 
of some fellow employe to bring up his end of the rope 
properly means death, not only to himself, but to lives 
entrusted to his care. This is a great strain which no 
man can endure for long without a telling effect. 

"Or did you ever watch the 'fire. boy* as he climbs to 
his post in the engine deck and, with scoop and some- 
timea with a dirty tank of coal, %hts tha;t roaring fuz- 
naoe from one end of the road to the other? He is 
eager that proper steam pressure be maintained and his 
train reach destination on time. 

"Poasibly you have never been an eyewitness to these 
filings, but no doubt you have lain comfortably asleep 
in fhie Pullman while all kinds of hardships were being 
endnred by the men in charge of this train; and you 
feK perfectly safe, for you knew the company required 
men who had to measure up to a high standard. 
' "Tbeae men are not criminals ; but taken as a whole 
they are honest, hard working and charitable. Tliey 
wdeome publicity and would be only too glad if you 
would obtain the real facts and give them to your read- 
era. I Imow of no class of men who will welcome the 
oncoming Golden Age with more real joy than the rank 
and file of railroad men. 

"Very few ]>eople know or realize what a hard and 
trying life these men are forced to lead. Called out at 
all hours of the day and night, and exposed to all kinds 
of weather, is it any wonder that such a life does not 
appeal to the class of men who seek the governorship of 
our states ? Then why deny these men a living wage ?" 

A passenger conductor in Iowa -writes : 
"You say that freight and passenger conductors now 
receive $300 per month, vrhen the fact is that the salary 
of all passenger conductors is $180 per month. We 
grant that in very many cases conductors do receive as 
much as $200 per month, and that some do even receive 
as much as $300, but these are few in number; for in 
order to make extra wages one must have a long run 
and work long hours. 

"Passenger conductors get only 75 cents per hour for 
overtime and that is only on straight time and not time 
and a half, as is figured in the case of men in the slow 
freight service and in the shops. The shop men get all 
the way from 75 cents to 87 cents per hour and are not 
compelled to be away from home a greater part of their 
time, as are the train and engine men ; therefore their 
expenses are far less, and when the truth is known there 
is not 80 much difference in the net pay received each 
month by the two classes. Yard men, a.s well as track 
men and laborers, all get time and a half for all over 
eight hours. It costs the road man anywhere from $40 
to $55 for board and bed away from home each month." 



A Massachusetts conductor says: 
"I find you are misinformed as to the wages of a con- 
ductor. You say they receive $300 per month. The 
fact is they receive $180, and work evay day in the 
month including Sundays, ten hours a day, to receive 
that guaranteed sum. This is the actual wage scale here 
in lUl^sachusetts. If there are any exceptional cases re- 
ceiving $300 it must be for overtime. Many of the con- 
ductors, myself included, have had to be away from home 
the last ten months at an added expense of $10 per 
week for room and board in order to h<dd my job and 
rating." 
A conductor in Maryland writes: 
"Prei^ conductors here are making $167.40, and 
• passenger conductors $186, for a thirty-ose-day month. 
By losing a lot of sleep and making lota of overtime we 
can sometimes make near $200. The freight eonductora 
were receiving $4.10 per day in 1913 and today they 
receive $5.40. Pigure the cost of living in 1912 by the 
side of the cost of living today and see if you think we 
have made a Jesse James hold-up. If m made as big 
a mistake in a train order as you made in your statement 
I think we would lose our jobs and have io go to digging 
potatoes or some other bujpnesa. . If we oonld earn $250 
per month we would think we were TnakiTig big wages." 

Engineen* Wages 

AN-ENGINEEE in the state of Washington 
«. writes the following: 

"Myself and crew made twenly-five days from Janu- 
ary lot to 15th, 1920: the conductor's wages, at $5.40 
per day, equals $135 for two weeks' work. Each trip I 
was at home eight hours and away thirty-siz to forty- 
eight hours. Had I worked eight hours per day for the 
thirteen working days in the first half of January I 
would have made $73.20. How many editors, governors 
and other professional men have got the nerve to work 
ten days overtime out of fifteen? It looks good on 
paper: but come out and gallop with us for-a_iew 
months." 

A subscriber writes of an Alabama engineer : 

"He maintains that four or five years ago he received 
$5.00 per hundred miles in his grade of service, and that 
now he receives only $5.60 for the same service: and on 
the other hand the members of the unskilled unions, 
'car toads', as he called them, were then getting 22 cents 
to 30 cents per hour and are now receiving 82 cents per 
hour ; and, furthermore, that an engineer who is called 
out to do three hours' work gets pay for three hoiirs only, 
while in the case of the lowest classes of labor they get 
a full day's pay for a like three hours of actual work." 

The same subscriber writes of an engineer's 
wife: 

"She says that the highest her husband ever knew a 
freight engineer to get was less than $300 per month. 
She also says that her husband's expense on the road 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



357 



is more than his home e:q)cnsc. for the reason that he 
has to have a room at two diriercnt places, and those who 
rent rccms charge railroad men more than they do 
others; and in addition to this disadvantage, she sayp, 
the local merchants charge members of the four big 
brotherhoods abo'ut iive cents a pound more for the 
things they buy than they do others. She cited her ovnx 
home as an evidence tliat the engineers were not living 
like lords, nor their wives enjoying the articles of luxnry 
mentioned. Her rooms were small and plainly fur- 
nished. Tlierc was no appearance of wealth in either of 
these engineers' homes." 

An engineer in Wyoming "vrrites : 

''I am a looomotiTe engineer on the highest rate of 
pay engines in the country in freight service. Employes 
in road service arc not paid a monthly salary, but for 
actual service rendered ; i. e., miles run or hours put in 
in actual service. The rate of pay is the same for 
Sundays and holida}^ as it is for weekdays; it is tlie 
same for the midnight hours as for the sunny hours in 
the day. This highest rate for locomotive running in 
the freight service is $S per 100 miles or eight hours of 
work. Xow, holding railroad men down to the hours of 
work of other mortals sis days a week would be S4S, 
or $200 per month, which I venture to suggest is about 
the average for locomotive freight engineers in regular 
serricc." 

A railroad telegraplier in New Tork 'state 
writes: 

"The statement that fra'^t and passenger conductors 
noir receive over $SCO per month and freight engineers 
receive $292 per month I bdievs is quite misleading and 
does these men an injury; for there arc. to the best of 
nly knowledge, only a fe^v of sucli positions, and with 
present rates no engineer nor conductor can make this 
amount unless he works every day, including Sundays, 
and also nearly sixteen hours per da;',, which is equal to 
nearly two months* work in one month, from the pop- 
xHts standpoint of an eight-hour day. 

"I am reliably informed that the only position draw- 
ing any\vhere near your figure is one held by the oldest 
engineer <m the road, and he has made as high as $326 
in a month; but this man works tn-clve and one-half 
hours per day, thirty-one days a month, to earn this, 
but cannot always do this because it is too steady and 
rest is needed. Therefore, he must needs lay oft occa- 
sionally. 

"At twelve and one-half hours per day this man is 
working four and one-half hours each day in excess of 
a day's work of eight hours ; and if wc figure this on an 
eight-hour basis, with time and a half for overtime, ho 
is earning less than 75 cents per hour for one of the 
moat responsible positions in the country, from the stand- 
point of the human lives depending upon him. 

"As to the average freight engineer, I am reliably in- 
formed that he rarely exceeds $225 for a thirty-one-day 



month. In fact, unless lie makes overtime he positively 
cannot exceed $'i"d. and there are many who euiaC liJs 
tlian $175 for a thirty-ono-day month. 

"The average freiglit conductors pay on tliis rou'l 
will not exceed ij'^OO per month, ajid he muit v.-ork 
thirtj'-one days per month to earn t'uis. The onl;- in- 
stances where the fig-ures as given herein are cciceetj'd i.-? 
where a goodly amount of overtime is made.'"' 

Shopmen's Wages 

IT IS daimed that at the time the railroad 
shopmen, last sxmmier, put in their request 
to have their wages of 57 cents, G3 cents and 
68 cents per hour raised to 85 cents i)er hour 
their average individual wages amounted to 
$1722 per year; but at forty-eight hours per 
week this amount would give 69 cents per houj-, 
so it must have included some overtimo. The 
wages of gang foremen before the last raise 
were said to be $2401 per year, and tJie wages 
of helpers, $1263. An increase of $250,000,000 
was divided among the shopmen in 1918, and 
a further increase of $45,000,000 in 1919, tlie 
latter increase to put the shopmen on flio same 
basis of a daVs pay for e%ht hours' work prc.i'- 
ously granted to otiier railway employes. 

Prodigious Plunderers 

THE principal cause for undue prolits on 
food and other stuffs has even been stated . 
to be the fact that the people are willing for 
those profits to be made. TTiis is only a part 
truth; for the average person is not po-=se£ied 
of the time and means neccesaiy to conduct 
investigations and prosecutions. To secure any 
land of satisfaction •'.voald talse as much money 
standing as the profiteers have ; and ii" the avor- " 
age person had the financial and social stand- 
ing which the profiteers enjoy, or are suppotjcd 
to enjoy, that person would not be an average 
person any more, but would be a profiteer him- 
self and interested in furthering and protecting 
the profiteers' interests. 

Accordingly, as a thorougldy reputable Amer- 
ican document ha.s stated it, "e::pcrioncc hath 
shoTiTi that manldnd are more disposed to sufcr 
while faults are sufferable, than to right thcio 
by abolishing tlie forms to which they are ac- 
customed". Can it be that instead of memory 
clinging tenderly to the little red school-house, 
the little grey home, tlie old s"\vimmin" hole, we 
are to become so accustomed to the dear profit- 
shark that we are imwilling to sec him go ? At 



35S 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



all events he is still here, and is able to keep 
up prices ; yes, to boost them hig-her and higher 
by hii! ability- to limit the market. 

Health Commissioner Kobertson, of Chicago, 
vouches for the correctness of these figures: 

During the year 1918 there were two million 
pounds of foodstuffs shipped to Chicago which 
were necessarily destroyed, because they were 
spoiled and had to be condemned for the sake of 
the public health. There were 312,068 pounds 
of meat, presumably beef, pork, and mutton; 
148,969 pounds of fish, 63,233 pounds of poultry, 
240,553 pounds of fresh vegetables, 102,272 
pounds of canned figs, 369,912 pounds of otlier 
caimed fruits, 527,943 pounds of canned vege- 
tables, and 19,572 pounds of eggs. It will be 
remembered that this prodigious wastage oc- 
curred while millions of people were obliged to 
go on short rations, because they had not the 
money to buy at the high prices. If the market 
had been open, the prices would have fallen to 
make room for the disposal of these vast stocks 
before they spoiled. But why worry about 
spoiling stocks when you can make it aJI up by 
raising tlie prices on what you have left? 

No one knows yet how great the waste was in 
1919, but some idea can be gained from the 
fact that surplus stocks in Chicago were much 
greater in 1919 than in 1918. It is a safe as- 
sumption that stocks are proportionate in other 
cities. At the end of June there were 211,956,- 
577 pounds of foodstuffs in warehouses of Chi- 
cago, as compared with 155,248,487 pounds at 
the same time last year. Crated eggs are not 
counted in these figures. 

Working for Profit 

WHEN a man works for clients in a profes- 
sional way he receives a fee, when he 
works in a white collar he receives a salary, 
when he work.*; in a colored shirt he receives 
wages. "What wages ought a man to receive for 
his work? He ought to receive enough compen- 
sation so that he can maintain a comfortable 
home, feed, clothe and educate himself, his wife 
and his children, with enough profit so that 
he can anticipate and provide for old age or 
other periods when ho is unable to work. 

Wages that will just keop.the man himself 
housed, fed, clotlied and contented are not suffi- 
cient. Wages tliat will just renew and support 
life arc not suflicient: wages tliat provide for 
support only during the producing years are 



not sufficient ; it costs a lot of money to trans- 
form a six-pound baby into a six-foot man. 
Mothers are more important than machines; 
without mothers there would be no machines. 
The baby and the mother must be cared for, and 
the man must receive enough compensation to 
care for them, and to care for hin[iself when 
he can no longer work. The pay which the man 
gets for the work he does in the shop must pay 
for the work done by both his wife and himself. 

Wages today are usually the formal terms of 
an armistice in a battle that never reaUy comes 
to an end. Employer and employe have diamet- 
rically opposite viewpoints and interests to 
serve ; and the place where they come to agree- 
ment is the placie where, for the time, it is more 
to the interests of both to have peace than to 
continue the fight. 

The war has made tremendous changes in 
wages. It has made tremendous profits for 
employers and has witnessed a strennous effort 
on the part of employes to retain the percent- 
age of profit wiiich has heretofore been theirs. 
With the end of the war came an earnest desire 
on the part of labor to retain all the advantages 
gained during the war, and an equally deter- 
mined desire on the part of the employer to null- 
ify these desires by boosting prices to a place 
where the net result to labor in the way of 
wages would be as little or less than that paid 
before the war came. 

Foreigners who come to America manage to 
live and save fortunes on wages upon which 
Americans save nothing. The difference is in 
the standard of living. The desire for an im- 
proved standard of living for wife and children 
has much to do with the American's clamor 
for more and ever more wages. The more he 
makes the more he spends, and the more he 
spends the more he boosts the price of life's ne- 
cessities for himself and everybody else. 

Aiutralian Items 

AUSTRALL^N potteries are said to have 
lost much money from poor qualities in the 
clay; and the men of science have studied and 
tested the clays available, and are putting the 
business on its feet again. 

The industrial unrest for which Australia 
was famous, between workers and employers, 
has been minimized, and according to the Jour- 
nal of Commerce all classes seem to be working 
together on a better and more harmonious basis. 



The Qolden Age for March. 3, 1920 



359 




Hundreds of Millions for Roads 

THE hiprli point in Tond building was reached 
in 191G, but that r.as 011I3' a fifth of what 
is pllinjicd lor 11)20. The nation is ■wakina: up. 
Good-roads associations, trai] associations, 
highway conncils, and so on, have urged com- 
munities, states and the nation to construct bet- 
ter highways at a cost of millions to billions of 
dollari?. and tbrougli the free spirit of spending 
engendered by the "World ^Var have converted 
the country. Almost as one man the people aro 
clcnundin;^ instantly the most modem and com- 
prehensive system of roads in the world, and 
aro ready to pay the price, 

■Accordinc: ir> ilm Kvninrcrinij Neivs - Record 
Amorirjin road- building proKonts de-mauds for 
the building in iivo years of a mileage of roads 
greater than tlio 40,()00-mil*' five-year record 
of railways in ISTy.lo 1883. The railway 
milea?:*' cost about $20,000 a mile, or a total of 
$800,000,000; Uie expectation is that the next 
five years are to sec 100,000 miles of first-class 
roads built at an average cost of $30,000 a mile. 
The $3,000,000,000 that tljis will cost does not 
affect anytliing but the imagination of a people 
accustomed to the raising of three to live billion 
at a time for purposes of destruction- The 1920 
program alone calls for $033,000,000, obtainable 
by million.? as follows; $105 unfinished work, 
$273 from county, state and Federal govern- 
ments, $45 uuexpendnd balances, $50 from old 
bond issues, and $100 from now bond issues. 

No better roads have ever been constructed 
than some of tliosc in project. Not e\-en the 
ancient Roman roads equaled them. The Avorld- 
famous French roads are not in the same cla."?.". 
These roads are not to be speedways or pleas- 
ure roads, but ways of the most substantial 
construction, fit to bear the brunt of the ever 
heavier impact of ever more powerful trucks 
and tlie coming trains of trucks, which are 
destined to appear in fleets on the American 
highways, and in large measure to supplant the 
railways as freight carriers. 

The history of road-building in this country 
is typical of the progress from poverty to plenty. 
The original roads were forest or prairie trails. 
Then came the earth road maintained by the 



personal labor of the ta:cpayers. Hard-surfaced 
roads could not even be suggested by the pro- 
gressive, but permanent culverts and bridgor, 
were built. Here and there first-class road.s 
were built by the state for object lessons, and 
finally the voters were ready for the huge high- 
way-construction projects of today. 

The roads required are of four classes. Boads 
are needed for agricultural purposes. This in- 
cludes traffic from toAvn to farm and from farai 
to town, a rapidly growing typo of traiisporta- 
tion wherever cities have been made centers of 
road systems on wlvich arc carried the crops 
and foodstufi^i from regions remote from rail 
transportation. 

The second tjjw of roads is recreational, 
for local and tourist trufilc. The tourist traffic 
is large and important, as tens of thousands 
of sightseers travel from state to state over 
the entire counlry. But it is only incidental 
to the immense amount of mileage — about 90% 
— ^for pleasure and healtli near the homes of 
automobile owners. 

The third, type of roads is commercial, to 
accommodate tlie traffic between large indus- 
trial centers, and is rapidly shaping up into an 
eSicient transportation system for freight and 
express by truck which calls for a substantial 
t>'pe of road. 

The fourth type is the military road, a variety 
of road not much in evidence in the United 
States, but wherever found it is of the most sub- 
stantial character, intended to stand the rough" 
work of hca\-y trucks and guns. Other high- 
class roads will answer this purpose nearly 
ever>'where, but short stretcjies- of distinctly 
military roads will be built here and there, as 
connecting links to the entire system. 

There are country roads in the United States 
so muddy that it is said a baby carriage would 
be stuck on a 5% down grade. The mud a.v 
Rumes the consistency of sticky taffy and holds 
tight in its embrace anything that set."? foot or 
wheel therein. In some Southern States the 
roads are practically impassable in certain 
months, and families that fail to stw-k up with 
coal and provisions for the mud siege go cold 
and hungry because stores and coal piles are 



36o 



The Qolden Age fen March 3, 1920 



inaccessible. It is nothing uncommon in many 
sections of the country for the fields to be better 
to ride over than the alleged roads. In such 
regions civilization is an impossibility, and 
prosperity must languish for lack of a market. 

The grade of even a good road affects its use- 
fulness. The worst grade on an entire highway, 
even though over "only a little hill, represents 
tlie efBciency of the entire road. A horse that 
can pull 2000 pounds on a level earth road can 
pull 1000 up a 5% grade and only 750 up a 10% 
grade. Grades are relatively worse on good 
roads than on ordinary earth roads. The 
percentage of efficiency loss is greater on the 
grades. On a level, improved road the same 
horse may draw 5000 pounds but on a 5% grade 
he can move only 1600 and up a lO^o grade but 
960 — only a little more than that up the same 
grade on an earth road. The total waste charge- 
able to poor roads and to excessive grades on 
even good roads, thought of in terms of ineffi- 
cient use of equipment, loss of marketing abil- 
ity, reduction of productivity of farms, higher 
cost of farm products', and lower values of 
country* properties, is simply too immense to be 
calculated. Some day it will be eliminated. 

There is no question before the people, the 
.solving of wliich would benefit them more than 
would the solution of the good-roads question. 
As faraiiio impinges upon whole nations in tho 
Old World and the signs of approaching dis- 
tress arn not wanting in America, the countr>' 
does well to make provision ior better methods 
of distributing food products -with tJic minimum 
cost and the minimmu number of middle-men. 

Tlio experience of one farmer is typical of 
that of tens of thousands. Writing to the New 
York Times, he says: 

"Owui ng 240 acres I cultivated only about tTFenty-fivc, 
Avliilo .It least 150 arc cultivable. A neighbor of mine 
OTvnuijg ."GO acres docs not cultivate his land at all. A 
very small part of the cultivable land in my district ia 
tilled, and the question ariic?, V,"hy? The ansrrcr is, 
Bad roads. My farm is four miles from the railroad; 
the country road by wliich v.e have to travel there is so 
bad that it is impossible for mc to get in due time all the 
materials needed for the proper cultivation of all my 
land. As a direct result of the roads most farmers in 
my neighborhood are forced to sell out their stock and 
leave their farms. There are ten fanns along the road 
leading from the railroad to my house, and out of these 
only two are inhabited by their owners. The other 
eight have been vacated.'' 



In the World War in France the condition of 
the roads became a question of national impor- 
tance. It has been truly said that France has 
been saved by her roads. Even at that the 
French roads wore of such light construction 
that they broke down under the heavj- traffic of 
the conflict. France had not looked far enough 
ahead to build roads that would stand the ter- 
rific pounding of artillery and of trains of 
heavy trucks driven at breaJmeck speed. There 
is only one objection raised to good roads, and 
that is by some of the church people, who com- 
plain that the roads tempt the people away from 
the services and out into the good fresh air and 
sunlight and into good health, to the damage, it 
is alleged, of the souls of the autoists and of 
ecclesiastical revenues. It was perhaps irrev- 
erently suggested in one country church that if 
the people were travelling to "hell" via the good 
roads, it was fortunate for any that went in 
Fords, for the Ford always "brings you back". 
That, however, is not an economic question, 
and for purposes of discussion is outside the 
scope of this article. 

In the primitive era of road building the own- 
ership of a pick and shovel or a team of horses 
constituted one a competent road architect ; but, 
after much patient effort by civil engineers, the 
work has been reduced to the science of high- 
way engineering, and roads are first designed 
and then built for economy, efficiency' and per- 
manency-. At the best a road is a mechanism 
that lasts only a certain number of years before 
it is w^om out ; and it should be replaced. 

The factors that enter into good road build- 
ing are many and important. The principal one 
is that of obtaining trained engineering help to 
make surveys, plans, preliminary investiga- 
tions and the inspection of work in progress. 
There is a distinct shortage of young engineers 
which cannot be very well overcome except 
through the slow process of techni'al education, 
for modem road work cannot be "picked up". 

The salaries paid to men in various engin- 
eering positions are: chief engineer in charge of 
aU work, $8,000 to $15,000; engineer of con- 
struction, and engineer of maintenance, $6,000 
to $10,000 each ; engineer of bridges, $5,000 to 
$8,000; office engineer, $5,000 to $8,000; engi- 
neer of tests, $4,000 to $7,000; district engineer, 
$5,000 to $8,000; advisory engineer to the chief 
engineer, $5,000 to $10,000; first assistant en- 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



361 



ffineers. $3,600 to $5,000; assistant engineers, 
$2,400 to $-1,000 ; cliief chemist, $3,500 to^SujOOO; 
assistant ciienusts, $2,000 to $4,000. The in- 
fspection service calls for techuicaily educated 
men earning $2,400 to $4,000; and there are 
many junior ongbieers and assistants getting 
$1.S00 to $2,400. This schedule gives some idea 
cf the number ol' trained men in a large road 
project. \'rith tlie scarcity of such men the sal- 
aj-ios paid are likely to ri^e above these figures. 
■ Another factor in the problem is that of 
obtaining the inaterialis of construction- To 
date there has been a hit-or-miss way of getting 
materials, vluch is bound to cause a scarcity 
during 1920, and hamper the carrying out of 
th«^ ;unbitious project for the year. Eumors are 
current of combinations of material-men to cor- 
ner all available sup; lies and to carve out as 
large a .vlice as possible of the $633,000,000 
appropriation. '"The profiteer ye have always 
Avith you." Among the sxipplies is an enormous 
quantity of cerafnt, on which the public has to 
pay Imudreds of dollars per mile to dealers who 
under a manufacturers agreement never handle 
or <^ven see tlie cement used on the roads built. 

It would be a visionary theorist that would 
imagine that the 1920 program could be carried 
out in. entirety "with tlie present inefficient and 
inadequate car service. ^NTiere materials are to 
be carried a long distance by rail, they should 
be gathered in huge amounts at numerous supply 
depots; for when tlie busy season begins, rail- 
road cars have to be diverted from such mater- 
ijxls as those for road building. This difficulty 
alone has caused the highways for years back 
to bo strewn with the financial wrecks of con- 
tracting concerns that could not get supplies, 
were held up in their work whUe expenses ran 
on, and were finally forced into bankruptcy, 
on account of lack of transportation facilities 
for tlieir materials. The comment of President 
A. B. Hirst of the American Association of 
State Higliway Officials, is, "We must interest 
ourselves in this railroad problem, because wo 
can never build our roads, unless this American 
'sleeping beauty', our railroad system, is given 
an injection of tiynamite, and made to live.** 

But, for the highway engineer, the labor 
problem never sleeps. Men arc scarce, when 
there is an estimated shortage of 2,000,000 com- 
mon laborers. If different road projects or dif- 
ferent states bid against .one another, up goes 



the wage of the laborer, atid no more roads are 
built than before, for there are only so niany 
workers for all the roads. 

An important feature in modern road con- 
struction is the re-location of roads. The ten- 
dency has been to build along old roads ; but no v.-, 
when the roads are to be permanently located, 
they are being laid out witli a view to tlie most 
efficient service both of today and of posterity. 
Sometimes the foDowing of an old line over a 
hill preserves a grade that destroys the value 
of a section of miles of road. In road making 
the old order is passing and the new is already 
here. Koads are now built for the Golden Age. 

Tlie staggering cost of $20,000 to $30,000 a 
mile on roads that wear out in ten years or so un- 
less properly maintained, has given pause to 
many that see roads financed with bonds run- 
ning longer than the ten to twenty years' life 
of the mechanism. Eoad bonds have been issued 
to run as long as 50 years, but the present sens- 
ible tendency is to have them rtm not over 15 
years, and not saddle the cost of a dead horse 
upon two generations to come after the roads 
have worn out. 

When our fathers were boys it was considered 
dishonest to contract debts, private or public, 
beyond ability to pay in reasonable time. Again 
there is a tendency to limit debts, but only be- 
cause of the results of public extravagance. 

The movement now in full tide will begin a 
system of transportation by truck that in time 
shall gridiron the world. The Good Book, too, 
speaks of a system of highways that shall be of 
henefit to every one, and constitute an integral 
part of the work of the Golden Age. "And an — 
highway shall be there, and a way, and it shall 
be called. The way of holiness; the xmclean 
[morally] shall not pass [all the way] over it; 
but it shall be [built] for those [made for the 
unclean, that they may progress up to good- 
ness, when they shall be no longer unclean]; 
the wayfaring men [anyone going over the 
road] though fools [thoughtless persons] shall 
not err tlierein." Tliis is explained in plain 
words as follows: "The highway of the 
righteous is to depart from evil". (Pro- 
verbs 16: 17) Continuing, the Good Book adds. 
"No lion [the devil tempting men to err] shall 
be there; it shall not be found there; but th<? 
redeemed [Christ redeemed all men] shall 
walk there ; and the ransomed [Christ gave him- 



562 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



Rrlr 'a ransom for all"] of the Lord shall return 
[fr.'in jiin an J death], and come to Zion [to the 
trno, licnrlfolr worship of God],%rith pongs and 
everlasting joy upon thoir heads; they shall 
obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sigh- 
ing shall flee away [forever]". (Isaiah 35 : 8-10) 
Timr- shall hnmauiry depart from c^^l and come 
to God during the Golden Ago. 

Temperance— A Master Virtue Vv Joseph crdg 

RECENT examples of the serving of alcoholic 
substitutes is evidence of evil as well as 
good in present efforts to banish hard drink 
from the earth. Prohibition has its dark side 
as well as its bright side. Its reactions are such 
as follow extreme positions on any subject. 

We remember the arguments of certain sects 
■who refuse to eat pork and other meat.?. They 
argue tliat Christ sent all the devils into the 
swine and hence that act puts a ban on pigs to 
the last ditch. They forget that the Lord par- 
took of lamb, fish and possibly other forms of 
flesh upon occasion, and that the Apostle coun- 
seled other Christians to eat what is set before 
them asldng no qnestiors for consciences' sake, 
but to be thanld'ul. 

Now comes upon the scone a new class of re- 
formers that has gone from hogs to pie crust, 
larrl and other fats which generally enter a 
modem kitchen, and that denounces the brew- 
ing of harmless effervescent beverages. 

By way of description of the "nip" of these 
effervesced waters let me tell a story I heard 
the other day. Sambo and Rastns were looking 
in at a dmg store window exhibiting an array 
of pprudol waters. 

"Ever taste that, Sambo?" asked Rastns. 

"Taas, indeed!" responded Sambo. 

"HoVd it done feel?' inquired Rastns. 

"I can't 'zackly "splain, but hits about like 
when yer foot's asleep," was the laconic reply. 

Even common coffee is on the carpet now as 
an enemy of man, and somo would wish its 
service curtailed by license, notwitlistanding the 
fact that certain poisons are requisite to offset 
other poisonscompound'Ml in nature'slaboratorj'. 
In these extreme positions wo caji see the need 
of reason and sense coming to the front, c<ther- 
wise insanity may be enthroned as an angel 
of light. Snch inconsistencies of an intemper- 
ate prohibition would make the cnrf> worsf than 
was the diseaf^e. 



That great logician, St. Paul, argues to the 
effect that we are to "let no man therefore judge 
[rule] you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of 
an holy day, or of the new moon, or of the sab- 
bath days". {Colossians 2:16) Moreover, he 
counseled young Timothy, "Drinl: no longer 
water, but use a little wine for tliy stomach's 
sake and thine often infirmities". — 1 Tim. 5 : 23. 

The same principle is observnble in the Mas- 
ter's reproof of the Pharisees : 

"Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypo- 
crites ! for ye pay tithe of mint, anise and cum- 
min, and have omitted the weightier matters 
of the law, judgment, mercy and faith: these 
ought ye to have done, and not to leave the 
others undone. - Ye blind guides, which strain 
at a gnat and swallow a camel. Woe unto you, 
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make 
clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, 
but within they are full of extortion and of 
excess. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first tliat 
which is within the cup and platter, that the 
outside of them may be clean also. Woe unto 
you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye 
are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed 
appear beautiful outward, but are within full of 
dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. Even 
so ye also outwardly appear righteous imto 
men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and in- 
iquity. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, 
hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the 
prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the 
righteous, and say, If we had been in the days 
of our fathers, we would not have been par- 
takers with them in the blood of the propLotg. 
"Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that 
ye are the children of them which killed the 
prophets. Fill ye up then the measure of your 
fathers. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers." 
—Matthew 23:23-33. 

In view of the foregoing we must concede 
that climatic conditions have to do with fer- 
mentation and that the old saying "One man's 
meat is another man's poison" is true. We must 
also agree that moderation serves as the best 
equilibrant in all questions of public interest. 
"Words" and not "eats" or "drinks" will be tlie 
criterion of character in the age to come (Luke 
6:45), the age when "the desert shall rejoice 
and blossom as the rose" and wlien "the fields 
shall jield their increase". 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 




Power Prospects 

THE present status of the power situation 
throughout tlie ■world is that outside of man 
and beast power there are four primary sources 
of power — ^water, coal, oil, and gas. The ap- 
plication of the- power obtained is made through 
the agency of steam, or electricity, or directly ; 
for example, power from coal is usable only by 
heating water into steam which in turn moves 
machinerj' or rotates electrical machinery from 
which electricity tarns motors to operate ma- 
chinery. There are no other sources of power 
of commercial importance, though some of these 
are used to a very small extent. In the pursuit 
of new sources many keen minds are reaching 
out and heard of occasionally through the press. 

The chief source of power is coal. The 
earth contains a fixed amount of coal and care- 
ful estimates have been made of how long the 
output of the black diamond can be relied upon. • 
Power is the index of civilization, and wherever 
power is to be had thither wiU the march of 
empire trend. Begions where coal has •been 
abimdant and in which great cities, teeming 
with industry, have sprung up, are destined to 
decay as power becomes dearer ; for new indus- 
tries are located in them, and old ones migrate 
to cheap-power places. 

Ignoring the power situation in the rest of 
the world, that in the United States begins to 
present the phenomena attendant upon the local 
exhaustion of temporary sources of power. As 
the great Pennsylvania beds of coal are mined 
out and the price of coal in the E'ast doubles 
and trebles, manufacturing is bound to leave 
the East and locate in the midst of the larger 
and more lasting coal fields of the South and 
Middle West Even if there should be "a revo- 
lution in the use of coal", the migration of in- 
dustry would only be postponed ; ultimately the 
remnants of Eastern coal would be reserved for 
the public utilities, such as gas, electric light, 
and electric railways. This signifies the final 
passing of industrial supremacy from such 
states as Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, which are 
destined to sink economically to the plane of 
states like Maine, New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, except in water-power localities. 



According to the State Geologist of Pennsyl- 
vania, in the Electrical World, the future of 
manufacturing, being detemiincd by the price 
of power, the coming locations of industry are 
indicated by the Govermnent prices of coal as 
follows, all of which are lower than Pennsyl- 
vania prices : Ohio, $2 to $3.75 : Kentuelcj', $1.95 
to $3.55; Illinois, $1.95 to $2.65. Wherever the 
cheap coals are, expressed in terms of power 
obtainable per dollar's worth of coal, industry 
^^ill go, and population -will build up about the 
mills and factories. 

The United States has about three and one- 
half trillion tons of coal, of which two trillions 
are inferior because of the presence of an ex- 
cessive amount of water. Of the one and one- 
half trillions remaining a great proportion rep- 
resents inferior coals, the better portion having 
been already dug. Industry is using half a bil- 
lion a year. At this rate the coal would seem to 
be likely to last some 3000 years. But the 
rate of use of bituminous has jumped many fold 
in recent decades. If it should yet increase ten 
times, the available good coals would last some 
300 years, but with the almost unimaginable 
population of the Golden Age it might multiply 
five times more, in which event the exhaustion 
of the better coals would be a matter of les.« 
than a century after the consumption had 
reached the ultimate figure. The Pennsylvania 
soft coals, with no increase in rate of use, are 
expected to see exhaustion in thirty-five years. 
The fine coals of the Pocahontas fields of Vii-_ 
ginia and West Virginia are good for ninety 
years. Some of the anthracite beds are des- 
tined to be worked out in ten to twenty year.s. 
after which localities and cities now prosperous 
■will begin to be abandoned. It ■will, of course, 
be a gradual process, for as the limits are ap- 
proached, the cost of production will rise and 
cheaper coals be used. But the end of prosperity 
for certain regions is unavoidable, so far as 
coal is concerned. How fast the country's coal 
is going is seen by the ton production: 



1840- 
1850- 
18G0- 
ISTO- 
1880. 



. 2,000.000 
. 7,000.000 
.14.000.000 
.33,000,000 
.71,000,000 



1890.... 
1900... 
1910.- 
1918- 



_i.':r,ooo.ooo 
.„269,ooo.noo 

...501 ,000.000 
...685,000.000 



3^4 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



Tbe_ Ptrpams of the United States in their 
Nv.aronrJls ju.'ci rnpids pos^e^s a latent wac^i- 
]-.o<vo.r oi' o20,000.000 borse powor, an amount 
vr.5ily greacf-r than the 30.000,000 horse power 
0" all tito countr/s stationary steam, steam and 
gcvs engines and wat^r power plants ; bnt most 
Ol this could not be atilized economically, and 
the net available horse power from water is 
estimated at nine times that of all the power 
plants in use — steam, water and gas. It is esti- 
mated that aboQt 270,000,000 is the available 
horse power from the streams. 

It is urged that this "'"white coal" be devel- 
oped rapidly, but its advocates forget that this 
would only bring a re-location of industry the 
f^ooner, for only a tliird of the water power is 
in the industrial section. They also forget 
that per unit of power, the construction of a 
v.-ater-power plant calls for a mucli larger in- 
vestment than that of a steam plant, partly 
because no plant is economical unle.ss it is fin 
a very large scale. The Central states have 
little v/ater power, but tliat of the South totals 
4.000,000 horsepower, the Par West 16,000,000 
and the Pacific Coast 23,000,000. On a water- 
powr basis the natural re-location of industry 
would be in iLe states now having the least 
population; but this question of population 
■would correct itseK as poAver was nmde avail- 
rJoh; for the inevitable flow of industry is 
toward the regions having the most and the 
dieapcist power, a condition that speaks vol- 
umes for tiie coming- den.<dtj' of the population 
of states now but spaisely inhabited- 
It is when speakuig of electric power that 
1156 imagination of the people begins to soar. 
But e]?eirlcity is not in itself a source of power, 
but a product of one of the primary sources, 
and ils coming use depends upon coal and 
Avator, -vrithout which there can be little elec- 
tricity, for there is noAv no commc-rcial method 
of obtaining it othenvise. There is, however, 
f.n ambitious plan for tiie mobiliziiig of the 
eioc'lrie r,esouree;> of Iho country into a national 
system composed of great groups of power- 
producing regions. Tiie proposed districts are, 
Xew England, Eastern Penn.?ylvania, New Jer- 
sey, Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Oliio, and 
tlie Southern States. The plan is to favor tlie 
largo plants — linnnccd by Wall Street, of course 
— elireinaie tho smaller plants, connect aU part.s 
OL a region ^m]; loug - distance transmission 



lines of 110,000 to ] 32,000 voltage, and inter- con- 
neet th<? groups in the same manner, as far a< 
pi-acticabio. '"it is of vital importance", says 
the Electrical JVorld, 'for conservation of re- 
sources, for economy of production and for gen- 
oral industrial eflieiency that tlie bulk of the 
power used should be made by central systems 
as against isolated plants ; therefore let us try 
to get our lawmakers and public executives, na- 
tional, state, and municipal, to take the Govern- 
ment point of view; in other words, to thinlv in 
terms of war, which are also terms of peace 
from a Govenunental standpoint, and uniiorraiy 
and rationally to encourage central power de- 
velopment, provide for a just return to capital 
in electric power business and grant monopo- 
lies tmder regulations that will foster coordina- 
tion and interstate operations". In plain words, 
"No more little electrical enterprises", but a 
Government monopoly for the big ones now 
esisting and a gradtial but sure extermination 
of the little fish by the big ones. ThtLs is tlie 
electrical transmission of power to be managed 
for the best interests of the people, if it is for 
their interest to have power at a slightly lower 
rate on condition of it being in the hands of 
what will amoimt to a Government-favored 
monopoly of this important i)ower. 

Of the other sozirces of power the most used 
is oil, in the form of crude oil, kerosene, or 
gasoline. Oil fields are of temporary produc- 
tiveness, are quicldy exhausted, and must be 
replaced by the discovery of new fields. It is 
questionable, in a long view of the power situa- 
tion, how much dependence can be placed on 
oil. The American fields axe already drained 
nearly dry or showing signs of early exhaustion. 

Alcohol appears to be destined to an increas- 
ing use as a source of power, but its cost keeps 
it out of the field until gasoline rises to a 
point to admit of competition. A new method 
of getting power from coal is to piunp live steam 
and air down to a seam of coal, with the erpec- 
tation that the combination will produce a com- 
bustible gas which can be utilized. Peat beds are 
looked upon as likely some time to be of impor- 
tance in the production of power. Franco is 
developing a system of water-power plants to 
utilize the power of the tides. In the arid We?t 
there are a few plants in which the heat of the 
stm is concentrated by mirrors on a boiler that 
m.ike.s Eteam for a steam plant <«o eage scs> 



The Qoldcn Age for March 3, 1920 



3^5 




An Era of Progress Bu ^twton t. Baruhom 

NE\'EK ill the liiyiory of tlie liurjaii moo 
have "vvii bcfu boruo along on s-uoli r. tide 
as ncAv. A focul coiiccntracioii of events, 
change?, ajid rtonsoir.iiiation.s is projc-ctirirv as ai 
an amazing' fpf-cd in a current tJiat eaunoi ha 
accounted for by any theory of evolution or 
development. It is a psyeholog-ical phi-noiuenou 
— a stupendous dimiix. 

The event;-: and results of tiicv -war, the de- 
struction of a large part of the social, if jlitieal, 
religious, finaiuial and econoniic ^vorhl, in addi- 
tion to tlie ffreat loss of human life, diverted our 
attention for the time from other events and 
results ox eciual signiiicarice, if not of equal im- 
portance. One of tiiese problems is the eco- 
nomic revolution in transportation that was in 
process of solution "vrhen the war commenced; 
and it continues v.ith even greater impetus to 
hold the attention. 

It is only seventy -five years since tlve six- 
horse team was the largest unit in land trans- 
jwrtation, and the locomotive was tlien at the 
same stage of development ihat the flying ma- 
chine is now: in fact the latter has far greater 
possibilities than the former ever had, because 
no grading or road-bed is needed. The initial 
cost of the machine is not a tenth of that of the 
locomotive or coach. The flying machine is not 
confined to any fixed course or road or altitude ; 
it covers botli land and water without trans- 
shipment of load; its friction is reduced to a 
minimum, and its attainable speed is fourfold 
that of tlie locomotive. 

According to the New York Sun Major Keed 
Landis, second American ace, holds that aerial 
passc'iigers can be carried from New York to 
ChieaJ,'o in eight hours for $37.52, at a profit of 
SO^c) for the carrier. The eight-hour schedule 
is ten hours less tlian any paying passenger ever 
bridged the distance before. Major Landis 
makes his calculations of profit on the basis of 
$18.76 as the actual co.st of the trip. The type 
of planes Major Landis recommends for the 
Korvice v»ould carry twonty-five passengers and 
malce one trip a day. If there is an error in his 
ligures, the Major says, it is iu overcstimation 
oi the cost. 



As soori as sttam transportation on land by 
f-tcam power boeame genoral and stabilized, ii.s 
economic value begSTi to be threatened by the 
olectrjc IrolJoy; and as soon as the use of th^ 
trolley car becaine ger»eral and stabilized, its 
economic value bcgaii to bo threatened by the 
explo.^ive motor, the auto car and auto track; 
and now the flying macliine tlireatens the eco- 
nomic value of them all. 

Is it not inevitable that a large part of the 
millions of freight and passenger cars and 
locomotives, besides the rails, wiU be valued 
only as old junk, and the largest part of tiio 
stations be used for other purposes than de- 
signed by the builders? 

Already the stocks and bonds of most of the 
railroads and trolley lines have ceased to pay 
dividends and interest. May not the holders 
of large blocks of them be preparing to unload 
on the inexperienced public or to unload the 
junJc on the Government? May we. not see 
them favoring Government ownership ere long? 

If fares or freights are raised to produce 
more income, it "will only si)eed up auto bus, 
truck and flying machine construction, and re- 
sult iu fewer passengers and less freight except 
for long hauls. 

Still another feature hi the economic revolu- 
tion threatens to add many billions to the loss 
of hundreds of biUions by war and by the scrap- 
ping of the railroads. It is only a relative^ 
few years since the wires of the telegraph sys- 
tems were first strung like a net over the earth 
and under the ocean, at the cost of billions. 
Soon the telephone began to threaten the eco- 
nomic value of the telegraph and the latter 
ceased to pay dividends, and now the latest dis- 
coveries in the wireless system threatens to send 
all the wires of both the telegraph and the tele- 
phone companies to tlie scrap heaj), as the cost 
of the new system is negligible. 

The foregoing is an illustration of the funda- 
mental changes going on in every depai'tment of 
human life and activity; there is not a single 
exception; it is an astounding phenonienon. 
Only six years ago the great Russian, German 
and Austrian governments towered with mighty 
power, as firm apparently as the Bocky Mount- 



^ee 



TKe Qoldjzn Age for March 3, 1920 



ains: now tliey have entirely disappeared from 
the political landscape ; they are leveled to the 
plain. The great religious systems are no ex- 
ception. The Methodist church reports the 
greatest loss of membership in 150 years. 

All this, however, can be accounted for by the 
fact, which every one admits, that the human 
race has been living under a social, political, 
religious and economic system that was defec- 
tive. We must submit to the compelling proof 
that the over-ruling divine power is now taking 
direct control of human affairs and gradually 
substituting for the old defective system a bet- 
ter one — that of the Golden Age. 

England's New Advantage 

IN VIEW of what England suffered during the 
World War, few Americans will begrudge 
her the great advantage which she now enjoys 
in the markets of the world because of the carni- 
val of high prices in the United States, and 
the high rates of exchange. Few countries can 
afford to import anything from the United 
States, at present prevailing prices, but they 
can afford to import from Britain, because the 
British prices for things are away down below 
the American level. Britain cannot afford to 
buy from America in large quantities when she 
can get but $3.34 for her pound that is normally 
worth $4.86Gi, but she can afford to buy in 
large quantities from the poverty-stricken coun- 
tries about her and they are glad to sell to her. 

As the situation stands, it is greatly to the 
benefit of Britain to buy from o^er countries 
and to sell to tlio United States; and there is 
no doubt that in the near future immense quan- 
tities of European goods, bought by Britain at 
low prices, ^rill bo flooding the American mar- 
kets. And when that happens prices here will 
come down with a bang, and those that have 
saved nothing out of their war profits will be 
causfht in the pinch. 

There are many truly patriotic men who be- 
lieve that it would be best at this juncture to 
raise interest rates to 10% so as to compel the 
people to save something. But if that is done 
the thousands who have invested their savings 
in high-grade railroad 4% to 4i% bonds wiU 
naturally feel tliat their investment in those 
bonds was a poor bargain. 

The financial condition of the world reminds 
us of the words of tlic Psalmist, "All the founda- 
tions of the earth are out of course'' In the 



same connection he gives some very excellent 
advice to earth's rulers at the present time. It 
should be remembered in reading the psalm in 
question that the word "gods" means "mighty 
ones" and is used in the Scriptures not only 
respecting Jehovah but also respecting the 
mighty ones of earth. See Psalm 82 : 1 - 5. 

Liberty in America 

THE influence of liberty in America has been 
a potent factor in breaking the shackles of 
serfdom throughout the world. The practical 
illustration of people governing themselves so 
successfully, so prosperously, excited the admi- 
ration and envy of their relatives and friends in 
every part of Europe, and led to the concession 
of greater liberties everywhere. Still better 
times for this country and for all the world are 
ahead, in the better day, the Golden Age, fore- 
told by the mouth of all the holy prophets since 
the world began. "In his days [Christ's days] 
shall the righteous flourish; and abundance of 
peace so long as the moon endureth." — ^Psalm 
72:7; Isaiah 9:7. 

Power Prospects ICotUinucd from Page 364) 

Here and there some one appears with claims 
to have developed, or to be on the track of, revo- 
lutionary ideas pertaining to the development 
of power. These claims seldom amount to any- 
thing, but a recital of them is useful as an index 
of the extent to which inventive minds are reach- 
ing out for the better and as yet unknown sources 
of power of the future, which some one is bound 
to discover in due time; for the Golden Age 
will be characterized by agencies and me'Ehods 
beside which those of today will appear like 
the crudities of ancient history. That such 
things are coming and are in the mind of the 
good Father is evident, and that he has a due 
time for suggesting the ideas to the minds of 
men appears from the fact that some important 
inventions of the past were foreknown and even 
the time of their appearance indicated. Ail 
tliese and many otliers will be included in the 
blessings of the better order of things that -will 
shape up when the smoke of war and other di.s- 
turbances begins to clear away. Of that time it 
is written, 'h •vrill open you the windows of 
heaven, and pour you out a blessing, tliat there 
shall not be room enough to receive it".— 
Malachi3:ia 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 




Justice and iJic Foot ^T/'iiii'^f'ir i'"' •"'• 

Fl;^:EI>o.^t axd f.quality of justice — Freedom 
nnd equality of justice are twin fundamental 
conceptions of American jurisprudeiico. To- 
Sether they form the- basic priiicipk' on which 
our ontir:? p)an for the administration of ju."- 
lice is built. They are so deep-rooted in iJie 
liody and spirit of our laws that the ver>' mean- 
ing which we ascribe to the word justice em- 
braces them. A system which created class 
distinctions, having one law for the rich and 
another for the poor, which was a respecter of 
persons, granting its protection to one citizen 
and denying it to his fellow, we would unhesi- 
tatingly condemn as unjust, as devoid of those 
essentials without which there can be no justice. 
From the dawn of Anglo-Saxon legal history, 
this idea has been manifest. The earliest laws 
continually directed that justice be done alilvc 
to rich and poor. The equal right to law was 
asserted in the Charter of Liberties of Henrj'- 
11. The idea received its classic embodiment 
and statement in the fortieth paragraph of 
Magna Charta, wherein was inscribed, **We will 
soil to no one, deny to no one, or make a differ- 
ence in, either right or justice". This did not 
signify, or inaugurate, an era of absolute free- 
dom of justice, but it was a first stop in that 
direction. Its supreme importance, however, 
lies in the tradition which gradually attached to 
it, and which glorified the idea into an ideal — 
an ideal which steadily persisted in men's minds 
throughout five centuries, and which' was 
brought by tlic colonists to the New World. 

Ill the constitutional conventions which fol- 
lowed the American Bevolutiou the ideal was 
given concrete expression in the various State 
Bills and Declarations of Eights. The Massa- 
chusetts Constitution, adopted in 1780, de- 
clared: "Every subject of the Commonwealth 
ought to fmd a certain remedy, by having re- 
course to tlie laws, for all injuries or wrongs 
which he may receive in Ids person, property, 
or character. He ought to obtain right and 
justice freely, and without being obliged to pur- 
chase it; completely, and \nthout any denial; 
promptly, and without delay; confonnably to 
the laws.*' 



As state after stale ha.s lx>en added to the 
Union, its people, in constitutional assembly, 
have written the same d(»claratiou into tlieir 
fundamental law. In New York the declaration 
is contained in a statute, but this is exceptional. 
Today, ilie constitution of nearly every state, 
by express pro^asioii of the Bill of Right.s, guar- 
antees the freedom and equality of justice. The 
Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of 
the United States adds to the state guaranty 
the authority of the supreme law of tlie land. 

As a matter of law, the right stands inviola* 
ble. It is recognized and established by the 
highest pos.sible authority. But that is not 
all. Its incorporation into tlie Bills of Eights 
transformed the principle from merely a legal 
or juristic conception to a political eonsidera'^ 
tion of supreme importance. Not only was the 
right to freedom and equality of justice set 
apart with those other caulinal rights of liberty 
and of conscience wliidi were deemed sacred 
and inalienable, but it was made the most im- 
portant of all because on it all the other rights, 
even the rights to life, liberty, and the pnrstiit 
of happiness, were made to depend. In a word, 
it became the cornerstone of the Eepnblic, 

Ours was designed to be and is a govermnent 
of laws and not of men. Under a government 
so constituted the right of the individual to 
life, to freedom of motion, of thought, of con- 
science, to his children, to his home, and the 
social interest in securing tliosc things to human - 
beings — all depend, in tlio last resort, entirely 
and absolutely on law. This is recognized by 
our constitutions, and has Ix^en repeatedly em- 
phasized by decisions of courts, in the speeches 
of statesmen, and in treatises on govermnentJ 
The New Hampshire constitution, which is typi- 
cal, thus expresses it: "It is essential to tha 
preservation of the rights of every individual, 
his life, liberty, property, and character, that 
there be an impartial interpretation of the laws 
and administration of justice". 

To secure impartial laws and an equal admin- 
istration of justice, and thereby to make possi- 
ble the enjoyment of the rights and opportu- 
nities contemplated by a democracy, the state 
itself exists. The best welfare and the greatest 



368 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



possible happiness of the men, women and 
diUdren of the nation is the ultimate goal. The 
state is their servant and its government the 
means by which the end can best be obtained. 
, Concerning these fundamentals tliere is no 
dispute, at least within America. Their ex- 
tended statement here would be superfluous but 
for the fact that, although the dependency of 
every ri^t and interest on law is recognized, 
the consequences which inevitably flow from 
such a form of government seem not to be gen- 
erally appreciated. 

These eon.?oquences, summarily stated, are : — 
First, there can loe no political, social, or eco- 
nomic equality, no democracy, unless the sub- 
stantive law by fair and equitable rules gives 
reality to equality by making it a living thing. 

Second, tlie substantive law, however fair and 
equitable itself, is impotent to provide the nec- 
essary safeguards unless the adniinistTation of 
justice, which alone gives effect and force to 
substanti\'e law, is in the highest sense impar- 
tial. It must lie possible for the humblest to 
invoke the protection of the law, through proper 
proceedings in tlie courts for any invasion of 
his rights by wlios-oovtM- attempted, or free- 
dom and equality vanish into iiothingne.ss. 

To witliold the equnl protection of tlie laws, 
or to fail to carry out their intent by reason 
of inadequate madiinery, is to undermine the 
entire structure, and threaten it with collapse. 
]''or the stato to erect an uneven, partial admin- 
istration of ,in.sti(e is to abnegate the very re- 
sponsibility for which it exists, and is to 
necoriiplish by indirection an abridgement of the 
fundamental' rights Vihicli the stateis directly 
forlndden to infringe. To deny law or justice 
to any persons is, in actual eiTect, to outlaw 
thern by stripping tliem of their only protection. 

It is for such reasons that freedom and equal- 
ity of jnsstieo are essential to a democracy ixnd 
that denial of .instico is the short cut to anarchy. 

(This Is tlio firsi (if ii sorioH on '•Justioo and tlio Poor" by 
Jfr. Smith. ptiblNhPd in .-id Important book of limited cir- 
oulntion by tho <';!nu';;U!- FiMindntimi for tliP Aflvanopment 
of TearlilnK, ot yevr York. TIio siilwefjiipnt nrtide*' will Xxf : 
CJ) Denial of .7u¥tloo: Tlic Tii'V : (?.) Defects in the Adm I n- 
Irtration of Justifo; (•*•» Tlif I'ir-r I>efoct: Delny: (Tt) The 
Recoinl Defect: I'onrr f'opts mid Voof. un T\>o Third De- 
fect: E.Tperi."<T of CouiiM'!. 

73ke More Excellent Way bd luciui iii<j,ardxmi 

THE principles wliich Christ has laid down, 
whilo often foUoAved individually, have been 
applied but very little in national life. If the 



nations which became Christian in name had 
really been so in deed, would they have been 
in the condition they are today? 

For instance, suj)pose Napoleon, instead of 
overrunning Southern Europe and trying to 
conquer Kussia, had said, "My people need more 
room; you have large tracts you are not occu- 
pying; let us develop some of it"; and Bussia 
had replied, "Very well, as we are one great 
family we will appoint a commission to consider 
how much you need and how much we can spare."' 

It may be said that this is impractical and 
could not be done. It has been done once, and 
once only, to my knowledge, in the history of 
the world. It was done in our own land of the 
sheltering wings, where so many of the perse- 
cuted of the earth fled for refuge. 

The noble work was done so quietly, and tlie 
world at present is so prone to think tliat great 
deeds must be accompanied by great noise auu 
floui'ish, that tlie name of the statesman who did 
the deed is not often mentioned among the great 
men of our country. 

Though high in station, like Moses, he '"'cbose 
rather to suffer aSUction witli the people of God 
than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season". 
Using his influence with the king, he obtalnod 
a grant of land in the new world, that he 
might lead his people where they could worship 
God unmolested. 

In a primitive country, among savages, he 
founded a state without bloodshed. He said to 
the Indians, ''We are all one flesh and blood. 
Being brethren, no advantage shall be taken on 
either side. "^Vhen disputes arise we ■will fettle 
them in council Between us there shall be notii- 
ing but openness and love." 

The chiefs replied, ''While the rivers run and 
the sun shines we will live in peace with the 
children of William Peun", and according to the 
historian, "the treaty was sacredly kept". While 
the other colonies were in constant fear of 
Indian raids, Pennsylvania had peace through- 
out her borders. 

The historian adds, "The colonial history of 
the state founded by Penn is one of special in- 
terest and pleasure. It is a narration of the 
victories of peace and the triumph of peaceful 
principles over violence and wrong.* 

Wifli the Crolden Age come love and justice 
world-wide, when all communities will deal with 
one another as Peim and the North American 
savages dealt so long ago. 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



369 




The Great American Hen 

THE American lien is not an American; 
she came from Asia in the first place, but 
she does not now look much as she did in the 
forests of India and China where, hens still 
run wild. She is s«weral times as large and 
produeps several times as many eggs in the 
course of a year as does her Asiatic sister. 

The egg-laying: powers of a lien are trans- 
mitted from father to daughter and not from 
mother to danghter, and they are transmitted 
from father to son, not from motlier to son. In 
the pedigree of a hen it is all important to know 
that she comes of a lorg line of male ancestors 
of good egg producers. It is the rooster, not 
the hen, that determines \\'het}!er the next gen- 
eration shall be great egg producerf^. 

When tlie dainty female chi(;k steps out of 
her shell she lias in her little body the whole nmn- 
ber of eggs, about 650, that she -^111 ever lay. 
Bom in April the young hen begins laying in 
the Autumn and does all she uill do i'or the 
world within the next two years, nt the end of 
which time she constitutes the piece de resist- 
ance for a Sunday dinner. 

The average hen produces 120 eggs per year, 
the extra good hen 200 eggs per year, and in- 
stances are on record where more than 300 per 
year have been produced. The average egg pro- 
duction is slowly improving. It has improved 
more rapidly siaice it was discovered that iho. 
egg-laying powers are trjinsmitted through the 
inales instead of the females. 

The hen is a subject of perpetual study and 
experiment, to see how she can be made to pro- 
duce the largest possible results for the amount 
that it costs to feed and care for her. It has 
been found that hens can be forced in growth 
and productivity by electrical baths, produced 
by charging the vdve about tlieir cages for a 
certain number of minutes in each hour. Hens 
thus electrically charged require less food, grow 
ffister and produce more eggs than tliose which 
are not thus electiifiod. 

Experiments have also been made in lengtli- 
ening the hen's working day during the winter 
season by illimiinating the chicken houses for 
an hour or so in the early evening and in the 



early morning. It is found that this also aids 
productivity', although sometimes the shell of 
the forced eggs are too thin to ship "welL 

As a result of the efforts of breeders -re are 
promised that in the near future -we shall have 
chickens as large as turkeys and that they will 
lay eggs in proportion to their size^ and in large 
numbers. These achievements in the dawn of 
the Golden Age are, we think, an argionent 
against the position taken by vegetarians. 

Eastern Farmers Awakening 

PERHAPS it was the more fertile soil of the 
West tliat caused the Western farmers to 
awaken before their Eastern brotheis, or per- 
haps, as some claim, there is something in the 
atmosphere of the Western States that leads 
people to be more alert and progressive; but it 
is undeniable that the- Westerners appreciated 
the possibilities of scientific farming before it 
was generally accepted in the East. Now the 
Easterners are beginning to get dieir eyes 
opened to .the advantage of this method. 

It is now getting pretty generally noised 
around among Eastern farmers that aiqr poor 
piece of land can be ttimed into a fertile and 
profitable area in a very short tine by the in- 
expensive and practical method of sowing it to 
inoculated legumes such as hairy vetdi or soy 
beans. The preparations for inoculating the 
seeds can be obtained at any seed warehouse, 
and cost but the merest trifle. The hairy vetch- 
can be sown with rye. The soy beans make a 
valuable crop of hay aside from the worth of 
the seed beans obtained. 

Following a stand of vetch and rye, clover 
will do excellently where before it would hardly 
grow at all, and wheat will follow soy beans 
vt-ith a crop that would have been impossible 
but for the previotis planting of soy beans. The 
planting of legumes cannot be made a success 
>A-ithout the inoculation. 

The discovery of a simx>le method of znoeo- 
lating tlie soil so that what was formerly an 
unprofitable piece of ground or a barren waste 
becomes a fruitful and profitable area, is sug- 
gestive of the Scripture which, with mspect to 
the Golden Age, teUs of other changes that «re 



J>/< 



Ihe Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



coming: '-In the viiultnius? shall walors Lroaic 
out iiwl stream? in the der.cn. And tlie part'lu^d 
ground shall Locotno a pool, and the thirsty land 
pprinj^r. of v/at-^r: in tlio habitation of dragons 
[Jackals], uhere t-ac-h lay, shall be grass with 
rueds and rushof." — Isaiah 3u : 6. 7. 

No Summer 

THERE is no prospect that this year -will 
have no sunimoj-, but there was snch a year 
a century apo. 

In 1816 sxmspots were at a maximum, a con- 
dition which is liflblf to reduce the earth's aver- 
age temperature a dfrgree or two, and it was 
a very cold year — one of a cluster of cool years 
—including the dates 1812 to 1816. 

The year started with a mild January and 
Februarj-. March turned cool, April began 
warm, but toward the end sav,- the northern 
states hard with ico and snow, ^fay had ice an 
inch thick, and plantings of seeds were re- 
peatedly destroyed by tlie cold. June supplied 
ice on streams and ponds, and snow running to 
ten inches in Vermont, killing nearly every 
green thing. Tlie month saw little rain, and 
a few warm days, but most of the time had "a 
iierctly cold wind from the north". Farmers 
wore overcoats and mittens. One farmer built 
roaring fires around liis corn field and saved the 
crop. Fears were entertained that the sun was 
cooling off. "Picnics wore strictly prohibited." 

July gave America frost and ice and killed 
all the com except the little planted in ver>' 
protected places. In August brooks and ponds 
began to be covered Arith ice, and seed corn ran 
up to $5 a bushel. Septemlwr had a fortnight 
of the year's pleasantcsl weather, but experi- 
enced ice an inch tliick. Very cold weather 
ruled in October and November. December 
vras described as "comfortable," and the winter 
was mild. Europe suffered from cold through- 
out the year, and in 1S17 England saw bread 
riots on account of tlie croj) failure of ''tlie year 
^^^thout a Bummer," for all through that twelve 
months "the sun's ray;: seemed to be destitute 
of heat; all nature was clad in sable hue, and 
men exhibited no little anxiety conccriiing the 
future of this life." 

Sunspots were unusually plentiful and large 
in 1919, but that is no indication that 1D20 will 
have them and be a cold year. If the. "year 
mtlxout a Bummci-" should come again, and the 



total crop faikiro of ISIO with S,O0O,(X)0 popula- 
tion be repealed, the condition of the country 
v.-ould be indescribabif v.ith a population of 
over a hundred million! Whether it is to come 
through a cold season or through short acreage 
of planting by discouraged farmers, the Bible 
indicates tiiat just before the inauguration of 
the Oolden Age, "Great earthquakes shall be in 
divers [various] places, and famines [like those 
in Europe. Russia and India], and pestilences" 
[like the typhus in the War districts and tlie 
world-wide* influenza], (Luke 21:11) The same 
things are referred to in Revelation where inen>- 
tion is made of the coming downfall of a great 
and oppressive system prophetically termed 
"Babylon"-"Therefore shall her [this syetem's] 
plagues [punishments] come in one day [prob- 
ably one year], deatli, and mourning [for the 
dead] and famine.'' — Revelation 18:8. 

Australia Malces Progress 

THE traveler to Atistralia is likely to remark 
about the new spirit of industry and prog- 
ress. For a year or more the scientist has been 
collaborating vnth business, the professor with 
the tradesman, and the continent's best brains 
are pushing things to produce beneficial restilts 
for all the people. 

Australia has been short of native paper, 
}ilany plants have been tested for their pulp- 
producing capacity, and it has been dcmon- 
stratea that paper can be made from trees of 
the abundant eucalyptus family. 

A dc^-ice has been invented for starting inter- 
nal combustion engines using alcohol while cold, 
it having been neccf=!--ai-y hitherto to start witTT' 
gasoline. A mochanical cotton-picking machine 
iiai^ been tested out and is in successful use. 
Tlio sea is made to give up its riches ; common 
kelp is changed into a product which tarns per- 
fectly in the lathe, holds a good polish, and can 
be made into buttons, insulators, and other arti- 
cles. The slieep fly has troubled the continent's 
extensive sheep-raising industry, and a new 
parasite has been introduced to destroy the pest. 
Totasli, much needed in agriculture, is obtained 
from the water hyacinth, or common river weed, 
and from deposits of alunite. Scientific road 
construction with Australian materials has been 
worked out, and the materials tested, and bel- 
ter roads may soon begin to take the place o£ 
the present road system. 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



371 




The Rotary Gas Engine By j. l. Martin 

'TPHOUSANDS of inventive geniuses have 
•I- sought to solve successfully the problem of 
applj-ing compressed steam and exploding gases 
directly to power shaft; and millions of dollars 
have been spent without practical results. A 
practical rotary engine means simplicity, con- 
stant torque, lightness of weight, compactness 
of space, and economy of fuel and lubrication ; 
also the minimum of trouble and repairs. Two 
types of steam engines built on the rotary prin- 
ciple are in successful use ; the well-known tur- 
bine for high-speed revolutions only, and the 
Augustine for sJl speeds. 

In response to the demand for a satisfactory 
rotary gas-oil engine, Mr. B. F. Augustine of 
Buffalo, N. Y., has invented and successfully 
developed such a motor ; and it seems there is 
nothing further left to be desired. It is the 
marvel of the engineers who have seen it This 
laotor revolves with the power shaft, while the 
bearing shaft of the pistons remains stationary. 
This shaft is set eccentric to the power shaft; 
which causes the pistons (arranged radially) 
alteriiately to approach to and to recede from 
the cylindrical walls of the motor casing, which 
is perforated and provided with piston cylin- 
ders which protrude outwardly for air cooling. 

The piston rods have three joints, correspond- 
ing to the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints of 
the human arm. The exploding charge of gas 
forces the relaxed piston outwardly in line 
with centrifugal force, thus straightening out 
the sections of the piston rod; and by this 
action, leverage, or a rotary impulse is impai-ted 
to the cylinder and therefore to the motor. The 
fufcrom for leverage is based upon the station- 
ary bearing shaft. 

The pistons are double- acting. On the return 
stroke the fuel oil is pumped into the vaporizing 
chamber, which, being surrounded by the ex- 
haust gases in the exhaust chamber, absorbs the 
waste heat in vaporising the oil. An ingenious 
chambered disc having suitable cut-offs trans- 
fers the oil without valves. Fuel oil enters 
through the hollow bearing shaft, thus cooling 
all bearings; and the lubricating,- oil pipe en- 
ters the same way discharging centrally, and 



being distributed by centrifugal force, thor- 
oughly lubricates all bearing surfaces. 

This motor involves the principle of superin- 
duction; that is, there is always a 50% over- 
charge of unexpioded gas left for instant deliv> 
ery. This is important in starting the motor; 
and in aeroplane service will enable pilots to 
ascend to greater altitudes than with other mo- 
tors of equal power; for all motors lose effici- 
ency in proportion to height owing to decreasing' 
air pressure on fuel oil which drives it into the 
racuum created by the pumps. 

Motorists experience trouble by an accumn- 
lation of carbon in the combustion chamber, 
owing to imperfect scavenging. From 30% to 
50% of burnt gases and smoke remain and to 
that extent dilute the inflowing fresh gas and 
dilute the efficiency of the charge. In the Augus- 
tine motor all the waste products of combustion 
are expelled and the scavenging is 100%, leav- 
ing a clean spark plug. 

All vehicles carrying gas motors are built 
very strong, to endure the constant vibration 
imparted by the reciprocating type of motors. 
In the rotary type there is no vibration; this 
will permit the use of lighter vehicles and add 
to the comfort of motorists. 

This motor is economical with oiL A nm Jf 
137 miles has been made with an automobile 
with the consumption of but one quart of oLL 
Both gasoline and kerosene are used at will. 
Practically no heat is wasted. The exhauat. 
outlet is never hot Other motors heat when 
cooling by water. 

The Augustine motor can be built with from 
one-half to one-fourth of the amoimt of ma- 
terial entering into the construction of recipro- 
cating motors of equal horse power. It can be 
built with four to twelve cylinders, with only 
one ignition wire per set of cylinders. One type 
is being made so that two charges of gas are 
exploded simultaneously on opposite sides, 
thus balancing the strain. Since engine trouble 
has caused the death of many aeroplane pilots, 
it is expected that this wonderfully simple and 
efficient motor will prove to be a means of safety. 

Other advantages are: weight three pounds 
per horse power; less than one-fourth the parts 



Z72. 



The Qolden Age for MarcK 3, 1920 



found in other motors; no -water, radiator nor 
I'aii; no poppt^t ^'al^•C'.-•, cajii.<, g-;:a?-s or spririgs; 
high or low spr-'xl; periect (.vintrol: revolution- 
ary for all purpose^,. Surely tlds engine Is 
another gToat svep toward tiie Golden Ago. 

A Mailtematical Prodigy 

BLOOillXGTON, Illinois, has produced a 
prodig>'. He can give an inunediate answer 
to almost any mathematical question, and reels 
off millions as the ordinary citizen handles nnits. 
Ask him how many years, days, hours, minutes 
or seconds in one's life, and out comes the 
answer faster than one can write it. A noon- 
hour diversion is to memorize and repeat all 
tjie freight car numbers on the trains that dash 
by at the station. 

Tell him it is 155 miles to Cliicago, and ask 
how many pounds of rails in the track at eighty 
pounds to the yard, and without hesitation 
comes the answer, "534,448,00O''. Try him on 
an automobile wheel thirty inches in diameter, 
for the number of revolutions made in going 
to Chicago, and the result is, "104,476". Taking 
silver dollars one and a quarter inches across, 
ask Mm how many it takes to belt the 25,000 
miles around the earth: the answer is "1,267,- 
20a.OOO". Ask the total of all the numbers up 
to 9,600 and you get "46,084.000". The total 
up to 78,000 is given as "3,042,939,000". The 
number of bricks required to lay a brick pave- 
ment for the 3,578 miles from New York to 
San Francisco, the pavement to be sixty feet 
wideband the bricks each eight by two inches, 
is "10,201,377,60(>". Di\-ide 68.719,476.736 by 
S2,768; and tlie prodigy says, "2,097,152". 

Mr. Stong has had this talent from boyhood, 
and says that he sees the answers instantly 
standing out in front of him, and that there is 
no particular mental strain in this feat. 

TSvo explanations are given for the strange 
abilities of such prodigies. One is that no one 
takes the trouble to check up the answers and 
that any string of figures is enough to satisfy 
the hearers. Perhaps some readers may wisli to 
check up the answers and see if they arc correct. 
Another explanation is tliat such prodigies do 
these wonders, not by the power of thi^ir own 
minds, but that tliey are possessed by an e\nl 
spirit that has the higher powers of the spirit 
plane and can give the prodigj' a vision of the 
answer at once. 



The Iron Bug 

NOT a bug made of iron, but one that makf-s 
iron. For the latest scientific statement is 
that ii'on ore beds are accumulated by bacteria 
having the power of extracting iron from their 
environment and leaving it in masses after their 
demise. 

Iron is an essential constituent of many if not 
all living creatures. It is indispensable in 
human blood, and in that of all red-blooded ani- 
mals. In some animals lacking red blood cor- 
puscles iron is missing from the blood, but is 
found in large amounts in other parts of the 
body. It is necessarj' in certain processes in tl;ti 
life of plants; for without it plants could have 
none of their characteristic green color. 

It is not strange, then, that it should be found 
that deposits of iron trace their origin to bacte- 
ria. Millions of the "iron bugs" lived and died 
to make one little piece of ore, and uncounted 
billions existed to produce the great ore beds. 
This was part of the provision that our Father 
made in preparing the earth so that it might be 
a good place for people to live on. 'Tly God 
shalLsnpply all your need" (Philippians 4: 19), 
may truthfully be said of the arrangements 
made for all humanity, whether it be iron, or the 
other things that man requires. 

Who Invented It? 

IT IS seldom that one man can justly claim to 
have invented something entirely unaided- 
This is illustrated by the fact that eleven in- 
ventors are making official claim on the Govern- 
mental bounty of Great Britain for having 
invented the fighting tank. The Major-Gener- 
als, Sirs, Lieutenants, Colonels and Commo- 
dores who are seeking some of "the needful" 
from the Royal Commission on Awards to In- 
ventors fail to realize that the most an inventor 
can usually do is to add his mite to what others 
have done before him, and that when he ha", 
really adiieved something, if he is as wise as 
the Wipe Man, he must come to realize this 
truth : "I looked on all the works that my hands 
had wrought, and on the labor that I had labored 
to do; and, behold, all was vanity and vexation 
of spirit, and there was no profit under the 
sun. And I turned myself to behold wisdom, 
and madness, and folly : for what can the man 
do that cometh after the king? even that which 
hath been already done." — Ecdesiastes 2: 10-lL 



TJie Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 




(?>LORC.a]ARAcrER@ 



^5!^. 



m> © 



3U»r 



t-V 



tM 






The Tertiary Colors 

IF THREE primary colors p.re coRibined in 
equal strengths the result is a neutral gray. 
But it* one color predoaiinaies and tiio other two 
are about equally subservient, a grayed value 
of the strongest color will be produced. 

Wlien yellow is dominant, and red and blue 
about equal to each other, we have sage or, more 
lucidly speaking, gray yellow. If red is the 
strongest, and blue and yellow subordinate, the 
product is plum, or gray red. Blue in ptrongost 
value, and yellov.- and red each weaker, will 
give gray blue. 

These grayed, or complex colors, v,ith their 
almost endless ramifications, due to varying 
proportions, give us t!ie most lasting pleasures 
of anything which the eye can 
sense. All greens in nature 
have red in them, all reds have 
some measure of green, all 
blues are grayed witli some 
orange, and practically all vio- 
lets have just a tinge of yellow, 
to make even the violet more pleasing. The 
more gray a color becomes, the more comple:: 
the nervous effort to sen-se it : the more, thej-e- 
fore, it appeals to the intellect, to reason and the 
powers of comparisoii. Tlie choice beauty of 
the Persian rug is due to ilus :;ott graying oi 
its component colors. 

Perhaps no more happy cxauiple of tertiary 
coloring could be cited than .Munkacsys ''Iho 
Blind Milton Dictating Para'iiso Lost to Ills 
Daughters", a large canva.^ which liangs in th.o 
galleries of the Lenox Libraj-y in .Nev/ Yoilc. 
Not a single primaty and not a pure secondary 
occur anjnvhere in the paintiiiS'. All i.s in most 
felicitous keeping -with the sublimo iharacter of 
the subject. One can almo.st I'oel tliO grand 
strophes and the "no jnean heiglits"" oi' tiiat 
exalted v.-ork of poetry ,iust by looking at th*^ 
paintei''s work. Thcrs.' is also anolh'-r snmll 
canvas in the sanip gallery, picturiiiir » Vcrit- 
tian scene, in which a single touch 01 ornivic is 
the nearest approach to elem'^ntar}- color. 




Christ ian Art Coming to Light 

WiiEX tiio Moslems took over the groat 
church II ov.- known as St. Sophia's at Con- 
stantinople, according to their law not to destroy 
r.icLures of the human face, they scaled up some of 
iJic most v.ondorful trea-sures of Byzantine arc 
cvc-r l:nov.Ti. and over tliem constructed the <rhar- 
actoristie circles with the names of Mohanune- 
dan v.-orthie.s in Arabic characters. Behind 
these circles, in a good state of preservation, 
are tlio finest specimens of art ever produced in 
glass, mosaic, etc., by Byzantine artists. 

These hidden mosaics are formed of small 
pieces of glass of various colors kept in place 
with cement. The gold and silver mosaics are 
made of sl;eciS,of gold and silver leaf annealed 
between two plates of glass by a lost art The 
Uiain colors are red, blue and green, ■with other 
colors for shading faces and draperies. WTiole 
walls and vaults are covered with these mosaics ; 
and when they are lit up ^ith tlie li^t of the 
sun or of hundreds of lamps, the effect is one 
of indescribable beauty. Among the concealed 
mosaics are a gigantic picture of the "Judgment 
of God", and four immense cherubim each with a 
head over four feet high, and four wings with 
upper feathers of light green and under feath- 
ers of brov.ni. 

In architectural features the structure h^s a 
107-foot dome carried on four pillars, one at 
oacii corner, and composed of light ptunice-. 
;-io;io, and v.-ith the apex 175 feet above the 
f;oor. In other respects St. Sophia is one of tlie 
most remarkable buildings in the world. So 
extraordinary is its appearance that the awe- 
stricken Sultan Mohammed stopped at the door 
and, Ff'oir.g a soldier he^ving at the floor "for the 
fj:ith', exclaimed, 'Te have the whole city to 
])i!lage and enslave; leave ye me the buildings T' 
The Mohammedans have never destroyed the 
treasures of art, but have covered them up. 
Thf?y have preserved whole cisterns or cellars 
ivM of pri<'eless manuscripts of Greek and 
Byzantine literature and writings belonging to 
[he. early part of the gospel age, perhaps in- 
cluding works that will be invaluable in further- 
ing our knowledge of the Bible. 



374 



The Qoldsn Age for March 3, 1920 



Leprosy By D. R. PU-rce 

T .\ Tllij Far Ea^t, aiaong othor Uiings Vvliicb 
•^ c-ii,:jross the attention and deep sjiopathy of 
Wostirii visitors are the numerous leper colo- 
nics, which are regular institutions. 

In one to^^^^ visited, having a population of 
35.000, there -vvas a coloiiv of about 300 lepers in 
' various stages of decay and death. 

The wretchedness and poverty of these — shall 
we say human beings — was indescribable; and 
their poor, nalted, starved, disease-racked bod- 
ies were far removed from those of the plimip, 
•well-fed, richly attired sight-seers, permitted to 
approach witliin a few feet of their village. 

They were unable to work at a gainful occupa- 
tion, because no one would touch a thing which 
had been touched by them. They refused to ac- 
cept money, as they could not spend it for food. 
Only something they could use would be ac- 
cepted. The local custom permitted them to 
visit the city each Friday afternoon to beg for 
food ; and even here they must stay in the road- 
way of the streets, that no one might be contam- 
inated. Their cry still rings in our ears; that 
cry for food, which was never wholly satisfied. 

The Bible tells of many persons afiiicted with 
this dreadful, loathsome disease, which well 
represents sin, and which may never be cured 
•until the Golden Age brings its blessings, de- 
stroying suffering of all kinds. The curing of 
the sin-leprosy of humanity is illustrated in the 
experiences of the heathen general Naaman 
(2 Kings 5:1-14) of whom it is recorded that 
he was a leper, but was cleansed by obedience 
to the Word of God — dipping himself seven 
times in the river Jordan. 

Smaller Newspapers 

PAETLT through the difficulty of getting 
workers for tlie arduous labor of tlie lum- 
ber camps, and partly because of the lack of 
expansion of the paper pulp business during the 
war, the newspapers of the countrj- are exhorted 
by ihe authorities to follow the example of The 
GouDEN Age, make the papers smaller and pack 
more information into the space utilized. 

The pulp and paper mills are running at 100% 
of capacity, and cannot produce more paper. 
Yet there is an estimated shortage of 200,000 
tons a year of newsprint paper, and the news- 
papers are using 10% more paper than is now 
being made by the mills. 



The unprecedented proffsperity of the country 
has caused an unexpected amount of advertis- 
ing to be inserted in the papers; and as the size 
of the papers is controlled chiefly by the amount 
of advertising, the papers have used up the sur- 
plus stock both in warehouses and in mills. 

The remedies suggested are for the papers 
to cut down the size of the pages,* charge more 
for the same advertising space and reduce the 
size of Sunday issues. It is hoped that a reduc- 
tion of one-third in the quantity of paper may 
be effected. The weaker papers are expected to 
teel the bmnt of the paper shortage, and many 
of them may be forced to suspend for lack of _ 
paper. By the weaker papers is meant those 
of small circtilation and those of weak financial 
standing, whose credits are not the best •with the 
paper dealers. The advertising rate advances 
are expected to reach 25% or 30%. The rec- 
ommendations are voluntary, coming from the 
newspaper owners forming the American Pub- 
lishers' Association. 

Who Gets the Money ? 

WHEN anthracite is $12 a ton, who gets ihe 
money? The figures for normal condi- 
tions are as f oUows : 

Profits of operating company $0J3 2.75% 

Materials, royalt;, tax, depreciation and 

management ___— ___^_— .99 8.28% 
Loss on small '^■""' 1.57 13.10% 

Trangporf n from mine to N. Y. market- 2.57 21.38% 

Labor . 2.98 24.83% 

Ketail cost and profit 3.56 29.66% 

In abnormal times, as at present, when -there 
are tmexpected inequalities in the variations of 
prices and wages, it is possible for the profits 
to be much larger thaii the customary 33 cents ; 
and the published statements bear out the pre- 
sumption that the unsettled conditions have en- 
abled profits to be abnormally increased, with- 
out a corresponding rise for labor. In the an- 
thracite business a rise of 31.61%, such as the 
bituminous nainers were led to expect', wo'uld in- 
crease the cost of the coal only 94 cents a ton — 
in fact less, because "labor" includes other costs 
than that of the miners. There is little question 
that any class of workers whose increase in 
pay has not equaled that of the cost of living 
to them as a class, ought to be put at least on 
a par -with what they were before the war. 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



375 




Foods that Nourish l!:i Mtk Andrew J. Bolma 

ANYTHING Ih.'u \vill safogruard the healtli 
■ from, the ravages oi' disease should be 
sought and used -willi all diligor-ce. Health and 
strengtli is a precious possession that all should 
desire and seek to obtain, and having obtained 
it, they should uao the spirit of a sound mind 
and so apply the laws of health in their daily 
living as to improve and increase their strengtli 
and vigor; for by so doing their efficiency is 
greater, no matter what tlieir occupations may 
be. Any knowledge we may obtain on the sub- 
ject should be used to that end. 

The world is full of prematurely aged people, 
broken down, v oi-ii out, suiTering from mahiu- 
trition, the result of the denaturing and emas- 
culating of the foods which a wise Creator pro- 
vides for the human family to live on. In tlie 
excessive upe of refined foods men break down 
nature's defence against tliose great enemies of 
the human body, diabetes, tuberculosis, anaemia, 
pneumonia, and heart disease. 

The great Creator designed that the diet of 
man and beast should contain not only the so- 
callod essentials of protein, fat and carbohy- 
drates, but also the salts and solubles, sometimes 
designated as vitamines, as weU as the succu- 
lents and roughage, without all of which the 
glands do not function normally, the internal 
secretions lose their natural alkalinity, immu- 
■ nity to disease is destroyed, vitality is im- 
paired, and resistance is lowered. "Deficiency 
disease" is a phrase used to describe many dis- 
orders due to an inadequate diet. 

Take the case of a prospective mother : defi- 
ciency of diet undermines her state of health at 
a time when she is called upon to function more 
vitally than ever before, not only for herself 
but foi- her unborn child. Deficiency disease not 
only attacks the unborn child of the poorly nour- 
ished mother, but it attacks tlie mother lierself. 
She is robbed of the ability to bring forth a 
healtliy disease-resisting child, and is also 
robbed of her ability to keep her own tissues 
and her own internal secretions in a healthy con- 
dition. She attempts to perform two duties 
vith but half tlie quantity and quality of mate- 
rial or food Dcccssaiy to do one, the growth- 



promoting and growth-controlling attributes of 
the young are lost, and the mother bears her 
child under very unfavorable conditions. She 
enters the period of lactation wJioliy unable to 
comply with nature's provision for the child. . 
A wise Creator has provided a diet for tlie 
human race that will furnish the material for 
the regeneration of tis.sue, with all the bio- 
chemic substances indispensable to the pro- 
foundly complex but' perfectly normal processes 
of assimilation and elimination. 

In whole grains, such as wheat, com, lye, un- 
polished or brown rice, the elements neoes- 
sary for nourishing and maintaining a healtliy 
condition of the body are found, especiaUy in the 
wheat berry, in which there are sixteen ele- 
ments identical with the elements of which the 
human body is composed. Pure milk contains 
the same elements. In skim milk all elements 
remain but the fat. 

In the process of refining white flour eight of 
those elements are removed, robbing it of jnst 
half of the nourishing quality. Each element 
before refining is in the right proportion to 
work together in harmony with the others, but 
in the refining process some elements are con- 
centrated and some are entirely lacking. The 
whole thing is a disarrangement from the condi- 
tion provided by nature. The most vital parts 
of the grain are taken from the flour and used 
to feed animals, and the abnormal starch con- 
tent is put on the market to feed the people. 

Few people know that the phosphorus found 
in wheat, com, rice, barley and oats, which is 
removed from the various grains in refining 
them, is essential to the very life and health of 
the human body. In refining flour all the phos- 
phorus compounds, iron comi>ounds, calcium 
compounds, potassium compounds, and. all the 
other minertd salts which the human systan re- 
quires to carry on the cliemical processes of 
health-building are taken aw-ay. 

Today, as never before, people are asked to 
live on impoverished foods ; impoverished grain 
products, impoverished brealcfast foods, impov- 
erished table syrups, impoverished fat and milk 
substitutes, impoverished egg substitutes, im- 
poverished sugar, com stardi, com oil, corn 



376 



The Qoldcn Age for March 3, 1920 



syrnp, potato oil, cottonseed oil, rice starch, 
eocoaaut oil, lapiocu starch, oleo oil, and wheat 
Si arch in the inunerous forms in which they 
appear on the table of the average home. 

Milic, until recently, and eggs, were the off- 
setting foods upon which people i-elied to malce 
up for the deficienci(\s of white bread, white 
buns, white coolries, white biscuits, wliite pie 
crust, wliite doughnuts, soda cracker.s, deficient 
breakfast foods, etc., but now egg.s havo so in- 
creased in price that poor people are using as 
few as they can and the milk trnst is doing the 
best it can to put milk out of the reach of the 
poor; and what -n-ill they use in place of these? 

Next to tuberculosis, the niost conmion com- 
plaint caused by refined foods is heart disease. 
Malnutrition is a direct eaiise of heart disease 
in its various forms. The heart is always en- 
larged following a diet deficient in iron, potas- 
sium, calcium, phosphorus and other mineral 
Baits, colloids and vitamines, always found in 
Buch foods as wheat, corn, barley, buclc^iioat, 
oats, milk, fre.'^h vegetables, greens, fruits, etc., 
before these elements are removed by the re- 
fining process tliey undergo. 

There are nmnerous records proving that 
•where refined foods are excessively us('<l with- 
out offsetting foods in the diet, the heart be- 
comes involved in from fifty to sixty day.-^, and 
many records show that where offsetting foods 
are tised to an extent sufficient to retard the 
progress of mineral starvation, the develop- 
ment of disease is delayed accordingly. The 
significance of these records is still further em- 
phasized when it is considered that malnutrition 
is on the increase in the United States. 

Thus as we grow in knowledge concerning the 
laws of nutrition, we are forced to conclude not 
as a theory, but as a fact, that the kind, quality, 
and quantity of food consumed by man does 
affect his health for good or evil and does affect 
every member of the human family. These facts 
demonstrate conclusively the foUy of using foods 
■which do not supply the needs of the body. The 
facts also demonstrate the necessity' of accept- 
ing from the hands of a beneficent Providence 
the foods just as he has provided them for man's 
needs, and refusing to use those which havo been 
manipulated for commercial purposes. If wo 
are going to have food at all, let us, if possible, 
have it as a wise Creator designed and provided 
it. .We need all the natural elements in food. 



The reason w^hy tlie millers go in for v.-hite 
flour is because they have a virtual nionopoly 
of tlie white fiour machinery and because v>-hite 
flour will keep indefinitely. They ksiow that 
when they taJfe out the germ all cliance of 
the flour becoming rancid is gone, but they also 
know that the removal of the germ makes the 
flour about as nutritious as so nmch plaster of 
paris. Flour that contains all the elements nec- 
essary for life and health will keep a consid- 
erable time, but not as long as the starvation 
diet, commonly laiown as white flour. 

I append a few health food recipes which I 
commend to the consideration of some of tliese 
"millions now^ living who will never die". Tou 
can toll your correspondent, M. S., from Paso 
Robles, California, that there is nothing in theae 
that ■\\ill Idll him. 

Health Food Recipes 

Graham Bread 
One yeast cake, three cups lukewarm water, 
one teaspoon salt, two tablespoons nut butter or 
crisco, four tablespoons molasses, five cups flour, 
half white and half graham. Dissolve yeast and 
shortening in lulcewarm liquid. Add molasses 
and salt, then gradually enough flour, after ir 
has been warmed, to make a dough that can be 
handled. Ivnead thoroughly, being sure to keep 
the dough soft. Cover and place where it will 
lie very warm for about twelve hours or more. 
Wh(>n double in bulli, turn out on kneading 
board and mold into loaves. Place in well- 
greased pans, cbver and set to rise again until 
double in size, bake in a slow oven for one^gur. 

Graham Muffins 
Two cups flour, half white and half graham, 
one-half teaspoon cream tartar, one-half tea- 
spoon saleratus, one teaspoon salt, two-thirds 
cup sugar. Sift all together, mix with one pint 
of sweet or sour cream. Bake in hot oven until 
a dark brown. 

Beans Witltout Meat 
One quart yellow-eyed beans boiled about one 
hour in saleratus water— one scant teaspoon to 
enough hot water to more than cover. Drain, 
and add crisco about the size of a lemon, ©ne 
good-sized onion cut up, one teaspoon ground 
mustard, salt and pepper to taste, two table- 
spoons molasses. Cook all day and serve hot 



The QoUen Age for March 3, 1920 



377 



,1* 



!• 



RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY 



la It for the Benedt of the Jews? 

WHEN liistorj'- is v/ritten there are many 
things that would be a surprise to the de- 
ceased makers of history, if they should arise 
from their graves and read the record. For 
history is written, not from the viewpoint of the 
day when it is made nor from the viewpoint of 
the makers, but from the viewpoint of the age 
and of the progressive thinlvcrs of the time. 

Before the League of Nations was even 
thought of, there had been other leagues of na- 
tions and leagues of kings, some of them so long 
ago and so buried in obscurity as to be forgot- 
ten. All of these leagues started with glowing 
promise of benefits for some one for some time, 
but after a few years operation all of them 
failed. Some of them left no tangible after- 
residts ; for they were motivated by fear or the 
other negative states of mind that impede all. 
progress in any direction. 

It is said to be possible that the most lasting 
good of the League of Nations may be for the 
benefit of a people who are scarcely mentioned 
in its provisions. If at all, the Jews figure 
merely as one of tlie "subject" peoples, whom it 
is the privilege of the great nations to uplift. 

History may fully record that the League was 
an instrument used to permit that most ancient 
of all the nations, Israel, to occupy once more 
their native soil; to become a national entity 
again; to begin the visible progress toward the 
inheritance which will, when history is written, 
have become tlie Jews'. This ancient race is 
about to come into its own — a very great pros- 
pect: for when the low are made high and the 
high brought low, the most abased nation in the 
world is destined to rise to an eminence that will 
far more than repay them for their age-long 
bondage to unfavorable environments. 

Be that as it may, the Jews through tlieir 
Zionist organizations are planning for the reoc- 
cupation of Palestine, and are going right ahead 
with the execution of their plans. Regardless 
of delay in the final dotermuiation of the status 
of their cotmtry, the Zionists assume that out of 
the womb of the League will be bom the Jewish 
Bepnblic. This nationality is expected to con- 
tinue under the wing of the League, with quite 



complete autonomy and with absolute freedom 
from the intolerable restrictions from Turks 
and Europeans, which the Palestine Jews have 
suffered for centuries. 

That the tide is rising there is no doubt, and 
it is said that no less than a million Jews will 
soon go from America and Europe to Eve in the 
fatherland. By hundreds of thousands the Jews 
are familiarizing themselves with the climate, 
soil, and business environment of Palestine, so 
as to be ready to go to their home. So much 
larger is this host than the existing Palestine 
population — ^mostly Turks and Arabs of a low 
order of education and ability — ^that its prepon- 
derance of nizmbers will automatically settle 
the social and political questions of the land. 

Once in a while throughout history whole i)eo- 
ples have suddenly been seized witli the desire 
to move on to other lands. This was illustrated 
in the hordes of Goths, Vandals and other Tar> 
tar peoples which from time to time appeared 
from their obscure homes and swept over large 
portions of Europe. Today the Jews are "on 
tlie move''. The hegira of the Hebrews from 
Europe is about to take place, for '^t is a literal 
fact Uxat at the present moment a large part of 
the Jewish people is possessed with an irresis- 
tible impulse to strike its tents and move. A 
million strong, everywhere, impatient, with 
tense eagerness, the Jews are getting ready to 
sell their all. turn it into money, and proceed 
to abide for the rest of their lives in the home- 
land. They only wait the mandate of the — 
League of Nations, to fix their political status 
for such a time as may be found necessary for 
the Jews to firmly establish themselves.'* 

Dr. Saalkind, of the Jewish National Council 
for the Ukraine, tells how the emigration fervor 
has struck Russia : "Many have liquidated their 
property and made themselves ready to go. The 
Zionist offices at Kiev [Russia] are thronged 
^rith hundreds inquiring as to the possibility of 
early migration. Committees have arrived 
from various communities demanding facilities 
for at once sending their people to Palestine. 
They are prepared to go en masse. There is no 
risk of exaggeration in asstmiing that several 
hundred thousand, perhaps a million, people are 



37S 



The Qolden Age for March 3. 1920 



i:i.i?vi;i!ir; tn leave F-ii.- sia upon first opportunity." 
It if oi;iy i-irJ.iiral Uuit \\h(ju the Dtnvs arrived 
in };u.-;s;:;i of tJi*' ]ir.i:--]icct that a Jowish Pt.ite 
v.oiil.I be cvcc; ■■! ill s-acred old Judt'U, tiiore 
pliouid iiavi' ni';s;ti a iioundJess agitation for re- 
f^t'ttlt'ijuint ij! till- ]}i.-torK' land of the Jews. At any 
rato, aocordi:;.::: to Pr. Goldi)erg, chairman of the 
Zionist organization of Greater Kussia, whole 
Jewish towns and coniniunitios have begun to 
make thenieolves ready to move as soon as com- 
munications should bo opened. 

There is no inducement to remain where they 
are. Tlie great war was bad enough in the trials 
brought upon the Jews ; but under the economic 
pressure cf the revolution and counter-revolu- 
tion, the very existence of the Jews in Bussia 
lias Ix'en undermined. Even bread to eat, to say 
nothing of comforts or luxuries, is endangered 
for tlu-fe-fiuarters of the population of the Eus- 
tsian palij, by the presence of the revolution. 

Preparations are being made to receive the 
home-coming host. The Zionist organizations 
of the world are making preparations to furnish 
the necti-sary adniini-strators, engineers, spe- 
cialist arid other experts whose great and pleas- 
ant tail: will be to niake Palestine ready for the 
wholonalft migi-ation about to take place. 

That tho.«o things should happen now sur- 
prises no ono faniilirr vrith. the past and the pre- 
dicted future (if tiic Jews. This nation, which 
has been at the botioni so far as human rights 
haro been concornu'd. is destined to rise to the 
very top. It is coniidcnlly predicted that not 
merely a Jev.-ii^h nationality is to be the outcome 
of the prpscnt trend of Judaism, but that far 
greater tilings are in store for this devoted race, 
who have clung loyally to Ihcir nationality, tiieir 
language, and their religion under circum- 
stances that would have crushed the spirit of 
any other people. Their destiny is expected to 
be no icFS than the headship of the ultimate 
league of nations and peoples embracing the 
entire world, which the Bible and Jewish tradi- 
tion say will endure forever. 

Open Doors to Spiritism 

THAT some aulliors, painters and composers 
achieve beautiful or powerful results under 
the influence of spi litism is well know. There has 
come from the my.^iical Orient a world of occult 
lore which is inp])irpd by evil spirits. Books 
ba^:c•d on tliosc i'j-'a? and magazine articles with- 



out number are flooding the country. Som« of 
the books are among the most Andcly read of 
the past five decades. They arc of a type that 
gives an impression of sometliing wonderful, ^' 
or something beautiful, but vague, not clear-cut. 
Koaders of works of this kind close the books 
•with a sense of perplejdty. The authors write 
as men in a fog. 

One of the first American authors of this type 
was Emerson. With his interesting, mentaUy 
stimulating, but vague writings, he was the fore- 
runner of many writers of works on mental sci- 
ence, the art of Buccess, will power, person- 
ality, character building, self-help, psychology r 
of a certain type, and of the power to control 
and manage others. Snch works often prodncc 
a flush of mental exhilaration; bnt this passes 
away if the reader or student fails to submit 
his will and mind, without resistance, or criti- 
cism, to the will of the author. 

One refusing to let Ms mind be as putty in 
the writer's hands, to give himself tip to the 
alleged "flow of great spiritual currents", finds 
it impossible to obtain tlie worldly benefit prom- 
ised in such books. Those that make this self- 
surrender may quickly find themselves in thi^ 
state of a wealthy and "successful" man who 
says, "Any time I can lean back in my offico 
chair, close my eyes, and see beautiful sights 
and hear entrancing music". Such works de- 
mand of the would-be seeker for success the ab- 
ject surrender of the citadel of the will ; and th" 
success that may follow is largely owing to th-" 
cooperation of demons, who may at any timo 
abandon him, and leave him to the abyss of Ids. 
of self-respect, of true religion, and of the haj* 
presented by the demons — the good things of 
earth. 

On the 1920 visit of the famous Belgian poet, 
Maurice Maeterlinck, to America light was 
thrown on the character of his WTitings. In a. 
lecture given in New Tork the author said, '"Dur- 
ing the new year I shall write a new book. It 
shall be a volume dedicated to a study of the 
occult. I shall strive to rid spirittialism, mystic- , 
ism, of the charlatanism that has discredited it 
so long". In other words, spiritism is to be 
made attractive to the host of refined and cul- 
tured readers, whose minds have been robbed of '' 
some measnre of clear-cut discernment and 
judgment and prepared to receive out-and-out 
spiritualism by such charming but characteris- j 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



379 






tically va^ie, obscure -works as "The Bluebird". 

In connection with Mr. Maeterlinck's New 
York lecture he made it quite clear where he 
stood as regards the occult: "The lecturer told 
of the 'odie effluvia', 'discovered' by Eeichen- 
bach, the eminent Austrian scientist — 'a mag- 
netic or vital fluid which emanates from the 
body ever?' second, and which can be seen by 
hypnotic subjects in the dark, appearing bluish 
on the right side and yelloM-i-sh red on the left, 
and varying in intensity -with the state of the 
emotions in tlie person from whom they ema- 
nate'. This vital force, Mr. Maeterlinck held, 
•was responsible for the phenomenon of 'table 
tnTning*. He described it as indestructible and 
susceptible of being infused into inanimate ob- 
jects. This vital fluid, so independent of the 
body and impossible to destroy even by fire, 
might well be the spiritual principle which docs 
not perish with us and points to immortal life." 
It is well for readers of the many works of this 
type to know surely that however beautiful 
81K^ writings are, they are allied with or a part 
of the vast literature of the occult and the spir- 
itnalistic, and are an open door to demonism. . 

Every five-cent store sells booklets with the 
familiar question, "What Month Were You Bom 
Inf" These belong to the dark age occult 
"sdence" of astrology, as do the "horoscopes" 
published in some newspapers, and the zodiacal 
signs, the data on "birth stones" and other like 
matter in almanacs. We view all of these mat- 
ters with suspicion. The telling of character by 
the month of one's birth found its origin in the 
worship of demons under the guise of the wor- 
ship of various stars, planets and constella- 
tions named for the demon gods and goddesses 
of heathen religions of early history. The 360 
degrees of the heavens were divided into twelve 
parts of thirty degrees, each containing some 
constellation which was worshipped as a demon 
deity. A person's character was imagined to 
be determined by the powers of the deity of the 
section of the heavens rising above the horizon 
at the moment of birth, and to be variously in- 
fluenced by the relative positions of the planets 
— believed to be gods — at tliat moment. 

It is asserted that data has been compiled to 
show some truth in the claims of astrology ; but 
an even greater mass of fact disproves the 
claims. There is some truth also in the claims 
of spiritism, but that docs not warrant the sur- 



render of the will to evil spirits. Closely asso- 
ciated with this method of alleged character^ 
determination is the prediction of the future by 
the stars, by pahnistry, by cards, and by tea 
leaves and coffee grounds. Predictions of these 
kinds are nothing more than shrewd guesses, 
unless the prophet is a spirit medium, in which 
case they are the guesses of demons speaking 
or acting through the person of the mediumr — 
who may even be an agreeable young society 
woman, unwittingly possessed of occult "gifts". 
The safe way is to determine upon a course of 
resolute resistance to every door to demonism, 
no matter how charming the outlook through the 
door; for any door to demonism is a door to 
destruction. 

An Imaginary IHaioffut Bv uuoa ateharito* 

THE great adversary hovering abore the 
earth was joined by kindred spirits, who 
were seeking birn and who greeted lum boister- 
ously, crying, "Hail, Lucifer, Son of the Morn- 
ing!" He checked tiiem with an angry gesttire 
and frown. "Call me not by that name, remind- 
ing roe, as it does, of ages past -vdioi lied a pure 
and happy existence." Surprised at this reply 
from their arrogant, self-confident diief, they 
looked at each other in dismay, whispering, 
"Something must have happened to disturb his 
majesty", and waited in sUence further enlight- 
enment. This they presently received. 

Sullenly, as if talking to himself, he began; 
"On a little strip of land extending out into one 
of the great lakes have just met in convention 
those people whom Jehovah seems to favor; and 
as the waves sweep up on that shore so the mes->. — 
sages of truth constantly spoken by their leaders 
swept over their minds until at last he whom 
they call their President stood before them." 

Satan now roused himself, and turning to his 
companions spoke with more energy. "You re- 
member when the Laodicean Messenger died, 
and his followers quivered under the blow like 
a flock of frightened, sheep, we thought it would 
be an easy matter to overcome them. Then they 
chose this man as their leader. Then we suc- 
ceeded in having him and his helpers thrown 
into prison, and since their release we have tried 
to thwart them in every possible way. Well, 
this man has conceived a plan by \duch he can 
throw broadcast among the people of the world 
these truths which we have tried so hard to sup- 



38o 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



3 



press. As he stood there, outlining liis plan and 
asking their help, those 7000 people as ona man 
with uplifted hands and shouts oi approral 
pledged their support ; and we know to our cost 
how they can work." 

"But, Prince", ventured to ar^e one of tlie 
holder spirits, "suppose they do scatter the truth, 
think how much in our favor are conditions on 
the earth today ; how much of strife and sorrow 
and suffering there is, and hoAv much more 
power we have than ever before." 

"1 am thinking", was the reply, "I am looking 
back down the centuries; I see another time 
when conditions were favorable to us; I see 
anotlier man stand as tliis one has, before a gen- 
eration who laugh and sneer as he tells of the 
judgments of the Lord which are coming upon 
the earth. Did Noah" s prophecy come true "" A 
groan from his hearers was his only answer. 

One of the quieter spirits now addressed huu. 
'Trince, you have spoken of a happier life which 
of course we all shared and remember. We 
know that some of tliose truths relate to us as 
well as to mankind, and the hope held out to 
them is also offered to us if like them we will 
repent We are all tired 01 tliis existence and, 
as you hint, may receive some worse punish- 
ment. Why not accept the chance to" get back 
into harmony with Jehovali?" 

The majority of the spirits answered with a 
howl of anger, though some few of tiiem looked 
tlioughtful and moved toward the speaker. 
Satan, now in a towering rage, turned on him 
witli fierce denunciation, enduig his tirade with 
these words: '"T know that you have already 
tried to aid tliese people, and now yon and tliose 
that think as you do must leave our company 
forever. We purpose to think of some scheme 
by which we may be able to check this projsct 
of theirs, and if possible annihilate them. At 
any rate, know that we will never again yield 
allegiance to the King of heaven." 

"Ah, well!" said the leader of the minority as 
tliey turned away, "The forces of good and evil 
are lining up for the last battle, in the closing 
days of this age, as they did in the last days 
of tliat other one when we were so mucli in- 
volved. Wo were on tlie -wTong side then; let 
us try to be on the right side this time." 

And wo of the earth family who are on the 
right side, what a privilege is ours! Let us. 
dear fellow soldiers, look to our great Captain 



for courage and help and. girding on tlie whole 
•armor, go forth in iiis strength, confident that 
iJ" ^\e lose our lives for his sake Ave shall gain 
them.— Matthew 16: 25. 

The Fearless Confute the Cowardly 

SAYS Vr. T. Ellis in the North Aaieiican: 
"Courage to tell the truth, the tactless trutli, 
if need be, but the whole truth, in full propor- 
tion, is society's greatest present need. Half^ 
Icnowledge and active prejudice abound; but it 
is the clear, comprehensive and uncolored truth 
that vriil save our time from blunders and 
delays. Fearless outspokenness is an apostolic 
quality that is needed more today than wisdom 
or wealth or winsomeness. 

'•We have a stirring story (Acts 2 - 4) — two 
fishermen, John and Peter, confronting cow- 
ardly officialdom by courageous confession. 
They had healed a lame man and made that 
miracle the text for a sermon upon Christ and 
the resurrection. Incensed at tliis xmauthor- 
izcd teaching, the ecclesiastical authorities 
clapped thenT into jail. Thus the Sanhedrin, 
like many another high court of religion since, 
tried to repress the rise of vital religion, which 
did not bear its seal and brand. 

"Happy is tlie cause that can get its advocates 
sent to jail. Even Christianity owes more to 
its persecutors tlian to its official patrons. Peter 
and John started an apostolic fashion when they 
spent a night in custody for proclaiming the 
Name. Liberty has always progressed through 
prison bars. Error, reaction and oppression 
have consistently, throughout the centuries, 
committed the blunder of trying to restrain 
trutli by force. The same proud Sanhedrin that 
had arrested and slain Jesus was now attempt- 
ing the same tactics with his disciples. They 
lifted the Master so high on a convict's crosa 
that all the world is enabled to see and adore 
liim ; in the case of Peter and John the prison 
cell served as a calcium light, to rivet the atten- 
tion of Jerusalem upon them. 

"Thinking to find tlie street-preachers cowed 
by a night in the prison, tlie Sanhedrin. gath- 
ered the next morning, in full and solemn ses- 
sion, and set the fishermen in the midst to make 
answer concerning their credentials : "By what 
power, or in what name, have you done this!' 

"That is the arrogant way in which organiza- 



The Qolden Age for March 3, 1920 



sst 






tion nsTiaHy functions. Kipling once wrote a 
stinging poem, llimmon', about this very qual- 
ity in the British war office. He might as well 
hare written it abont tlie American War De- 
partment or State Department, or the French 
or German foreign offices. Ecclesiastical boards 
and cotirts and councils develop the same arro- 
gant intolerance and inefficiency. 

"Progress has come by the conrageous defi- 
ance of things as they are by the fearless cham- 
pions of things as they ought to be. Reformers, 
saints, heroes, have all had to pass through the 



JUVENILE BIBLE STUDY 

One question for mch day Is i>rovlded by thta Jonrnal. 
The parent will find it Interestlns ond helpful to hsre 
tlie child take up the qnestlon encii day and aid it ia 
finding the ansrrcr In the Scriptures, ttans deTclopInc 
a knowledge of the Bible and where to find In it the 
thine* desired. 



1. Win Qod under any circumstances ever do 
anifihinij unkind, unjust or cruel? 

Answer: See Psalm 100:5; James 1:17; Psala 
106:1; 5:4; 107:1; 25:8; 145:9; Habakkukl:3. 

2. WJiat will "become of the wilfully wicked 
and disobedient? 

Answer: See Genesis 2:17; Bomaas 6:23; Fsabn 
145 : 20 ; 146 : 4 ; 2 Thcssalonians 1:9; Ecclesiastes 9 : 
6, 10; 3:19, 20. 

3. Does God ever grow weary? 
Answer: See Isaiah 40:28; 69:1. 

4. 7s God ea^y provoked to anger? 
Ansrer : Sefi Psalm 103 : 8 ; Nehemiah 9 : 17 ; Psalm 

145:8; Joel 2:13; Jonah 4:2; Nahiiml:3. 

5. Wm God retain his anger forever? 
Answer: See Psalm 30:5; Micah7:18; Zeph.3:8,!). 

6. Has God a lane? 

Answer: Yes. — ^Eomans 13:3, 10; Matthew 22:36- 
40; Galatiaos 5:14; James 2:8; Micah 6:8. 



Peter and John experience with the same San- 
hedrin." 

These are good, strong, true words by Dr. 
Ellis, vho perhaps might also call to mind the 
many instances of Twentieth Century Christ- 
ians in Canada and the United States in 1918 
who suffered prison, mobbing, torture and even 
death for their faithful adherence to beliefs 
taught by the Bible, but so unpopular with the 
modem Sanhcdrin that its members stood by 
without a protest when such things were going 
on about them and, in instances, led the mobs. 



7. Can God be tempted with emit 
Answer: See James 1:13. 

8. Does the Bible compare God with the 
things 7ic has created? 

Answer: See Isaiah 40:12-15, 17, 22, 25, 26, 28; 

1 John 3:20; Psalm 104. 

9. Does the Bible teach that God is a creator? 
Answer: See Genesis 1 : 1 ; 1 Peter 4: 19; Eph. 3 : 9. 

10. What was God^s first creation? 
Answer: His Son, onr Lord. — Berdathm 3:14; 

Coiossians 1:15; Psalm 89:27; 1 John 4:9. 

IL Who is JesU'S declared to be? 
Answer: The Son of God. — Matthew 3: 17; 16: 16; 
John 5:20; 3:16; Acta 9:20; Lnke 1:35. 

12. Are Jesus and God the same person? 
Answer: A father and a son cannot be the aame person. 

(John 14: 28; 1 Corinthians 15:28) Jesas was crested 
and therefore had a beginning; God was from tnst- 
lasting. — Psalm 89: 27; Coiossians 1: 15; John 3: 16. 

13. Was Jesus created long before he was 
born into the world? 

Answer: Yes. — John 17:5, 24; Philippians 3:6; 

2 Corinthians 8:9; Coiossians 1:15-17; John 3:lJ;" 
6:62. 

14. Why did God create Jesus? 

Answer: See Ephesians 3 : 9 ; John 1:3; Coloadans 
1:15-17. 



WE KNELT BEFORE KINGS 



'TS'e knelt before kings ; we bent before lords ; 
Tor theirs were the rrowns. and theirs wero the swords ; 
But the times «r the beiidins and bowing are past, 
And the day of the people is dawuiug at last. 



"Xo more shall the klnps, for their glory and gain. 
Drive the masses of men to slay and be «Iaia; 
For the folly and fury of warfnre f^hull cease 
AAlien the day of the people brings justice and peace. 



"Great day of Jehovah ! Prophfts and seers 
llnvo suns <if thy comlnii these thimsands of yetirj!. 
On the winss of wirs whirlwind God's Jud;;nicnts fly fast. 
And the diiy of Uic people is dawning at last" 

Dy WilUain rUrson ^crrtU 



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7ottMs X w£o^^aoi.z, mjbch it, i»m xciuu i* 
CONTENTS of th0 GOLDEN AGE 

POLITICAL, SOMUTtfr uut rOSEIOIf 

P&lestlBa Tllseth Befara Our Ej«». 3S7 

Juatlca unit Oj« Poor 3S9 

SOCIAL iBd SOUCATIOKAL 
A Drlsf rrofastoo. . ,.., 393 

LABOR ud ECONOMICS 

Tost rf LIvinc la ISSft. ftSS S<Tnar»I>cal JabnaaB 3ST 

Thfl Sunr Situatlou. -.398 Telephona and Stani 393 

TRAVSL and HIBCXLLANT 
Color QiialitT and QuanUtr -"Kra Cuinad Poddloc Bxplodad.400 
M«Wii« K^aJiaria Cardan 339 ^ Qi^^t Uiaanl D«t»«it.401 
Tywiwrltw _ •♦00 GoTeramantal Limltadona-Wt 

Ira HouMS He«rthi«5tI7.-~'«KJ Farme™ la PoUtlea .401 

Tla FbOB* BootAa 400 Naw F»wan la FoUtte*. — 402 

FINANCE. COHKEKCS. TKANSPOItTATION 

Fareleaa Street-Can 403 

AOXICULTUKB and HITSBANDRT 
Add Aeraasa a.t |S23 40S 

SCIENCE «dl INVENTION 

rfeht-Day Wati^hta 40T 

Why Doaa tba Earth Go 'Itound? ^m 

KOQSEWIFZXT and KTGIENK 
Istrarenoiu Tbtnpeutlca _______.403 

SSLICION ud PHILOSOFHT 

Ruaaalltam Will Not Down _______________„ 400 

Jorenila Blbla Stndj 415 

Ba Juat and Fear Sat *ti 



rLATTQN J. WOOpWOmi editor 

PCBEBt 3. SiAJtriN .... BniiuM Uuianr 

viL r. KtD^ai e^'r ud Tnw 

r«tette«r* Old p i^vttotw ft, A44rm «< «aah, 
ud tnmtmmr. lUw Tark. H. V. 

Tn CaiiTa ^ Copt — 31.S0 * Tui. 
Uaka raoilttaBeca tA Tk« OaUten Aa*. 

v>ft '. if*. 



<j?xc Golden Age 



Tol 



Stm Tork, Wednesday, Much 17. 1929 



Nmnbcr 13 



PALESTINE RISETH BEFORE OUR EYES 



WHEN the Zlionist movement was yonng, 
and thaf s duly six years ago, its ardent 
enthusiasts nsed to dream of a Palestine of 
4,000,000 people, and possibly 6,000,000, living 
in a land made agriculturally rich by irrigation 
and industrially prosperous by hydro-electric 
plants furnishing power to a varied selection of 
industries ; a country dotted with model garden 
and industrial villages and cities, connected 
with each other and with other parts of the East 
by railroads, electric lines and highways; a 
nation whose merchant marine reaches out to 
■ all comers of the world from Haifa, terminal 
of Asiatic trade with Europe. 

This dream is coming true, before our very 
eyes, bcaause: 

1. The pledge of Great Britain, made through 
the Balfour Declaration of November 2, 1917, 
to do all in its power to establish the Jewish 
National Homeland, is about to be redeemed 
through the signing of the treaty of peace with 
Turkey, granting Great Britain a mandate over 
Palestine. The mandate is expected at any time 
(and may be promulgated before this is print- 
ed), as the Turkish treaty is now under discus- 
sion in Paris and it is said on the most reliable 
authority that the mandate to Great Britain is 
contained in the first ten articles of the treaty. 

2. Millions of Je'^^'s throughout the world are 
awaiting the politic ;.l settlement of Palestine's 
status so that they can begin a mass-migration 
to the Holy Land, which so far has taken all the 
power and resources of the International Zion- 
ist Organization to restrain until the proper 
time for emigration arrives. 

3. A reconstruction program prepared by the 
Zionist Organization to restore Palestine as the 



Jewish National Homeland has already been 
put into operation on a small scale by the 
establishment of Jewish agricultural colonies, 
reclamation of swamp lands to rid the country 
of mosquitoes, and medical and sanitary 
measures put into effect by the American Zion- 
ist Medical Unit. To begin this program on a 
more elaborate scale and to take the first steps 
toward the establishment of a flourishing coun- 
try in Palestine, the Zionist Organization of 
America is raising $10,000,000 throughout the 
United States this year for its Palestine Re- 
storatioil Fund. 

4 "Wiuston S. Churchill, English Minister of 
War, in a recent article in the London Sunday 
Herald, reiterated the pledge of his country's 
cooperation to the fullest extent with the Zionist 
Organization in preparing Palestine as the Jew- 
ish National Homeland, and declared that the 
present generation would yet see a population 
of from three to four million in the Holy Land. 

The reconstruction projects which the Zionist 
Society of Engineers Avill initiate through the 
fund now being raised throughout America, 
include water-power development, by building 
canals, reservoirSj aqueducts and hydro-elec- 
tric plants; reclamation of the Hullah valley, 
including the drainage and clearing of the Hul- 
lah swamps, over 5,000 acres, and the reclama- 
tion of 3,700 acres in the- Upper Jordan system; 
construction of a modem harbor at Haifa, mak- 
ing it the Amsterdam of the Mediterranean: 
connecting this new, great port with all parts 
of Palestine and its hinterland and with the 
entire Near East by a system of standard-gauge 
railroads; building of roads and pavements 
throughout the countrj-- ; providing water supply 
by conserving the heavy rainfall through reser- 



3«8 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



voirs and wells ; establishing a sewage-disposal 
system and converting the sewage into fertil- 
izer; organizing various industries, chiefly 
cement mills with which to do most of the con- 
struction work in Palestine, owing to the lack 
of lumber, which will not be available until the 
afforestation projects are developed; shoe, 
clothing end furniture factories, canneries, tan- 
neries, foundries and blacksmith shops. 

Linked up with the industrial, commercial 
uid agricultural rejuvenation of Palestine, are 
the plans for establishing a merchant marine, 
for which the Zionists propose an initial ex- 
penditure of $10,000,000. "With Haifa made into 
the leading harbor of the entire Near East, as 
experts have claimed it will be, when life in 
Palestine is flourishing again its fleet of mer- 
chantinen will ply between all the leading ports 
of the world, carrying the new products of the 
Holy. Land. The first ship in this merchant 
marine was recently launched at Jaffa to sail 
between Beymt, Haifa, Jaffa and Egypt. Elab- 
orate ceremonies were held to conmiemorate 
the establishment of Palestine's merchant ma- 
rine, the wife of the English commandant at 
Jaffa christening the craft "Hecholntz" (The 
Pioneer) while Italian warships in the harbor 
at the time gave an official salute of twenty-one 
guns when the blue and white flag of Zion was 
flung from the mast. 

With all tlie vast agricultural, industrial and 
maritime plans which the Zionist Organization 
is putting into operation for the reconstruction 
of Palestine, what is probably attracting more 
world-wide attention than anything else is the 
establishment of a Hebrew University at Jeru- 
salem. .Prof. Patrick Geddes of the University 
of Edinburgh, considered as the world's most 
famous town planner, is now in Jerusalem 
working on- the plans for tlie Hebrew Univer- 
sity, under commission from the Zionist Organ- 
ization. 

The cornerstone for the Univerity was laid 
recently on the Mount of Olives. Prof. Geddes 
has reported to the Zionist Organization that, 
through funds now being raised, the chemical 
laboratories •will be completed by the end of 
this year, so that graduate students from tlie 
leading Universities of Europe may come to 
Jerusalem to work out there immediate prob- 
lems arising from the agricultural rebirth of 
the Holy Land- 



World-famotis Jewish scholars have already 
volunteered to assist in the establishment of the 
University and to become part of its faculty, 
the most noted being Dr. Albert Einstein, who 
recently astounded the scientific world with hia 
new theories on light rays, and Prof. August 
Wassermann, noted as the discoverer of the 
blood test which bears his name. When the 
Jewish National Homeland is established in 
Palestine and hundreds of thousands of Jews 
begin their mass-migration to the Holy Land, 
the Hebrew University will, according to the 
plans of its fotmders, be the world center for 
Jewish culture and education. 

In addition to working on the plans of the 
Hebrew University, Prof. Geddes is designing 
the new Jerusalem, a modem city to l>s the 
center of the new Jewish life that will soon be 
thriving in Jerusalem. He is planning a spa- 
cious modem city which, while capable of sup- 
porting a population several times its present 
size, will still retain its historical and sacred 
landmarks. In connection with the University, 
Prof. Qeddes has reported that he is designing 
a Museum, which will be to the University what 
the British Museum and Louvre are to their 
respective Universities in London and Paris. 

Lack of an adequate water supply has been 
Palestine's vital need since Moses led the return 
from Egypt; but James Haines, secretary of 
the Zionist Society of Engineers and one of the 
leading engineers working on the reconstruction 
of the Holy Land, declares that there is enough 
rainfall in Palestine to support a population of 
15,000,000 — over two hundred and fifty times its 
present poptdation. _ 

"The average yearly rainfall of 26 inches, 
which falls in five months of the year, can easily 
be stored by the erection of reservoirs," said 
Mr. Haines. 'This rainfall is one-quarter greater 
than in California. It will supply a future 
population of 6,000,000 with a daily per capita 
supply of 2,055 gallons, which is over 1,200 
gallons more than the average daily consump- 
tion in New York City." 

Because the Mediterranean is at a higher level 
than the Jordan and the lakes, and because of 
the stony underground surfaces which retain 
the water so easily, Palestine is favored in 
engineering projects planned to store up large 
quantities of water, according to Mr. Haines. 

Irrigation of Lower Palestine ■will ali-o be 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



3«9 



accomplished by tapping tlie Nile, according to 
Zionist engineers, who will follow British engi- 
neers in this, as all of Southern Palestine was 
.supplied with water from the NUe in a remark- 
able engineering feat of the British Royal Engi- 
neers. It has been estimated that there are 
between 3,000 and 5,000 square miles in the 
Sinai peninsula alone, requiring irrigation, 
whidi would be furnished from the NUe. 

Isaac Herbst, another Zionist engineering 
expert, has brought forward a plan to utilize 
Pidestine's vast water power for hydro-electric 
plants, because of the lack of coal in the Holy 
Land. He proposes building two hydro-electric 
plants in the Upper Jordan Valley and Lake 
Tiberias, with a capacity of 100,000 horsepower 
an hour. Two canals necessary for the plants 
•will divert the Jordan from the HuUah swamps 
and convert eight square miles of useless land 
into fertile fields, he points out. These plants 
will mark the first step in the rapid industrial 
development of Palestine, says Mr. Herbst. 

While millions of Jews throughout the world 
are awaiting the word that will permit their 
leaving for Palestine, there are thousands of 
tourists and pilgrims, amdous to visit the Holy 
Land in far greater numbers than before the 
war, according to the Zionist Organization. To 
provide for ^em, the erection of a chain of 
Urge hotels throughout the Holy Land has been 
proposed by the London Zionist Organization, 
with the principal hotels in Jerusalem, Jaffa 
and Haifa, and smaller ones in such historical 
spots as Tiberias, Safed, Hebron, Gaza, Acca 
and Beersheba. Health resorts, buOt around 
Palestine's hot springs and mineral waters and 
bathing beaches near Haifa and Jaffa, have 
also been proposed. 

Haifa, according to the Zionist engineers, will 
be the largest and most important city of 
Palestine after the Jewish National Homeland 
is established, as they claim it ■ftill be the 
principal outlet for all Asiatic trade to Europe, 
because of its connections with the Bagdad rail- 
road. To provide for its increasing population, 
it is proposed to continue the city along the 
beautiful slopes of Mount Carmel ; while on the 
summit of Mount Carmel, according to the 
plans, a large hotel and resort will be erected 
to welcome visitors to the Holy Land. Dr. Chaim 
Weizman, President of the Zionist Organization 
of En.i^land and head of the Zionist Administra- 
tive Commission in Palestine, discussing the 



vast commercial prospects of the country said 
recently that Palestine would be the bridge 
between Bagdad and Cairo and between Con- 
stantinople and Calcutta. 

Thus ancient prophecy and modem practical 
idealism are uniting to bring to pass a groat 
vision to gladden the hearts of all mankind. 

Justice and The Poor ^i> Rcs^maii Beier smith, 

of the Boatoti Bar 
(2) DENIAL OF J-aSTICE — THE FACT 

THE realization that there are grave defects 
in the administration pf jnstic^ Has come 
but slowly. Had not enough laws been passed, 
enough courts organized, court libuses built, 
judgfes, clerks,. and officers provided and paid 
salaries? What more was nc«ossaryT Wh^r. 
Eoscoe Pound delivered his epoch-making ad- 
dress on "The Causes of Popular Dissatisfac- 
tion with the Administration of Justice" before 
the American Bar Association in X906, liis was 
like a voice crjdng in the wilderness. From the 
reported discussion,* one would jiidge that most 
of the lawyers were incredulous, and that not 
a few were indignant at the intimation, that our 
justice was not closely akin to i)erf eetion itself. 

In the twelve years that haVe followed, the 
evidence has become overwhelming. The facts, 
though not the causes which tmderlie. them, are 
well known. The administration of American 
justice is not impartial, the rich and the poor do 
not stand on an equality before the law, the tra- 
ditional method of providing justice has oper- 
ated to close the doors of the courts to the poor, 
and has caused a gross denial of justice in aU 
parts of the country to miUioris of persons. 

Sweeping as this indictment may appear. Tf 
is substantiated by ample authority.* A few 
statements deserve to be presented here : 

"If there is one sad anomaly that Eiho\ild stand out in 
our present days of conscientious self-ocarchin^, it is the 
harsh ^act tiiat, tdth all our prating about justice, ue 
deliberately witlihold it from the thousand:> who are too 
poor to pay for it.* 

"The sources from which industrial unrest spfin;ji 
are: ... 3. Denial of justice in the creation, in tha 
adjudication and in the administration of the law.* 

"The equal administration of the lavs ia a rigiit guar- 
anteed by the fundamental law of the land ; and yet no 
person will deny that this privilege is more honored in 
the breach than in the obser\-anca ; for there arc von' 
many people in every American community who, 
through ignorance of their rights or their inabililv to 
pay the imposts lened by the state as a condition pi-ece- 



jyo 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



dent to the pursuit of justice ia the courts, are con- 
stantly being denied that equal administration of the 
laws and the justice that is supposed, logically, to follow 
it.* 

"Taking the country as a whole it is so obvious that 
■ we have almost ceased to remark it, that in petty causes, 
that is, with respect to the every-day rights and wrongs 
of the great majority of an urban community, the ma- 
chinery whereby rights are secured practically defeats 
rights by making it impracticable to assert them when 
they are infringed. Indeed in a measure this is so in 
all causes. But what is merely exasperating in large 
causes is dowjright prohibitive in small causes. While 
in theory we have a perfect equality, in result, unless one 
can afford expensive and time-constaming litigation, he 
must constantly forego undoubted rights, to which in 
form the rules of law give full security, but for which, 
except where large sums arc involved, the actual conduct 
of litigation affords no practicable remedy.* 

"Many causes have contributed to this neglect which 
disgraces American justice."* 

The majority of our judges and lawyers view 
this situation with indifference. They fail to 
see behind this denial of justice the suffering 
and tragedy which it causes, the havoc which it 
plays in individual lives, and the influence which 
it exerts in retarding our Americanization pro- 
gram. "The judicial department", said Chief 
Justice Marshall,* "comes home in its effects 
to every man's fireside. It passes on his 
property, his reputation, his life, his aU." Be- 
cause law is all-embracing, the denial of its 
protection means the destruction of homes 
through illegal foreclosures, the loss through 
trick- or chicanery of a lifetime's sa^nngs, the 
taking away of children from their parents by 
fraudulent guardianship proceedings.' Hun- 
dreds of tliousands of honest men, many of them 
immigrants, have been unable to collect their 
wages honestly earned.* 

Denial of justice is not merely negative in 
effect; it actively encourages fraud and dis- 
honesty. Unscrupulous employers, seeing the 
inability of wage-earners to enforce pajinents, 
have deliberately hired men wathout the slight- 
est intention of paying them.* Some of these 
employers are themselves poor men, who strive 
in this way to gain an advantage. The evil is 
not one of class in the sense that it gives the poor 
over to the mercies of only the rich. It enables 
the poor to rob one another; it permits the 
shrewd immigrant of a few years' resi'lence to 
defraud hi.=; more recently arrived cnnntr^-men. 
The line of cleavage which it follows and ac- 
centuates is that between the dishonest and the 



honest. Everywhere it abets the unscrupulous, 
the crafty, and the vicious in their ceaseless 
plans for exploiting their less intelligent and 
less fortunate fellows. The system not only robs 
the poor of their only protection, but places in 
the hands of their oppressors the most powerful 
and ruthless weapon ever invented. 

The law itself becomes the means of extortion. 
As Lord Brougham said of the English admin- 
istration of justice in 1800, it pats " a two- 
edged sword in the hands of craft and oppres- 
sion". From the cradle. to the grave the poor 
man is the prey of a host of i)etty swindlers,* 
who find it easy, through such devices as fraud- 
ulent assignments, trustee process, or garnish- 
ment of wages for fictitious debts,* to rob and 
despoil. There exist today businesses estab- 
lished, conducted, and flourishing on the princi- 
ple that as against the poor the law can be 
violated with impunity because redress is be- 
yond their reach. It is this situation which 
allowed such unrestrained abuse of the laws 
regulating the assignment of future wages that 
a sort of quasi-slavery resulted, which brought 
the loan shark into being, and permitted flagrant 
usury to grow into a monstrous thing.* 

The effects of this denial of justice are far 
reaching. Nothing rankles more in the human 
heart than the feeling of injustice. It produces 
a .«ense of helplessness, then bitterness.* It ia 
bronded over. It leads directly to contempt for 
law, disloyalty to the government, and plants 
tl'.e peeds of anarchy.* The conviction grows 
that law is not justice,* and challenges thi^ be- 
lief that justice is best secured when adminis- 
tered according to the law. The poor come Id, 
think of American justice as containing only 
laws that punish and never laws that help.* 
They a.'-e against the law because they consider 
the law against them.* A persuasion spreads 
that there is one law for the rich and another 
for the poor.* 

How this comes about can be simply told. 
Orio afternoon Arthur V, Briesen, President of 
the New York Legal Aid Society, took Theodore 
Roosevelt, then Police Commissioner of New 
York, to the society's office to see what went on. 
They sat at the intervie\nng desk. A glazier 
came in and related that he had set twenty- two 
panes of ?!ass in a barn, and that the o^vner ut 
the bam had refused to pay him $6.G0, the 
TiSreed price.* He had been out of work and 
needed this money to bnv bread and milk for 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



39^ 



his familj-'s supper. On his way from the "West 
Side, where he had worked, to the East Side, 
"whei-e he lived, he crossed Fifth Avenue at 
Forty-Fourth Street and passed the luxurious 
restaurants on either corner. His own children 
vrent to bed aupperless. The next morning he 
sought out a lawyer, who told him that to bring 
suit the costs and the fee "would be $10. This ho 
could not pay. From tliere he went to the Mu- 
nicipal Court, originally known as "The Poor 
Man's Court", where he saw a judge, who was 
obliged to explain that he had neither the time 
nor the money nor the right to undertake the 
necessary proceedings ; that as the man had no 
money, he could not prosecute the case; and 
that, inasmuch as the expenses would exceed 
the amount in dispute, he had better drop it. 
As the man told his story in the office of the legal 
aid society, he was an incipient anarchist. 
• The effect on the immigrant is peculiarly un- 
fortunate. He comes to this country, often from 
lands of injustice and oppression, with high 
hopes, expecting to receive fair play and square 
c^ealing. It is essential that he be assimilated 
and taught respect for our institutions. Because 
■ of the strangeness of all his surroundings, his 
ignorance oi oar language and oar customs, 
often because of his simple faith in the Ameri- 
ca of which he has heard, he becomes an easy 
prey. When he finds himself wronged or be- 
trayed, keen disappointment is added to the 
sense of injustice. Through bitter disillusion- 
ment he becomes easily subject to the influences 
of sedition and disorder.* 

The essentially conser\-ative bench and bar 
will vehemently deny any suggestion that there 
is no law for the poor; but, as the legal aid 
societies know,* such is the belief today of a 
multitude of humble, entirely honest people, and 
in the light of their experience it appears as 
the simple truth. Consider, for example, this 
actual case I* A woman borrowed $10 in 1D14, 
and for two years paid interest at ISO per cent. 
In 1916 a law was enacted fixing 36% as the 
maximum rate.* The lender, by a device con- 
trarv to the statute, compelled her to continue 
paying 156% interest. The law also provided 
that if excess interest were charged, the loan 
would be dcclarou void by a suit in equity.* The 
law was on the books. The court house was 
open, the equity court in session with its judge 
on the bench and its officers in attendance. All 



that was of no avail to her; for the law could 
not bring its redress until $5 was paid for scrv- 
ice of process and entry fee, and $10 to an 
attorney to draw, file, and present the necessary 
bill of complaint. Fil'toeu dollars she did not 
have and, because of her condition, could not 
earn. For, her there was no law. 

Repeated warnings have come respecting this : 

"When litigation is too costly, the result for many 
persona ia a denial of justice. Such denial or partial 
denial of justice engenders social and commercial fric- 
tion. The sense of Uelplessncsa thus caused incites citi- 
zens to take the law into their own lianUs. It causes 
crimes of violence. It saps patriotism and drstroys civic 
pride. It arouses cla.s3 jealousies and breeds contempt 
for law and government.* 

"The problem is fundamental. It strikes at the very 
root of our economic, social, and political structure. The 
man or woman who has honestly toiled and cannot obtain 
the wages earned, loses faith in humanity and the eflScacy 
of our laws and courts; is often turned out a beggar, 
vagrant,. or criminal, or seeks redress by forcible mej^iis.* 

'n.t ever a time shall come when in this city, only the 
rich man can enjoy law as a doubtful luxury, when the 
poor who need it most cannot have it, when only a golden 
key will unlock the door to the courtroom, the seeds of 
revolution will be sovai, the firebrand of revolution will 
he lighted and put into the hands of men, and they will 
almost be justified in the revolution which wiU follow."* 

In that direction we have imperceptibly, un- 
consciously, and unintentionally drifted. The 
end of sudi a course is disclosed by history. 
By the third century A. D. class distinction had 
been set up by the Roman law. For an excel- 
lent statement, see Davis, "The Influence of 
Wealth in Imperial Rome", page 323. Differ- 
ences in the ability of classes to use the ma- 
chinery of the law, if permitted to remain, lead 
inevitably to disparity between the rights of 
classes in the law itself. x\nd when the law 
recognizes and enforces a distinction between 
classes, revolution ensues, or democracy is at 
an end. 

•nie- statements are taken from such authorities as the 
American Bar Association Revl<»w, American Judicature So- 
ciety Ilevicw Bulletin. CMef Justice Olson in the Annual 
Itep<irt5 of the Chlcaco llcii^cipal Csurts, various law booli.<j. 
and other works. This Is the .-ecorfd of a series of articles 
reprlntetl from a v,-orlt of limited circulation published by 
the CamRgie Foundation for tlio .VJynncement of Tcachins 
and entii'.cJ •-.Tusticc an-l lUc P.>5r". The articles are:.(l^ 
rrpciio.-n and Kaunlily of Tunltjc: The Ideal: CJ) L>cnial of 
J;:stlce: The Fact; (") LK-focts in the .Vlmirtistration of 
,Tustit:e; (t) The lir.-t Uo"*::: Dolar: (0) Tho Second 
Dvfsct: Court <'osrs -dml {"cos: f6).Tae Third Defort : 
IJspense of Counsel, l.ffttors are weicome from r;-a-Iers 
plving an account oC vheir csperienoes ^ith the adiuiais- 
tratlon of justice. 



J92 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 




A Dying Profession 

THE teaching profession has had the most 
e:cciti]i2: year in its history. It has been 
the most docile oi' all professions, and one of the 
most useful. It has until recently numbered 
750,000 in America and from early morning 
until late in the afternoon has had the care of 
the 20,000.000 little men and little women that 
in a few years Avill be the bulwark of the coun- 
try. It has done more to Americanize the chil- 
dren of immigrants to this country than have 
all other forces put together. It has been true 
to its trust. 

During the war the number of teachers vas 
necessarily reduced, the estimated number of 
vacancies in urban and rural schools running to 
50,000. It Avas hoped by lovers of America and 
American institutions that with the opening of 
a ne«' school year these vacancies would be filled 
and the work of instructing Young America 
vrould take on a new life. 

It was a sliock, therefore, when it was dis- 
covered that 22% of these teachers during the 
summer of 1919 had quietly folded their tents 
and disappeared. They did not strike. They 
simply quit. In six of the Southern states it 
was estimated that one-third of the schools were 
left without any teachers. Subsequently more 
than half of those vacancies were filled, but with 
teachers that were inexperienced and incom- 
petent as educators of Young America- 
Reports reached us from Utah, Colorado, 
Wisconsin, Wost Virginia, and New York states 
that many. schools were without teachers. In 
West Virginia 400 schools were without teach- 
ers, and in Xew York 1000 schools; the total 
shortage of teachers in New York state was 
estimated at 5000.. It was estimated that at the 
beginning of the school year 6% of the nation's 
schools were unable to open for lack of teachers. 
This meant that about 1,000,000 of America's 
little men and little women could receive no edu- 
cation at all for a part of the precious time dur- 
ing which they fit themselves for life's battle. 

Moreover, the teachers that quit were the best 
ones, and this quitting of the best teachers has 
been a constantly progressing e\'il. In ISSO 
43% of the teachers in the United States were 



men ; in 1914 this number had been reduced to 
20%. There was a reason why men would not 
stay in the profession. 

The United States does not stand as high in 
education as it did, or as it should. It is now 
eighth among the nations in literacy; one of 
every ten adults in cities can not read or write ; 
and one of every five adults in the country is 
illiterate. In one state last year, many of whose 
schools were closed on account of lack of teach- 
ers, there were 10,895 children that did not have 
a day's schooling in the entire year. 

Sdiool-teachers have a good many discour- 
aging conditions to meet. They do not have the 
equipment which they should have; they do not 
have even enough room for all the children that 
should be required by law to attend. If all the 
children of school age in America did attend the 
public schools, 40% of them would have to stand, 
as there would be no accommodations for them. 

Many have left the teaching profession be- 
cause of their conviction that it is not for the 
best interests of themselves and- their pupils 
that they should have nothing to say about 
formulating courses of study, selecting text- 
books, choosing types of buildings and equip- 
ment, and formulating budgets; and it is a fact 
that in many places boards of education have 
been dictators, and incompetent if not male- 
volent ones at that, of matters about which the 
teachers knew far more than themselves. 

In a few places the teachers have also ob- 
jected because they thought they were not given 
sufficient liberty in respect to their political 
opinions; but as a rule teachers in the United 
States have generally and properly had a large 
amount of personal freedom in such matters. 

Wages the Real Trouble 

THE teachers have not wanted to say much 
about it, and many of them would deny that 
they have left the teaching profession on ac- 
count of insufticient pay; but the facts are that, 
the profession has been almost ruined by a 
tradition which has somehow fa.stened itself 
upon society that teachers do not expect and 
should not receive a living wage, as though 
teachers were a necessary evil instead of one 
of the greatest assets of the country. 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



3y> 



• While the United States -was still poor, and 
even after its riches had begun to be developed, 
the "Rages of school-teachers were usually $2 
per week and boarding around. There was not 
inuch inspiration to high endeavor in wages 
like that ; but when it was tlie best the district 
could afford it was accepted as a matter of 
coarse, though merely as a stepping stone until 
the teacher could get something else to do. Up 
to 1900 it wa.s a good country school that paid 
more than $35 per naonth; but board was only 
$2J50 to $3 per week and what was left would go 
mxich farther than it does today. 

Within the past year the whole subject of 
wages has been pretty generally overhauled in 
public. The school-teachers are among the most 
intelligent of all readers; and as they read the 
pnUished facts they began to think of their own 
wages and to make invidious comparisons of 
what they considered the public thought of the 
services of others as compared with their own. 

The average teacher spends fifteen years pre- 
paring for Ms work; but at seventy years of 
age his total earnings, counting the value of 
board and room, are not much above that of a 
domestic servant. WTien he is seventy years of 
age he has received only as much money as a 
plumber can make by the time he is forty. 
Teachers receive 16 cents an hour, but skilled 
wi*tin»tl workers 60 cents to $1 an hour. The 
average teacher receives $1.63 per day; she 
most usually spend hours at night preparing her 
lessons, witii no pay for overtime. 

It is said that school-teachers in New Tork 
begin with $80 a month, while ragpickers get 
$33 per week, window cleaners $7.50 per day, 
and bricklayers $8.7.5 to $10.00. The street 
cleaners, garbage collectors, motormen, subway 
guards, janitors, teamsters, and laxmdresses are 
all better paid. The street cleaners get $400 per 
year more for initial salary than do the teachers. 

In an issue of the Raleigh News Observer 
.ippeanxi two advertisements, side by side, one 
for a colored barber, guaranteeing $25 per week 
with $35 if satisfactory, and the other for a 
white teacher of Latin in a high school at $70 
per month for the ensuing nine months. Thus, 
for improving the in?ide of the head a total of 
$630 wa.s to be had, but for arranging the liair 
on the outside a possible $1820. 

An investicration conducted in La Crosso, 
Wisconsin, showfd that in a yoar the hi^h school 
pupils expend $4000 more for candy and movies 



than the sum total yearly salaries of the high 
school teachers. There the parents seem to 
think more of the entertainment of their chil- 
dren than of their instruction, their life ca'pital, 
so to speak, though actually not so. But what 
can we say to the children when the grnwii folks 
pay a single player $20,000 for six nionth.s" serv- 
ice on the ball field, and a prize i'lghtev $2'jO,000 
for a single fight and do not pay their professors 
enough to live on? 

Last Fall the Manchester Union advertised 
for lOO teachers for Xew Hampshire rural 
schools at $15 per week, while most of the young 
women in the neighboring cloth and shoe fac- 
tories were making $30 •i)er week. About tlie 
same time, in England, the Kent Urban District 
Council advertised for an official rat catcher at 
£250 per annum, but pays its teachers £240 a 
year after twenty years in the service. 

There were twentj'-nine American states last 
year where the average teacher's wage was 
under $550. The minimum wage of the teachers 
of Worcester, Mass., is, or was until recently, 
$675 per year. The minimum wage in Iowa is 
$57 per month, in Illinois $1000 per year. Cali- 
fornia, Massachusetts and Illinois pay the high- 
est salaries to teachers and have the least short- 
age of members of this profession. 

What has happened is that low wages have 
driven many of the best teachers into better 
paid positions, and that those who are left very 
probably, whether they would admit it or not, 
feel a certain amount of resentment against the 
public for treating them so unjustly ; and yet it 
is upon these teachers that the chief responsi- 
bility devolves of making the boys and girls into 
true Americans, proud of their country and 
of its institutions. 

Practically aU the college women are turning 
away from teaching to better paid occupations. 
One woman's bureau reports more vacancies 
than applications. The teaching profession is 
dying at both ends. Attendance at normal 
schools is falling off. In New Jersey, where 
there were 2200 students in the normals in 1916. 
there are now but 1400. New York state normal 
schools also report a big decrease in enrollment. 
Ambitious young men and women wll not train 
to be teachers when there is not a commensurate 
living in the work. 

In this country thorf nro ofclr-.-in'tlcn! poli- 
ticians of a certain type thnt Avrmld likf .v.'ll to 
see America's public scliool.s ru'iiiod. Tli'-.-.-o 



394 



The QoUen Age for March 17, 1920 



same ecclesiastical politicians are to be found 
in all so-called civilized countries. Their con- 
stant effort is, and for fifteen centuries has been, 
to get education out of the hands of the people 
and into the hands of priests and nuns, thus to 
kill it. Illiteracy in Spain is 70%, in Italy 73%, 
and in South America it is 90%. 

The cotrntiy needs more teachers, not fewer. 
There was never a time when they were so much 
needed. Besides the regular school-teachers we 
need a trained corps of visiting teachers to make 
a constant round of homes, prevent truancy, 
prevent children leaving school prematurely or 
unnecessarily, prevent delinquency and other- 
wise assist socially. To draw proper talent 
from other lines of business and save a ruined 
profession the minimum wages of all teachers 
should be at least $1500, sufficient to allow for 
proper culture in the form of travel, books, 
music, and necessary recreation. 

Teacfien* Labor Unions 

WITH everybody else organizing, it is hardly 
to be wondered at that the prevailing fever 
should have hit the teacjiers. Some time ago 
the American Federation of Labor had 126 local 
organizations of the American Federation of 
Teachers affiliated with thoiiL These locals were 
to be found among the college professors of the 
University of North Dakota, the University of 
Montana, Columbia University, sixteen other 
universities in New York state, high schools in 
Kansas City, Kansas, and many other places. 
Practically tlie whole teacliing force of Califor- 
nia was said to be thus organized. These unions 
have succeeded in some instances in raising the 
minimum salaric? of grade teachers over 100%. 
The teachers in Pittsburgh nmst be organized, 
too; for we notice a dispatch saying that they 
have served notice on the board of education 
that they must be paid a flat increase of $500 
per year, to take effect within thirty days, or 
they win quit in a body. Similar demonstrations 
have recently taken place in New York. 

Teachers' imions operating along similar lines 
have been organized in Franco and England. 
When thb British government awarded its rail- 
way men 100% increase as the least they could 
offer in view of the greatly increased cost of 
living, tlie teachers also demanded 100% in- 
crease, not discerning any good rea.-ons why 
llieir advance in v,a'.;.^> r-'aould be no moro than 
10% to ZO^c. 



During the vacation season last Summer the 
New York Mayor's Committee of "Women on 
Reconstruction and Kelief proposed to assist the 
teachers who did not get enough wages to exist 
upon, and at the same time to aid the women 
who did not want to do their own housework 
wliile on vacation, by sending out a letter advo- 
cating the employment of teachers to do the 
work. The letter suggested that the teachers 
do the work for about half the usual pay, and 
thus get a nice vacation in the cotmtry. 

Most of the teachers to whom the plan was 
suggested did not seem to see anything very 
attractive in a proposition to cook for a large 
family of summer vacationists as a means for 
obtaining a "nice vacation" for a tired teacher, 
nor were some of them able to see their way 
clear thus to break down the wages of the regu- 
lar household servants. They prefer to be paid 
a just wage for the services they render to 
society and to plan their ovm. vacations. 

In the long ago the teachers taught otJy a 
handful of followers grouped about their feet. 
Thus the Apostle Paul speaks of himself as 
"brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel". 
(. lets' 22 : 3) We have no doubt that Gamaliel 
was well recompensed for this work, as he 
should have been. St. Paul is supposed to have 
come from a wealthy family and to have been 
well able to pay adequately for service rendered. 
We do not suppose it was necessary for Gama- 
liel to wash dishes during vacation in order 
to make a living. 

There is one kind of teaching that will be en- 
tirely discontinued some time in the earth, and 
that is religious teaching. This all seems very 
strange in view of the strenuous efforts now_ 
being made to get pacific China, Siam and India 
up to tlie high standard of the three great Prot- 
estant nations : Germany, England, and America 
as they were on August 1, 1914. Yet the Scrip- 
tures are very plain. They read: 

"After those days, saith the Lord, I will put 
my law in their inw^ard parts, and write it in 
their hearts; and I will be their God, and they 
shall be my people. And they shall teach no 
more ever>- man his neighbor, and every man liis 
brother, saying. Know the Lord : for they shall 
all know mo. from the least of them unto the 
greatest of them, saith the Lord: for I will for- 
give their iniquity, and I will remember their 
sin no more.'' — Jeremiah 31 : 33, 34. 



•K 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 




Co9t of Living in 1896 

FOR cost of living and doing business "the 
happy days" were in 1896, which marked the 
low water of several decades. Comparing 1896 
with today, we find that a dollar would buy a 
certain volume of the ninety-six different com- 
modities which are chosen as representative. 
As the years have passed since 1896 the doUar 
has grown smaller and smaller. In other words, 
the purchasing value of the dollar has shrunk, as 
shown by the table below : 

1896 $1.00 1908 $ .74 

1897 .97 1909 .69 

1898 .00 1910 .66 

1899 .82 1911 ... .68 

1900 .70 1912 .64 

1901 : .78 1913 .64 

1902 .75 1914 .66 

1903 .74 1915 .60 

1904 .74 1916 .50 

1905 .73 1917 .36 

1906 .70 1918 .32 

1907 .66 1919 .33 

These figures are authoritative because based 
on the universally recognized monthly "price 
index" published by Bradstreet's. K the objec- 
tion were raised that the comparison is made 
with the lowest year, the figures would be in- 
creased only a few percent if comparison were 
made \sith the average of the years 1895 to 1899. 

In other words, the dollar is worth a third 
now of what it was in 1896. The 1896 dollar 
would buy three times what the 1918, or 1919, 
dollar would buy. If, instead of the average 
buying power of the twelve months of 1919, the 
month of December, 1919, is compared witli 
1896, the buying power of the dollar is 29 cents. 

Elxpressed in terms of salary or wages, the 
1896 clerk earning $100 a month ought to have 
had a salary of $345 in December, 1919, in order 
to be able to purchase the same quantity of the 
ninety-six commodities in both instances. The 
laborer earning 1.50 or $2.00 a day then 
should earn a v.-age of $5.17 or $6.90 today. A 
worker that is earning less than 345% of what 
the same position paid in 1896 is that much 
jKJorer off than he should be. 

Figure up your wage or salary, and see how 
well off you are. Then, if the production of 



President Day, of the Equitable Life As.surance 
Society, comes tnie in 1920, watch the 29-cent 
dollar shrink; for he, and other members of Big 
Business iiiink "the possibility of redvicing the 
high cost of living is very remote". 

It is all right for presidents and financiers to 
spend money prodigally; but it is an economic 
evil for common people to pour out easily- 
earned funds like water, if said people are not 
in the president-financier class. "The war", 
laments Mt. Day, "thrust upon us an uimatural 
and unbalanced prosperity and left us a legacy 
of inflation, speculation and excessive improvi- 
dence. A large volume of easy money has found 
its way into the pockets of many people to whom 
a substantial cash surplus was a new and tempt- 
ing possession, followed by a great passion for 
expenditure and pursuit of pleasure by those of 
improvident and self-indulgent tendencies. 
With so many people in this spendthrift mood, 
so many outbidding each other for some of the 
necessities and most of the luxuries of life, any 
material reduction in the cost of living seems a 
remote possibility." 

But are the people such spendthrifts f To do 
a normal amotmt of spending in December, 1919, 
one would have to spend 345% as much as in 
1896 for the same things. To enjoy a really 
100% spending spree a man — or a woman — 
would have to exceed perceptibly the 343% 
limit ; and it is doubtful if the many are so doing. 

One class that is hard hit by the 245% rise In 
living cost is the owner of bonds, mortgages, 
notes, or of other documents or securities pronu 
ising only a fixed rate of interest. In the earlier 
period of 1896, a first-class bond paying 4^% 
would sell at, say, $100. Conversely a high-grade 
railroad bond could be sold for $100, if it paid 
4^%, the regular earning power of money. 

Thousands of careful investors in the '90's 
filled their safe deposit boxes with securities 
bought on a 4.50%, basis. A $1000 bond would 
pay its owner the modest siun of $45, and the 
$45 in money would buy a real $45 worth of com- 
modities. For that investor to be as well off 
todav as he was in 1896, his bond ought to earn 
him "34.")% as much as in 1896. A $1000 bond 
should pay the investor now .345% of $45, or 



396 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



$155.20. If it does not, ifc? owner is that mnoh 
poorer. The value of railway bonds, expresspd 
in terms of the purchasing power of income, has 
deelinfd about 10% since 1S96; for the income 
will buy only about 30% of what it would then. 
The value ot the bond itself has gone off a like 
amoimt for the same reason. The owner of a 
snug Uttle figure of $100,000 in 1896, if he still 
has the $100,000, is really worth only about what 
an 1896 savings of $29,000 would have amounted 
to; for $29,000 in 1896 would buy the same 
things as $100,000 today. The other things that 
make up a fortune have lessened in worth. Land, 
houses, stores, apartment houses, factory build- 
ings are worth as much less today than they 
would have been worth in 1896, if their selling 
value, or the rentals they pay have not kept up 
with the 245% increase in commodity prices. 
Stocks that sell for $100 today are of the same 
real value as stocks that sold for $29 in 1896. 

In this invisible manner rich and poor alike 
have grown poorer in the last few decades, ex- 
cepting the favored ones that have received the 
245% increa.se in income. It is curious that 
something like this was foretold about 1900 
years ago in the following language: "Go to 
now, ye rich men. Your riches [money, stocks, 
bonds, properties] are corrupted, and your gar- 
ments [fortunes then consisted partly of costly 
garments stored away] are moth-eaten. Your 
gold and silver is cankered [rusted away]. Ye 
[profiteers] have heaped treasures together for 
the last days." (James 5:1-3) But these 
strange things are now seen to be among the 
steps by which the Father is leading the world 
as he guides them to the doors of the Golden 
Age, the portals of the kingdom of heaven on the 
earth, for soon men will be more like brothers, 
and the pride of wealth and the envy of poverty 
will no longer exist. 

The Sugar Situation 

THE average American family consumes 465 
pounds of sugar per year, 116 pounds of 
which is produced in America; 302 pounds 
comes from Cuba and the balance from Hawaii, 
Porto Rico and the Philippines. Cuba lies so 
near the United States that dvtring the war, 
Avhen shipping was hard to procure, practically 
the whole crop was marketed here. 

Prior to the war Great Britain had obtained 
her sugar from Germany and Austria ; but dur- 
ing the war this supply was not obtainable and 



the ravages of the conflict destroyed a large part 
of the lields and factories of France, Belgium, 
Germany, Austria, Rumania and Russia. These 
former sugar-producing areas are not now pro- 
ducing half of their former output, but merely 
enough to take care of their own reqtiirements. 

During the war the cane-sugar countries in- 
creased their production from 10,000,000 to 12, 
000,000 tons per year, in partial offset of the 
reduction of output of the beet sugar countries 
from 10,000,000 tons per year to about 5,000,000 
tons per year. It is estimated that in the Fall 
of 1919 the net situation was that at the conclu- 
sion of the canning season the world had about 
4,000,000 tons less on hand than is usual. 

Directly after the armistice, and for several 
months following, the times were not good in tlie 
United States or anywhere, and the allotted 
American two-^rds of the Cuban sugar crop 
did not find ready purchasers. Additionally 
the Atlantic Coast refineries and warehouses 
were crowded with the Allies' allotted one-third, 
sent there to be refined. Meantime, speculators 
who tmderstood the real situation sectired op- 
tions upon immense quantities, and concealed it 
with the stire knowledge that in 1920 they would 
be able to make great profits upon it 

The close of the 1919 canning season foimd 
the American portion of the Cuban crop gone, 
but the warehouses stiU btirsting with the sugar 
which had been reserved for the Allies, and to 
which they were entitled. Since then we have 
been on a sugar rampage. 

Dtiring the war the United States was Cuba's 
only direct ctistomer; but when it came to dis- 
posing of the 1920 crop she refused to be gov- 
erned any longer by the war arrangements and, 
before Uncle Sam knew what she was aboat, 
had sold half of her crop to foreign buyers. So 
it happened that in the Fall of 1919 we were 
short of sugar, largely through the activities of 
spectilators, and we shall be more short in the 
Fall of 1920, for Europe is to get still more of 
the Cuban crop than in 1919. 

Some estimate the shortage as running to 
several million tons and are fearftil that the 
price to the consumer may go to 35 cents per 
pound. The experts agree that there is an 
actual sugar shortage in the world due to the 
destruction of European fields and factories and 
that it will be some years before new fields and 
factories, there and here, can meet the situation. 

In the end the sugar scare will be a good thing 



i7i£ Qolden Age far March 17, 1920 



397 



for the United States. It will encourage sugar- 
beet farming, which will improve vast areas of 
now unprofitable land. The sugar-beet tops 
and pulp, when returned to the soil, enrich it 
and make it suitable for production of other 
crops. The United States has only 514,000 acres 
in sugar beets, while Europe has 6,000,000 
acres but there is enough available sugar-beet 
acreage in the United States to raise all the 
sugar in the whole world. Meantime, even at 
present high prices, it is best for Golden Agb 
readers to buy sugar during March, April,^ and 
May, when it will be on hand in good supply, if 
they want any later. Uncle Sam has been pay- 
ing for foreign sugars $500,000,000 per year. ' 

Crystallized sugar, made from sugar cane, 
was imported into Europe from India as early 
as 500 A. D. In Bible times honeys and syrups 
took the place of sugar. For an interesting 
honey story read Judges 14 : 1 - 20. 

Square-Deal Johnson By j. r. ooranfio 

INDUSTRIAL rest and prosperity in and 
aronnd Binghamton, N. Y., are due largely to 
methods that ^iU obtain during the Golden Age. 
Endicott, Johnson & Workers, Inc., the largest 
shoe manufacturers in the world, are the direct 
cause. Mr. George F. Johnson, who has risen 
from a shoe worker at the bench to the manag- 
ing head of tliis large concern, deserves the 
lion's share of credit and is able to appreciate 
the position of both capital and labor. 

All through his thirty years of management 
Mr. Johnson has kept the confidence and esteem 
of his employes, and is thought of not as one who 
has exploited labor in the past and has watched 
to take advantage at the first opportunity, 
but as an elder brotlier or father : one to whom 
they can go in trouble of any Idhd and receive 
help and advice cheerfully given. 

Mr. Johnson says that the employer should be 
the natural labor loader, and that if he is not, 
labor will look elsewhere for a leader. So he 
has instituted what he calls the square-deal pol- 
icy; and the Workers, appreciating that tliey are 
getting a square deal, have erected an arch at 
the entrance to Johnson City, N. Y., and Endi- 
cott, N. Y., with the inscription: "Entrance to 
the Square-Deal Towns". 

The Endicott-Johnson corporation believe 
that their responsibility does not end with just 
compensation for work done in the shop, but 
that the outside environment should be made 



as pleasant as possible. To quote Mr. .Jolmson, 
"I do not believe in having a few millionaires' 
homes on the hills overlooking the factories, and 
the workers living in poverty''. But he sug- 
gests what he calls liis labor creed : "A great in- 
dustrial establishment should as closely as pos- 
sible follow the old idea of small business:, in 
which the master had his shop and his house 
adjoining, and he and his workers and appren- 
tices lived as well as worked together"'. 

And this creed is carried out by this employer. 
His home is not a great mansion, but a modest 
home right ' among the workers — not even a 
"Keep off the grass" sign, or a fence to keep 
others from enjoying the lawn surrounding it. 
Not content with having a home for himself, his 
present bmlding program calls for approxi- 
mately six hundred modem homes which are 
being built and sold on easy payment plan to 
the worker at cost Thus we can see already 
having a fulfillment conditions of which th« 
prophets spoke, when each shall live under his 
own vine and fig tree. 

Then, too, spacious parks are provided for 
the use of the workers and their families as 
well as others, no one in the community being 
barred from the privileges. There are play- 
grounds for the children, swimming pools with 
all kinds of contrivances for water sports, and 
a racetrack with some of the best horses in the 
country appearing there free to all. The best 
bands in the world are brought here for open- 
air concert.s without charge. In addition to this 
the musical program calls for the services of 
about ten local bands, which give free concerts 
throughout the community each evening. 

The health of the workers is looked after at 
the corporation's expense, they maintaining~a- 
very efficient and up-to-date medical department, 
equipped with all that the latest medical science 
affords, the service of w^hich is also free for the 
use of the workers' families. A sick relief, 
whereby the worker receives $15 dollars a week 
v.'hen "sick, is maintained at a cost of 10 cent.s 
a week to the worker, the company making up 
most of the amounts paid out in benefits. 

The old dinner pail and cold lunch have 
given way to large, modern restaurants, where 
good wholesome food is served three times each 
day for 15 cents a meal, a posted notice calling 
attention to the fact that this price entitles tho 
worker to all he wants to eat. 

Under the control of the corporation is a 



398 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



number of tlieaters where the best higli-grade 
pictures aro shown for a small price, the com- 
pany paying tlie difference between Uie admis- 
sion charged and cost of operation. A monthly 
magazine is published which is open to the em- 
ployes for exchange of ideas, suggestions of 
efficiency, etc., subscription free to the workers. 

A forty-eight-hour week is maintained with 
Saturday a half-holiday. Eecognizing the need 
of change and recreation, each worker receives 
two weeks' vacation with pay, and in addition 
is paid for five holidays annually. 

Although we find many heads of different 
industries with ideal policies, yet very often these 
policies are not carried out by their subordi- 
nates. In the case under consideration this is 
guarded against in that the power to discharge 
any worker has been taken from foremen and 
superintendents and now rests solely with the 
general manager, who is always willing and 
anxious to hear any grievance or complaint the 
worker may wish to bring to him. 

Much has been written recently regarding the 
bringing together of capital and labor and hav- 
ing them work in harmony. It also has been 
pointed out that this is impossible under the 
ordinary arrangement, because their aims are 
opposite. Mr. Johnson has evidently solved this 
problem by making the aims of both capital and 
labor identical, through a bonus or profit-shar- 
ing plan. Under this arrangement the manage- 
ment claims that capital is entitled to a fair re- 
turn for money invested and tliat labor also is 
entitled to a fair wage, good working conditions, 
reasonable hours and proper treatment — the 
remaining profits belonging to neither capital 
nor labor, but to both. 

So after paying a 7% dividend on the pre- 
ferred stock and 7% dividend on the common 
stock, and 3% to reserve, the balance of the sur- 
plus is split jifty-fifty between the workers and 
the owners of the common stock, which profit 
may be distributed in common stock or in cash, 
at the option of the board of directors. 

To qualify for this distribution the worker 
has to be in the employ of the company through- 
oat an entire year prior to the day upon which 
the dividend is declared. All workers sliare 
alike. The liifj:. it paid man and tlie lowest 
paid office boy gti exactly the same share of sur- 
plus, their varied abilities having been taken 
care of in their salaries or wagps. A further 
policy of the company along this line is that ail 



the best jobs in the factories are filled from the 
ranks — no good positions filled from the outside, 
but always from the inside. 

Nor has the good work of this great concern 
ended with the immediate community, but tho 
entire world is a benefactor; for this company 
has eliminated practically all middle-men and, 
instead of taking the middle-man's profit, has 
given it to the consumer by having its own tan- 
neries as well as retail stores, thus carrying out 
the concern's slogan, "From hide to wearer". 

telephone and Storm 

WHAT a storm may do to the telephone 
service is little appreciated by any but the 
executives and the workers of the telephone sys- 
tem. In Northwest Ohio a hurricane swept out 
of the north, and before blowing out over Lake 
Erie greatly injured that part of the telephone 
investment represented in outdoor equipment. 

The wind ran as high as ninety miles an hour, 
which is 132 feet a second. The pressure ex- 
erted upon a building, tree or pole with its wire 
equipment may be appreciated from the simple 
fact that every second the weight of air hurled 
against a 30 by 30 foot side of a building at 
.080681 pounds per cubic foot would be 4.79 tons. 
Terrific pressure is brought upon often weak- 
ened poles when the wind blows, as it did, 7S 
miles an hour at Toledo, 79 at Elyria, 65 at 
Sandusky, and up to 90 at some points. The 
poles went down by wholesale — 798 in the 
Toledo exchange and hundreds at other points, 
totaling over a thousand, about 80% of which 
could be reset. Where poles did not go, wires 
were broken, putting hundreds of indivadual 
phones out of commission. Trees went down 
before the wind and tore down the wires. Tn 
one place a barn door sailed through the air 
and brought down its quota of lines, together 
with three poles, which could not stand the im- 
pact in addition to the wind pressure on the 
STV'aying wires. Everywhere tlie damage was 
repaired in remarkably short order. Within an 
hour after the storm struck Dayton, where 160 
poles were down, and 51 circuits out of com- 
mission, the repairmen were out; and \\'ithin 
twenty-four hours service was restored on all 
but one lino out in the country with 85 poles 
gone over a distance of forty miles. 

Users of telephones realize little of the amount 
of hard and dangerous work sometimes required 
to keep the service going. 






The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



399 




COLOR S^CWARAcTER® 



«tii«r (M tatkc Sim 



▲ 



Color Quality and Quantity 

THREE factors enter into the determindtion 
of color quality; viz., hue, value, and 
chroma or intensity, as there are three factors 
in connection with tone (i. e., pitch, intensity, 
and duration), three in connection with light 
(i. e., wave length, wave amplitude, and wave 
complexity), and three in the realm of the elec- 
tric current — voltage, amperage, and ohmage. 



^/i/£ 




CH/ZOfIA 



Hiie has to do with the chromatic scale of 
primary and binary colors, ranging from pure 
yellow as the highest note to pure violet as the 
deepest. But any one hue on the chromatic scale 
can be diluted with either white or black, thus 
forming tints and shades respectively, ranging 
all the way from almost white to almost black. 
All these tones (either the normal color or its 
tints and shades) we call values of tlie given 
normal color. A new scale is formed by this 
process, very much as a singer ascertains his 
own "register"', then sings the scale within his 
own range and with his own personal quality of 
note. Or it is perhaps more nearly compara- 
ble with a musical key. But any value of any 
hue can be grayed by the addition of its com- 
plement, and thus the intensity or luminosity of 
the original tone is reduced. 

A color dictionary has been published with 
some thirty thousand hues, values, and intensi- 
ties printed and designated. This means that 
instead of the twelve hues shovm here, there 
would be, say, sixty; instead of seven values 
there would be, .«ay, fifty of c-ach hue; instead of 
two intensities there would be, say, ten. This 
would make the thirty thousand, thou^li the 
hues, value?, and intensities may not be divided 
in just that proportion. Probably the trained 



eye can discern t^AQQ this many tones, but they 
would not be practical for present-day commer- 
cial purposes. 

Mass is, of course, the sole distinction as to 
quantity; but it is important. A small amount 
of brilliant rod might be very pleasing, but a 
great quantity abhorrent. 

Making Kalahari a Garden 

ALL Africa needs", every one from Africa 
says, "is more water and more good people." 
Turning the vast Kalahari Desert in South 
Africa into a garden spot is one of the new 
projects. This desert covers some 300,000 
square miles, and is sandy and dry beyond any 
present use. It is proposed by. irrigation to 
bring into being in thi.<) immense area a lake 
twice as big as Lake Erie. The Chobe River in 
the long ago ran through the Kalahari Desert, 
and the proposition is to dam up its present 
course and turn it back to become the agency 
for making happy homes for the thousands of 
immigrants that are to be attracted. 

Rivers and lakes disappear in the Dark Con- 
tinent. It seems as though much of the vast 
territory of the continent might dry up and be- 
come as Sahara and Kalahari. Lake Ngami in 
British South Africa was described by Living- 
stone as a vast inland sea ; now it has become a 
body of water some twenty miles long and but 
five miles wide. Once there were large rivers 
in this region; now they are gone. At times in 
heavy rains, the level country is covered with 
water as far as the eye can see; but it quickiy- 
dries up. The estimate is made that in a hun- 
dred years this section of Africa will be seem- 
ingly a hopeless desert like the Sahara. 

The move to recreate a great lake in the Kala- 
hari is something that looks forsvard to the bet- 
ter things to come, when the minds of great and 
powerful men will no longer be upon war and 
destruction, but upon gigantic projects for tlie 
beneficent purpose of making this a better worKl 
to live in; for it is written that in the Golden 
Age, ''in the wilderness shall waters brenk out ' 
[probably by irrigation, but no doubt partly by 
•livine pov.-crj, and Jtrr-ams in the desert: and 
ihp parched ground shall become a pool, and the 
tiiiraty land springs o£ water". — Ii?aiah 00: G, 7. 



400 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



Ice Houses Healthiest 

IT IS for Eskimos, not for Ainoricans, that 
ice houses are best. The Eskimo ideas and 
idt-als oi' sanitation are primitive, nad any at- 
tempt to ■•raodeniizo"' the race by having the 
cement trust supply them with concroto homes 
in place 01 ice or snow igloos, would kill thotn 
off. The Eskimo is hcaltiiier, warmer and moro 
comi'ortnbli.' than he could possibly be in a house 
that oJiviously is a good thing in a country 
where water — and sewage — remain liquid and 
can be eontluctod awa2>" I'rom the premises. 
According to the explorer Stet'ansson, 
"The Igloo, or domed snow hut, serves as a home for 
two or three weeks. I'heu they build a new one. Be- 
cause it is new it is clean and sanitary. It is as warm 
and comfo.'-table as an American library. A candle gives 
05 much illnm.ination as an electric light, because of the 
intense whiteness of the snow. The snow house will 
stand under any conditions. It is as comfortable a home 
as nian could wish. But the concrete hut, like the 
wooden hut , must be uncomfortable and unsanitary. 
Wherever the natives have changed from the snow to the 
wooden home there have followed pneumonia, typhoid 
and a tremendous increase in the death rate. Contact 
with civilization haa already affected the Eskimos and 
iiicy are dying off. They must soon be eitinct, and 
r'iie concrete hut would only hasten the extinction." 

Americans like "civilization*' and are proud 
of it for the same I'eason that the Turk likes his 
style of living — because they are used to it. 
There is nothing ideal anywhere, but the time 
is at hand when ideal conditions will be dis- 
cerned: and the race, Eskimos and all, under 
the inspiration and the wisdom of the Grolden 
Age, will move up to higher levels and will ever 
be following the vision just beyond of better and 
better things to come. 

Waking Up to the Typewriter 

WITHOUT a tj-pewriter an American office 
would not be an office, but a relic of a past 
age. But Europe has l)een writing \\'ith pen and 
ink, and is just waking up to the typewriter. In 
France the courts are working on the problem 
whether a document such as a deed or a mort- 
gage is legal if wrilti-n on a typewriter. 

Tlio world wai- taught EiUrope many things. 
among othf-rs to value the typewriter. Prior to 
the conflict the propni-tion of the .American writ- 
ing machine out [Hit tiial was exported was i^y^c 
to 40'"c ; now il i.- .'iV^. The machines would 
be goin!;r over tin- \^at•■■^ much faster if F.nropf 
eouKl CTft the credits nccessarv to correct the 



unfavorable conditions of exchange. ^Vllen the 
great loans that are expected have been made, 
the situation will be improved and a much 
greater volume of typewriter exports is looketi 
for as a result of the credits. 

Europe needs among other things modern 
office methods. She will bo helped in elTeeting 
this improvement, because the prices of writing 
machines have not increased nearly as much as 
those of other products, partly perhaps because 
the prices were unduly high before the war. 
Improvement is tlie order of the day, and the 
tendency will become ever more marked as the 
Golden Age comes ou. 

Tin Phone Booths 

THE sound-proof telephone booth is a rarity, 
but it has been discovered that any booth 
can be made absolutely sound-proof if it is lined 
with tin. The new idea is applicable in other 
places where it is desirable to exclude needless 
sounds. One or two layers of tin or alumintun 
in partitions or between floors is equally effec- 
tual in shutting out the noise of the neighbor's 
daughter's piano, or the music of the ragtime 
phonograph in the flat above. Family quarrels 
can be conducted without risk of the neighbors' 
listening, the dog can bark to his heart's con- 
tent, and the head of the house can indulge a 
man's prerogative of relieving himself with im- 
seemly vocal sounds. The tin-lined house would 
be fire proof, or fire resisting. If the tin man- 
ufacturers can be waked up to tlie new field for 
sale of their products and the architects roused 
to the desirability of getting inexpensive sound- 
proof effects, the era of the tin house may be- 
come a reality. 

Canned Pudding Exploded 

IN San Francisco the canned pudding ex- 
plodes. A woman was badly burned and 
pieces of the can lodged in her neck when the 
can went off, as she was taking it out of the 
boiler of hot water. 

As he was stepping up to the porch an Indian- 
apolis man slipped on the ice and dislocated 
liis spine. 

Wlien in a New York taxi keep yourself down. 
A woman wa.s riding Ln one when it struck a rut. 
iShe bounced to the roof and was badly injured. 

t'lerg^Tnen, take notice! One slipped in his 
study in Richmond, stuck his hand through a 
glass library case and cut himself severely. 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



401 



A fire extinguisher put him out. It exploded 
in his hands in Chicngo and killed him instantly. 

Keep away from ladders. It was in Indiana. 
He was papsin.q:; the ladder struck his shoulder, 
OS it fell, and dislocated the vertebrae. 

A Great Mineral Deposit 

TX THP] midst of the blue atnio.sphere in the 
-■• mining business it does the heart good to hear 
of a great mineral deposit in an unexpected 
locality. Between the Southern Pacific Raulroad 
tracks and the Gulf of Mexico, at a point some 
125 mUes west of New Orleans it is reported 
that a vast body of minerals has recently been 
discovered. 

Within 150 feet of the surface is the top of 
a vein of good bituminous coal which has the 
extraordinary depth of seventy-nine feet; and 
below the coal, ^vith an interval of only twelve 
feet, is a bed of pure rock salt which was pene- 
trated for 1949 feet \\'ithout reaching its hottom, 
that being the point at which the drill was with- 
drawn. This makes this deposit one of the five 
greatest salt deposits in the world, and possibly 
the greatest. Other notable deposits are located 
in Western New York, Germany, Czecho-Slov- 
akia and India. The Louisiana deposits were 
discovered on the Southern homestead of the 
actor, Joseph Jefferson. An Alaska coal mine 
is now producing 3600 tons of coal per month. 

Gaoemmental Limitations By Frank Bunctt 

ME. EDITOR: I have lately subscribed to 
Thk Golden Age, and like it very much; 
but I would lilce to criticize your article on 
"Governmental Limitations". 

In the first place you fail to distinguish be- 
tween brute competition and friendly competi- 
tion. Experience proves that the former 
degrades to the level of the brute, while the 
latter has an elevating effect and increases the 
total of human happiness. 

You say in the article, "Any man who has the 
idea that it would be better for the government 
to own and operate all industries would do 
well to visit any public building and note tlie 
general shiftlessness," etc. 

Now that may bo in the East, but not so on 
this coast. I have liv^^d in fourtepn counrios on 
the Pacific slope, have traveled in many more. 
and have done some janitor worJc; Imu never 
have I ?t^en any piihli<- building that was not as 
neat and clean as the private ones. 



Further, you seem to recommend government 
o\\'nership and operation of telephones, and 
later yon say that municipalities have engaged 
in the millc business with good results. Now I 
want to ask, If the principle of public ownership 
is good in the matter of telephones, why is it not 
good in the matter of public buildings? And 
whose fault is it if there is lack of effieit ncy 
along any line in goverrunent if not that of the 
people ? The success of any kind of democratic 
form of government depends upon the intelli- 
gence of the common people, and" their diligence 
in seeing that the law is enforced. 

May we not reasonably hope that in the 
Golden Age, now dawning, employes of any 
kind in their labors will be inspired with the 
idea of cooperation embodied in the words, 
"Love one another", uttered by The Man of 
Galilee*? Then there will be no question of effi- 
ciency along any line. 

Farmers in Politics 

AS A matter of self-protection the farmers 
are entering politics in an extensive way. 
determined to take over the supervision, through 
legislatures and Congress, of the pacldbug and 
other industries that handle the food products 
of the farm, as well as of the railroads tiiat have 
not always been quick to adjust things to the ad- 
vantage of the agricultural interests. Hitherto 
the farmers have been a comparatively helpless 
class, but shrewd observers say that the 1920 
elections -svill see the American farmer taking 
np the reins to drive the horse himself. 

The way has been blazed in Canada, where the 
farmer-labor combination controls Ontario,^nd 
■where the politicians promptly rescinded ail the 
laws they feared might bring down on them the 
displeasure of the new element in control. Eng- 
land has followed Canada's lead; and British 
labor men are taking their places in government, 
local and national, in the face of the powerful 
opposition of even Lloyd George. . Soon it is 
predicted the British government wiU pass into 
the hands of the duly elected representatives of 
labor. An astounding fact, to the old-line Brit- 
ish politicians, was that they were deserted by 
the middle-class clerks and other white-shirt 
workers, who for the first time threw in their lot 
with the rest of the working people. In France 
C'lemonceau went down before the workers' 
choice, DeschaneL 



402 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



New Poteen in PoUtica 

IT IS becoming quite evident th.it 1020 has in 
store some surprising events in the Novem- 
ber elections. It is freely predicted by party 
managers that the successful party will be the 
Republican or the Democrat party. Tliis may be 
so,- for it is a tedious task to get voters into 
a new party. But it is the attitude of those 
elected, not their party names, that is liable 
to prove significant. 

Two entirely new political forces are in the 
field, or will enter before the elections. Both 
Irnve grievances strong enough to make them 
try to see that they are represented in legis- 
lative halls and perhaps in executive chairs. The 
working men realize that the efficacy of the 
strike as a tool for advancing their material 
interests wa.s largely destroyed by ihe Anderson 
injunction against the coal minors and the 
active operations of the oxecntive branch of tlie 
government in the coal strike. It was widely 
predicted then that tlie nullifying of the pur- 
poses of the trades union would drive the work- 
ers to the ballot. That this \vill be the case no 
one can doubt, who has porcoived the drift of 
sentiment on this subject. 

The workers may be expected to do liard and 
effectual work toward putting men to represent 
them in the various legiijlatures and in Con- 
gress. It will be easier to get voters to east 
their ballots for workers running under old 
party names than to disconnect them from their 
parties in large enougli numbers to elect, for 
example, a nev.- Labor party, though this will 
have a large vote. Labor men can readily 
enough be elected as Eopublicans or Democrats, 
but especially as the former, on account of tlie 
impopularity of the Democratic party, owing 
to certain of their policies and acts. As.Repub- 
licans, labor men could vote in the interests of 
labor just as etTectually as under a new banner. 
It will not be surprising, then, to see a solid 
block of labor Republicans, perhaps added to 
by a block of Democratic labor representatives. 
A similar attitude of dissatisfaction exists 
among the largest single element of voters, the 
farmers. Some 4Gfo of the voters are probably 
in this class. The farmers have learned well 
the lesson that the easiest method of obtaining 
direct representation is under the old party 
names, as was done in the Xonpartisan League. 
There are many legislative and Congressional 
districts v.here the farm<?r? are in an over- 
whelming majority, and i: is thought that the 



eloetion next fall may see the quiet Unlng up of 
the farmer vote under iJie banner of whichever 
old party is predominant. The purpose of the 
farmers will not bo to elect a Republican or a 
Democrat, but to choose a farmer, to see that no 
longer are the interests of the country's most 
important class of producers made the football 
of the giants of wealth and business. 

With the advent of the farmer and the 
laborite on the floor of legislative bodies and 
perhaps in executive chairs, the now phenome- 
non will appear of the control passing from the 
hitherto jxiwerful — the rich and the old-style 
politicians — to classes having more at heart the 
interests of all the people. If absolute control 
is not vested in the combined labor and farmer 
legislators, there should be enough of them to 
liold the balance of power, which is sometimes 
as effectual os having all the power. The com- 
mon people may expect to get back some of 
their lost liberties. If people do not now feel 
free to talk, to write, to print things, or to as- 
semble in peaceable fashion, it will not be long 
before they v.'ill enjoy the old-time American 
freedom, for example, of talking Avithout the 
suspicion that some one may be listening to 
throw them into the courts. Writers will be 
able to vrrite with the chains off their pens. 
Peaceable assemblies of common people will be 
held without the slightest apprehension of in- 
vasion by mobs or of personal injury at the 
iaands of representatives of the law. And when 
people can talk, write, and think as they please, 
they v.ill no longer care so much about the lib- 
erty to do these things ; and the fires of unrest 
and agitation Avill die do-wn from lack of fut-l. 
Then, their minds free and easy again, they can 
get to work and prodnce in the old fashion. — 

It is well kno\\-n in England that there is 
nothing to fear from the labor men; for once in 
power they become conservative from the very 
responsibility of power. 

Likewise nothing need be feared from such a 
change in the United States ; for the farmer is 
naturally a wall of conservatism, and even ex- 
tremely radical workers, if any, would soon find 
that the v/eight of the cares of the actual con- 
duct of govemmvcnt would sober them. 

This is a period of change. The change is in' 
the direction of the good of all the people. It 
is the transition from the old order to the new 
— from the old "world", or state of affairs, 
toward the better one of the Golden Age. 



TJxe Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



403 




FareUst Street-Can 

"^OT that sti-eet-cars are to see their pntron- 
•*-^ age diminish until no one rides on them; 
but an ideal, to be reached when there will be 
countless riders and not one of them would 
pay his fare directly, though indirectly it w^ould 
be paid at cost price. 

The electric railway business has reached a 
distressing state. The traflSc is making a nor- 
mal increase from year to year, but in certain 
cities the fare remains the same, in the face of 
mounting, costs. In other cities the fare has 
been "adjusted" — in plain words, raised — to 
from six to ten cents a ride. Even this expedi- 
ent has failed to give much relief ; for less peo- 
ple ride, the volume of business falls off, and the 
additional revenue i)er fare is in danger of be- 
ing eaten up by increasing overhead costs, which 
are heavier per fare, because there are less 
t^ fares. The net profit is about the same, as far 
as the financial condition of the roads is con- 
I cerned. Everj-where that the fare jumps up, 
private enterprise steps in and provides bus 
lines to carry the people, more uncomfortably, 
bat at the old price of five cents, making an 
additional reason why the number of fares on 
the electric railways should decrease. 

Evidently the time predicted is at hand when 
the owniers of the electric railways would find 
their investment a burden. They are beginning 
to see a light which they could not discern 
while the roads paid a good profit. Even in New 
York City the railway o\\Tier.s are thinldiig tliat 
perhaps municipal ownership is not such a bad 
tluug, especially when the city may be induced 
^ to take the bad-bargain electric railways off the 
hands of private enterprise. A few years ago 
public o^vnership was anathema; for the roads 
', paid well, ilunicipal ownership was making 

good in some important cities, but the railway 
"experts" were at hand in the newspapers col- 
umns to "prove" that there was no failure any- 
where like that of municipal ownership every- 
where. O Wall Street, thy name is lesjion! 

The common people care notliing who own? 
the street railways. What iliey do care iov is 
ser\'ice. They want the ^^iervice at a rea.-<">iial)le 
price, though under private ov,^lor:^hip they ob- 



ject to paying for the dead horses contained in 
stock issues nearly all water and bond issues 
2j5o to 40% water, which have been foisted 
upon the railway companies by the enterprising 
promoters who issued the securities and with 
them "sold" a small army of "innocent" tliird- 
party investors, who at the outset were willing, 
to take their share of the initial profit, but now 
are bad losers. 

However, the railways may soon gain munic- 
ipal owners. Then the new owners will have to 
meet the same old problems. The lines must 
pay, and that means the maintaining of the bal- 
ance between fares received and expenses paid. 
If the fares are raised the people will growl at 
the municipal administration and perhaps 
change it. If the fares are kept stationary, the 
service may run down at the heel, and the peo- 
ple may change the administration for giving 
poor service. Cities grow, and extensions of 
lines must be built This takes money; and if 
tlie lines have poor prospects of paying, the 
money cannot be had from private owners, and 
must be raised by taxation. There is little 
chance of greater economy under public than 
under private ownership, and the net result is 
liable to be more taxes. Then the big taxpayers 
will use money and power to change the admin- 
istration. Coming and going, under public own- 
ership, the administration will see "parlous 
times" before matters are adjusted. 

It has been suggested that under municipal 
c^^Tiership the lines might be run on the same 
basis as the streets and all the costs be paid by 
taxation. Streets cost a great deal of money, 
but no one has to pay to ride on them. Side- 
walks are costly, but no one pays a fee to walk 
on a sidewalk. "Why, then, should one pay to 
ride- on a municipal railway! 

We are tallring of something that may be 
considered an ideal, not as immediately practi- 
cable. People do not pay to ride on elevators 
vertically. WTiat greater reason is there why 
they should pay for being transported horizon- 
tally ? Ni.'ither is a charge made for a ride on 
an escalator in an obliquely upward direction. 
In the lo.ss enlightened days of the nineteenth 
coutury it was the rule to pay to pass over a 



404 



The Qolden Age for March ly, ig2o 



road— "turnpikes", tliey were cxilled then— now 

'I- it is a mark of backwardness to see a region 

. with toll gates. Not over two decades ago the 
privilege of going over a highsvay bridge was 
paid for; now practically all bridges are free. 

At first the people would ride on the fareless 
Btreet-cars more than they needed to do; but 
the noveltj' would quickly wear off. In candy 
factories the girls are encouraged to eat all the 
candy they want; but it soon cloys. Boys and 
idlers might think they could spend their time 

r on free street-cars; but they would tire of the 

same ride; and as- idlers now are not permitted 
to spend their time in public buildings, so they 
would not be allowed needlessly on the cars. 

^ The person riding on a street-car is not by 

any means the only one benefited by the trajis- 
portation. Without the street-cars the great 
stores would bo impossible ; for they draw pat- 
ronage from a wide area, and the trade they now 
handle would be taken care of in smaller stores 
serving smaller areas. The store benefits from 
the cars, as does the owner of the store build- 
ing, the managers and o^vTiers of theaters, 
hotels, markets, churches, offices and the lesser 
stores. All the unearned increment of down- 
town real estate comes from whatever transpor- 
tation brings the people to the doors of the 
stores and offices. The mill and the factory are 
^ possible because the people are brought by a 
* transportation system, without which the own- 
ers would have to establish smaller industrial in- 
stitutions or none at all. 

It is a little unreasonable to let the people 
that are brought to the stores, offices and fac- 
tories, pay the entli-e cost of their transporta- 
tion; for they are not the only beneficiaries. 
If all paid that are benefited, part of the burden 
of the street-car would fall on the owners of real 
estate, and of the various businesses that live 
on the people assembled by the street cars. 

If the street transportation v/ere supported 
by taxation the burden would fall \%-ith practical 
equality, especially if the head, or per capita, 
tax were raised a little to take any undue bur- 
den off the property and business owners. Then 
the street railways would be operated for serv- 

' - ice; and while the taxpayers would call for as 
low operating cost as consistent \\-ith proper 
service, the question of profit would not enter 
in, anymore than a municipality thiidcs of malc- 
ing a profit off the streets or the schools. Th*^ 
question of raising money for betterments and 



extensions would be readily met because the 
value of I he investment would be in the improve- 
ment, and private investors would put their 
funds into such bonds as readily as into any 
other municipal bond backed by city credit. 

It would make little difference to a working 
man where he lived, so far as cost of getting to 
work is concerned. Time would be the only fac- 
tor. Family after family would move out of the 
tenements and slmns, the chUdren of the city 
workers would get their place in the sun, and each 
working man might have a little home and a 
garden of his own off in the suburbs or out in 
the country. The city's density of population 
would be relieved, and there would be a chance 
of having better apartments for the poor as the 
pressure for homes lessened and competition 
for tenants sprang up among owners of tene- 
ment and flat buildings. Gradually the factories 
would move out where the workers lived, the 
cit>' would move out toward the country. In 
place of the unsanitary crowding of the "mod- 
em" city, as one looks into the future, there 
would be the pleasant vision of the stretching 
out of suburban or village life for mile after 
mile, out in the fresh surroundings of the big 
healthful world that encompasses the compar- 
ative squalor of the city. 

In the event of municipal ownership becoming 
a reality, it should not be forgotten by those in 
charge that the promotion, financing, and devel- 
oping of the electric railway system was a work 
calling for great ability, energy, labor and self- 
sacrifice: and those that bore the burden and 
heat of the day should be given a square deal, 
and paid a just price for their properties. The 
fact that the railways, through world-wide con- 
ditions, have become unprofitable should not 
lead to the driving of a sharp bargain in their" 
acquirement. The people appreciate the service 
rendered by the men of ability and foresight 
who projected and executed vast plans that have 
proved of inestimable benefit to all. 

^Mipther these things are realized or not, 
something like them -will become an actuality in 
the not distant future. It would seem that how- 
ever we may forecast the future, the actuality 
is always a little, or a good deal, different and 
better. If the cities are not to have free street- 
cars, they will have something better. For the 
Golden Age is about to come, and th^ minds of 
millions of able men and women will work out 
things better than today we can even dream. 



The Qolden Age for March ij, 1920 



405 




Arid Acreage at $525 

IT SEEMS almost impossible for the Eastern 
poan to realize that arid lands in the West, 
which were entirely worthless a few years ago, 
wore sold in the year 1919 for as much as $525 
per acre ; yet it is said that oven this high price 
was secured for some lands in the Snake River 
Valley, in the vicinity of Twin Valley, Idaho. 
A price of $350 pef acre was obtained for a ten- 
acre potato ranch near Nampa, in the same 
state. These prices are unusually high. 

Some farmer accustomed to the development 
of irrigation lands gets his farm in good condi- 
tion for cultivation and his f mit trees approach- 
ing maturity, when along comes a man from the 
Middle West with plenty of hard cash that he 
wishes to invest in just such a piece of land. 
The deal is closed, and away goes the first 
farmer and his family to do the pioneer work on 
another tract. 

The continual moving around of the progres- 
sive farmers of the West is doing a great deal 
for them and for the country. Farmers from 
the Atlantic states, the Southern states, the 
Middle West, and the Far West are brought 
into contact with each other ; each has something 
of information to impart and something of 
value to learn. In a very brief time men of this 
stamp turn a wilderness of sand, upon which it 
looks as if nothing of value would ever grow, 
into a thriving city or village of several thou- 
sand people, all by the wise use of a little water 
carried for many miles from its source in a 
mountain torrent, hugging the hillside, winding 
in and out like a snake until finally the vantage 
point is reached where the Avaters can be di- 
verted to the plains below. 

A curious sight to the Easterner is his first 
observation of these irrigation ditches, usually 
first discerned in the vicinity of Denver, but 
common to all points west of that gateway to 
the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast state?. 
As one goes westward from Denver to Golden 
CSty the grade of the boulevards is so slight 
as to be hardly noticeable to the eye. Away np 
on the edges of the foothil!«, hundreds of feet 
above the highway, he pet^s irrigation ditches 
in parallel lines leading from the mountain 



streams out to the plains about Denver, but to 
the eye haNnng the appearance of water run- 
ning up hill; The slopes of the land are so grad- 
ual in the valley as to deceive the eye respecting 
the actual down-grade, but seeming up-grade» of 
these irrigation ditches. 

The government's stories of what has been 
accomplished on some of its reclamation proj- 
ects read like fairy tales, but are the most sim- 
ple, matter-of-fact truths. Nine years after the 
water was tamed into the ditches at Orland, 
California, it had three banks with deposits over 
$1,000,000, real estate improvements amounting 
to $960,000, Uve stock values of $640,000, and 
irrigated acreage estimated as worth $2,610,000 
exclusive of improvements. The Orland Jer- 
seys won all the grand prizes at the Sacramento 
state fair. All of this development has occurred 
on a property estimated as worth but $25,000 at 
the time the water was first brought into the 
community by irrigation. 

At an irrigation project in Colorado in 1919, a 
canning company put up a million and a half 
cans of tomatoes; and a grower of Elberta 
peaches marketed 50,000 boxes from fifty acres, 
at an average price above 90 cents per box. 
(While we are on the peach question we remark 
an item which appeared in the papers last Fall 
that an Indiana consumer of a box of peaches 
found a memorandum from the grower in Texas 
stating that he had received 50 cents for the 
box ; the consumer paid $2.50 — nice little profit 
for some 'Tjusiness men" on the way!) _ 

At another Colorado irrigation project, on 
thirteen acres of land, some Japanese farmers 
made $9,000 in 1918 and repeated the perform- 
ance in 1919, raising onions. At the, latter proj- 
ect, and at many other places throughout the 
West,- the farmers are organizing beet sugar 
companies, to take advantage of the high prices 
for sugar now obtainable, and expected to con- 
tinue for many years to come. 

In the Boise Valley, Idaho, the key to pros- 
perity for the farmers was found largely in live 
stock, it having been discovered that the valley 
was a natural section for blue-grass, and there- 
fore particularly suited to the raising of cattle 
and hogs. At the Milk River project, Montana, 



4o6 



The Qolden Age far March 17, 1920 



. the farmers gathered a third ctstting of alfalfa 
in 1919. This is unusual for Montana, (It is 
said that in places in Palestine as many as 
eleven crops of alfalfa are novr being gathered 
in a year, due to ideal climate, increasing rains, 
and a hot, limestone soil.) 

On the Xewlands irrigation project in Nevada 
a small boy marketed $125 worth of canteloapes 
•which he raised on a plot of ground one-eighth 
of an acre in extent. On the Carlsbad project 
in New Mexico cotton to the value of $1,000,- 
000 was raised in 1919. On the Rio Grande 
project, near El Paso, Texas, there were pro- 
duced in the Mesilla Valley 625 cars of cante- 
loapes, seventy-seven cars of cabbage, and 
thirty-two cars of pears, besides thousands of 
crates of other fruits. 

On -the Umatilla project in Oregon the frosts 
have usually given the fruit growers much trou- 
ble, and some have become discouraged and have 
either gone in for alfalfa farming or moved 
away. However, some years are very good. 
The peaches in this section were sold to the 
local evaporating companies at $40 per ton. A 

J>rice of two cents a pound does not seem very 
arge to pay for fine peaches. 

There is a good deal of water in, a peach, and 
it must take considerable expense to get the 
water out. We do not know how many peaches 
go to make up a pound of peaches either in their 
natural state or as dried peaches; but we do 
know that the wholesale price of dried peaches 
in New York is 23 cents per pound, and it looks 
to us as though buying natural peaches at two 
cents per pound and selling them in the dried 
form at 23 cents per pound left the way open 
between Oregon and New York for a number 
of "business men" to be nicely cared for. We 
cannot see any reason why anybody on the road 
could be as anxious about the weather as the 
poor fellow to whom a frost may mean ruin. 

On the Strawberry Valley project in Utah 
540 cars of peaches were marketed in 1919, 
and in the same season 100 cars of pears at 
$800 i)€r car, 60 cars of prunes at $750 per car, 
and 200 cars of apples at $800 per car. The 
total value of the fruit crop to the growers is 
estimated to have been $900,000. 

The Yakima project, in Washington, pro- 
duced in 1919 a trainload of fruit twenty-two 
miles long, worth $4,000,000; the Yakima apples 
are famous in all parts of the country. The dis- 
trict also produces large quantities of soft 



fruits, potatoes, hay, and pork. At the Okana- 
gan project, in Washington, it is estimated that 
a single highway bridge sustained during the 
season the carriage of 1000 carloads of apples 
inbound to the station, with 500 carloads of bo.x 
shooks, lumber, coal, and wheat outbound over 
the same bridge. This load was so heavy as to 
require the services of two traffic officers, one 
at each end of the bridge, to keep the traffic 
spread out sufficiently to maintain safety. 

Great and wonderful as have been the irriga- 
tion projects already developed in the Far 
West, we presume that they are aa nothing com- 
pared with works yet to be undertaken and suc- 
cessfully carried to completion in those regions. 
The sources of the great rivers of the West — 
the Bio Grande, Arkansas, Platte, Missouri, 
Yellowstone, Snake, Columbia, and Colorado — 
are far up among the everlasting snowa of the 
Rocky Mountains, and most of their waters 
come from the melting of those snows. Great as 
would be the expense and the difficulties encoun- 
tered, there is nothing impossible in the thought 
that nearly all the waters of tliose rivers may yet 
be diverted so that every part of the basins 
which they traverse shall receive a due propor- 
tion of the life-giving floods. This would not 
quite, but almost, cause the Great American 
Desert to disappear. 

The actual disappearance of the Great Desert, 
and of all deserts, wiil surely come about in the 
Golden Age, in many instances — possibly in 
most instances — by the gradual work of recla- 
mation, but in other instances by such changes 
in the climate as the Lord sees will be best cal- 
culated to bring the desired result. 

The snowfalls in the mountains can usually be 
depended upon a.s sufficient to provide reason.-- 
ably full .streams throughout the season; but 
occasionally, as was the case last Smnmer in 
Montana, the snows went off the mountain tops 
too early in the season, and a drouth resulted. 

During the -winter of 1918-1919 the snowfall 
was unusually light in some parts of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains of California. A similar 
condition prevailed during the winter now 
closed, and leaves a few power plants and other 
projects short of water. It is comforting, under 
sucli circumstances, to reflect that the Lord has 
the Pacific Ocean right at hand, and that in 
places it is sevc-n miles deep. Wlien he gets 
ready it -^^ill be Gas\ for him to sprinkle as 
much of it on the Western states as lie sees best. 



The QoUen Age for March 17, 1920 



407 



1 




W^ Don the Earth Go 'Round? 

A LITTLE friend in Indiana asked as this 
. question and we replied as follows : 

"We think thia question is answered in the 'Book of 
Knowledge', the Children's Encj'clopedia, and will send 
your letter to a boy who has one of these encyclopedias, 
in. the hope th&t hie can find the answer and send it to 
TOO. Meantime we merely remark that it is a good 
thing for as human beings that the earth does go 'round, 
at otherwise the constant heat of the sun would burn 
01 np, at least in the tropics, and on one-half of the 
world life would be impossible, as life requires light. 
Then, also, there would be no vegetation on the dark 
side of the earth. If the earth did not revolve, it would 
be swept by most terrible storms, the intensely heated 
air cm the one side constantly rising, and the bitterly 
c<dd sir on the other side of the earth constantly rushing 
in to take its place. This is the best we can do by way 
of txplaaation at present." 

We have heard from the lad to whom we for- 
. warded the query and he writes us as follows : 

"Dear Dad: I have just received a letter from The 
GotDEx AoB, stating that a boy in Indiana wishes to 
ksov what makes the earth go 'round, and that they are 
leading his letter to a boy who has the 'Book of Enowl- 
edge*, io the hope that he will look the matter up for 
him. I presume I am the boy. If I am not, I beg The 
GoLOts Age's pardon. But any^ray, I have looked up the 
answer, and you will Ond it enclosed. 

"Business attended to, I wish to speak to you per- 
sonally. Look out for the flu ! I I hear it is raging down 
there. Don't forget to bring the paper when you arrive 
•Saturday. Much love to you and success to The 
QovaES Ag£. Affectionately, Jr."' 

The extract from the ''Book of Knowledge' 
f oUows : 

"The sun's gravitation is certainly not the answer to 
this; for if the earth became still, the sun would pull it 
into itself at once. There is some other source of the 
earth's motion, which was imparted to it or present in 
it when it was formed, and which through all the ages 
has not been done away by friction — since, as it appears, 
the^e ia no friction as the earth swims through the ether. 
If there were any, surely by this time the earth woidd 
have been slowed down much faster and would have 
rushed into the siu. 

"This oriffiual motion with which the earth began. 
and which iotill has, must have the =amc origin as 
the earth's twi.stin;: motion on itself, the motion through 
•pact?, the twiiting motion of the other planets, and the 



twisting motion of the sun. We know that all the 
planets twist and move in the same direction. 

"For the source of all thia motion, we must go back 
to the source of all motion and all power, bode to the 
Author of all things. This is only to say, in other 
words, back to the Creator. No astronomer, however 
wise, has yet been able to ascertain the true cause of 
the earth's motion." 

Eight-Day Watches 

FROM the tiny "dime" watch movement, the 
size of a dime, to the new eight-day watch 
is a long step in watchmaking. The little watch, 
one of the smallest of the watch family, is a 
marvel of workmanship, and when set in its 
platinum case, encrusted ^rith rubies and dia- 
monds, it is a jewel of a watch, a combination of 
rare beauty. The new watch. is the result of 
long experimentation. Efforts were made long 
ago by the founder of the Waltham watch in- 
dustry to make an eight-day watch, but it was 
found that a movement of ordinary eighteen 
size could not be relied ux}on to maintain a con- 
stant rate for an entire week, and the manufac- 
ture of tlie watch was abandoned. 

New ideas in watchmaking and new demands 
have brought about further research work and 
now there is a reliable eight-day watch, the 
movement of which is two and three-eighths 
i.iches in diameter. It would take up the whole 
of an ordinary vest pocket and could not be 
worn as a wrist watch, but it is accurate enough 
to be used as a ship chronometer, as an auto- 
mobile watcb and in airplanes. Whether it is 
equipped wth a bell and can be used to get up- 
by mornings is not stated, but its convenience 
where continuous service is a desideratum is 
manifest. There are clocks operated by dry 
batteries that will go for a year and a half, but 
the two-year watch has yet to appear. 

Whether man will ever gain the ability that 
some animals seem to have of telling time ac- 
curately ^\•ithout a time tnachine is not certain, 
but it would be convenient, if in the Golden Age 
one could merely refer to an inner consciousness 
of time with a mechanical adjunct. 

Revelation 10:6 teaches not that time will 
cease, but that a certain longed-for and prayed 
for event %vill be no longer delayed. 



4o8 



The Qolden Age for March ij, 1920 



HOUSEWIFERY AND HyOIENE 



Intravenous TTierapeutics 

'T'llK ancient and honorable way of medicating 
J- a sick per>on is by giving liim rhe medicine 
to eat. What becomes of the drug when mixed 
with the powerful acids of the stomach appears 
to ]ye something of a mystery, but it is reason- 
able to think that any medicine tliat the .stomacfi 
acids could affect would bo changed in chemical 
composition. 

^ The modern v.ay of introducing some medi- 
cLnes into the system is with a hypodermic 
needle, in the manner in which morphine and 
other drugs are injected. The difference is that 
the remedial agent is introduced directly into 
the blood stream in a vein, rather than into the 
tissues. The medicine is inmiediately carried 
unchanged wherever the blood goes, instead of 
"with the delay occasioned by slow absorption 
from the more or less dense tissues. 

Any physician who is able to introduce a fine 
needle into a prominent vein in the bend of the 
elbow can now administer intravenous medica- 
tion, as it is termed, without the least misgi\*ing 
or doubt. It is considered that many of the 
older remedies are better received when given 
intravenously than In- the mouth. 

During the epidemic of influenza many 
physicians obtained truly remarkable results by 
the intravenous method. With a single admin- 
istration of the drug the patient usually began 
a healthy recovery v/ithin three days. By this 
method one phy.sioinn with a particidar pro- 
scription claims not to have lost a case of pneu- 
monia in a dozen years nor a case of "flu"' during 
the recent epidemics. 

The persons that are liable to get influenza 
are those in whose })lood there is a lack of the 
white blood corpuscles, or leucocytes. This lack 
is technically termed leucopenia. The function 
of the leucocytes is to range about in the blood 
stream and to attack and literally absorb and 
thus destroy any bacteria or germs that may 
exist. Anything thdt increases the leucocytes 
increases power to resist disease, in other words 
immunity to disease. The effect on the lumiber 
of leucocytes of the injection of a prpparaiion 
of sodium salicylate and sodium iodid is n< fol- 
lows: number of jfucocyres hofore inirrtiufi ro- 
spectively 5.jOO,70(JO,(3.jdo, 60W, GOUO, SUUt) ; : tim- 



ber after injections respeetivelv 16,000, 15,000, 
1:0,000, 1G,000, 20,000, 1S,000. This indicates that 
such an injection increases the leucocytes two 
to three times and in some measure, perhaps not 
ill the same degree, increases the defensive pow- 
ers of the body against the disease. It would 
seem that if the intravenous injection effects a 
cure after the disease is in the body, it would 
create temporary immunity if given to a person 
before he catches the influenza or pneumonia. 
Just how long the immunity would last is- not 
certain; for no study of the permanency of the 
increase of leucocytes has been published. 

In order that there be no mistakes made we 
would state that such an administration of a 
medicine should be made by a physician, ^nth an 
all-glass syringe, and should not be attempted 
by a layman; for there are dangers from im- 
proper or insufficient measures for sterilization 
of instruments, the sldn, etc. As the publishers 
of tliis magazine do not wish to handle any 
remedies, we suggest gratuitously that a spe- 
cialty of intravenous preparations is made by 
the New Tork Intravenous Laboratory, 110 
East Twenty- third Street, New York, and that 
almost any such preparation can be obtained 
from them through a pharmacist for use by a 
physician only. 

No one can tell to w^hat extent drugs will be 
employed as remedial agents in the Golden Age, 
)iut we do know that the time will come when 
"the inhabitant shall not say, I am siclt". (Isaiah 
33 : 24) By the advances in the healing art then 
known the disease-resisting powers of the entire, 
population will be so increased that people will 
be healthy, sickness will be unknown ; and finally 
death itself \\'ill become a thing of the past. 
This will take some time; for the last and great- 
est conquest of all will be that over death, as it 
is written, "The last enemy that shall be de- 
stroyed is death". — 1 Corinthians 15 : 26. 

This destruction of death is referred to again 
in Revelation 20: 14 as the casting of death and 
hell into the lake of fire. This means that during 
the Golden Age death, including aches, pains, 
mental and moral imperff^crinns of every sort, 
and Iiade-, the L^reat prison !'.nu?e of the toml) 
in which mp.iikind awaits a resurrection, will 
gnulually bo cast, until both are destroyed- 



fe~ I 



The Qolden Age for Match, 17, 1920 



409 



r 




RUSSELLISM WILL NOT DOWN 

For Many Years It has Thrived on Persecution and Is No Stranger Before the Courts 
of the Land. Rttsj>'elliles — What and Who They Are. 

Contributed by G. C DrlscolL 



EDITOIt'S NOTE: Beginnins with this number, 
th«rB 'WlU appear In tlifai department from time to 
tin* a aeries of contributed articles on : 

"L/Vff ISSCES OF TUB nEUCIOh'S 
OF TUB MOlihD". 

Each artlde will treat some particular movement in 
conaecUon. with whatever current event or events 
brings it into t))e spotiislit ot public Intere<it. 

Article* for tl*e aeriCH will be jiecured f;i)m avJcnowl* 
edited authorttieM on the movement discui>s<>d. 

On act.*ount of past and prr>spe<'tive prosecutions, our 
flrsr article in flevoted to "Uiuiscliitcs — Wliot and Who 
Tliejr Are". Thi« article, including an interview v/iih 
Judge Raiherford. President of the RtL«JieIiite vrssinl- 
xatlona, wan at our snlicitiitioa liindly contributed by 
Mr. O. C Drtacoll, of Los Aneeles, CuL, or;^ul£<!r nnd 
manajier of the Pastor Kuyseil Lecture Bureau, which 
r<-oni lOOS to T016 ha<I lt3 heuilquarters in New Vcrls 
CltT. X^ondon, England, and Melbourne, Australia 



CHARLES TAZE RUSSELL, who at liis death 
had a very large following in many countries 
throughout tlie world, and who was known the 
Avorld over as Pastor Russell, was bom in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., in 1852, and dird in Texas in 1916, 
while on a train en route from Lo:5 i.insele3 to 
his home in Brooklyn. 

Pastor Russell's fame was largely baaed upon 
his interpretation of the Scriptures predicting 
tlie recent world war, which he in his writings 
for thirty years had shown would b<;gin in 
1014, and by his insistent and continuous public 
proclamation by everj' means possible repudiat- 
ing the theory of a literal lake of fire and brim- 
stone as a place of punishment for the uicked. 
Bible tracts distributed everywhere by tlie hun- 
dreds of millions ; free booklets on special topics 
by the million; hooks, "Studies in the vScrJjv 
turcs", which were sold in many countries with 
a total circulation of approximately twelve mil- 
lion volumes; and by the Photo Drama of Crea- 
tion, a twelve-reel moving picture exhibition ac- 
companied by phonographic talking records, 
which was exliibitcd as a road show in the larg- 
est theaters throughout America, Canada and 
Great Britain, especially elucidating the anti- 



hell-fire Scriptures — all these brought this work 
very prominently before the people, and aU 
kiioA>7t supporters o£ this work became known 
as "Ru8.sellitea". 

Notwithstanding the long list of Scripture 
citations to prove his prediction of the then 
future world-war of 1914, Piistor Russell's mTit- 
ings and lectures on the subject were not taken 
very seriously by the publio until the actual 
breaking out of the war. 

Pastor IJussell on many occasions by his indi- 
\-idual activities and so-called "unorthodox" 
teachings aroused the ire of individual clergy- 
men and sectarian partisans; bat it remained 
for the world-wide anti-hell-fire caiiipaign, 
which was greatly augmented by the publication 
of his weekly sermons in four thousand daily 
and weekly newspapers affiliated with the Amer- 
ican Prc.«s and similar associations, to arouse 
the enmity of the clergy everywhere against 
Pastor Russell personally and against those who 
officially a^sumed the direction of and rcsponsi- 
iTility for the continuation of this world-wide 
vnrk under the auspices of the Watch ToMer 
Brbl'^ and Tract Society, the International Biblo 
iStudents Asirociation, New York People's Pul- 
pit As-sociation. A.ssocialed Bible Students, and 
olluT auxiliary' uss^ociaiions. ' — 

Kvo.ry (ienonunation inthe Evangelical Alli- 
ance, which was formed in 184G to restrict fur- 
ther independent eflPort, openly opposes and 
cordially hates the Russellites. This enmity is 
declared by the RusseUites to- be a case of 
"darkness hating the light". 

The Russellites claim that tlic clergy, both 
Catholic and Protestant, have endeavored and 
are still both secretly and publicly endeavoring, 
to iiitluence all, as they would have the public 
believe that the Russellites are Bolshevists, 
slackers, unpatriotic and unchristian imps of 
Satan, on the sure road to an eternity in a boil- 
ing lalte of fire and brimstone in which to blis- 
ter, bum and stew forever and forever. 

Russellites, calm under both persecutions and 



410 



TJxc Cjolden A.gc for March 17, 1920 



■prosjcatioii.-,- have continued to prosper; and 
they state that the past year has witnessed the 
uios^t i)hononienal -rrowth oi' interest since their 
orjraui/.alioii. 

.luus-c Kuthcriurd, successor to Pastor Rus- 
sell as President of the organization, when 
quizzed on the matter of Bolshevism, slackers, 
etc., said: 

RxcARDiNO BoLSHEvisii : "I am not fully advised as 
to what Bolshevists teach, but insofar as any of them 
teach a resort to violence, we could not be in sympathy 
with them. For forty years Pastor Russell taught that 
he who haa jwace of mind and heart ia the one who 
trusts in the Lord ; and he who would be qhielded in the 
great time of trouble which is now upon the earth would 
• be the one who would seek righteousness and meekness, 
aa the Scriptures teach. A resort to violence is contrary 
to the teachings of Jesus and the apostles. The members 
of our Society diligently seek to follow such teachings. 
Any accusation made that we are Bolshevists is wholly 
contrary to the truth, and we cannot believe that any one 
who knows us would make such a charge. We realize 
that we are living in the time foretold by Jesus when he 
paid. The sea and the waves roaring', meaning that the 
restless elements of humanity would be dashing against 
the solid part of society represented by the governments. 
We know what this trouble means, and we try to stand 
aloof from it and to point the people to the solution 
through Messiah's righteous reign." 

Regabdixg Sr,ACKT:Es : "A slacker is one who refuses 
to do his duty. But a blacksmith would not be expected 
to practise medicine, nor would one training for a physi- 
cian devote his time to political economy. By these illus- 
trations we mean that men arc specialists in their lines. 
A Christian of necessity must be a specialist, and his 
specialty is to prepare himself for the kingdom of Mes- 
siah. VThen he coasccratcs himsalf to do the Lord's 
will, then he must follow the expressed v<-ill of the Lord 
as set forth in the Bible. For many years Pastor Bus- 
sell conducted a theological school from which numbers 
of profound Bible Students have been sent forth as min- 
isters of the gospel. 5Iany of these ministers officiate 
as elders in organized Bible classes throughout America 
and foreign countries. Instead of being slackers, they 
give their time, strength and energj-, oiton ;)aring their 
own expenses, to carry out what they conceive to be their 
commission — to tell tlic people the divine plan for their 
blessing. 

"The rule concerning them is lakl dov, n thus: "For 
though we walk iu the flesh, we do not war aftor t'v- 
flesh ; for the weapons of our vart'di-r; jro not carna!. L'U'. 
xnighty thi'ough God to the pulling dow-n of stropg liolii:' 
of error. (3 Corinthians 10: .3. 4) The Congrois oi i.i\'^ 
United States recognized that there arc Christian peopl.^ 
who cannot con.«cientiously cnrrage in taking human lifo, 
and consequently incorjXiratcd Lq the Selective Scn-ico 
Law, Scctiou IV. a pro\ i;ioa that no one shoiiici be con:- 



pellcd to engage in combatant service whose religihus 
beliefs and teachings are against the tal:ing of human 
life. Many clergymen tluoughout the country were 
readily granted the privilege without askmg for it, while 
Ihose of our organization were compelled to ask, and to 
this end kept strictly within the law in making the for- 
mal application for non-combatant service. They have 
not refused to work, but they have refused to take human 
life ; for they are expressly commanded by the Scriptures 
not to do so. If others wish to take human life that is 
their business. We hold that whether one engages in 
war or not to the point of taking human life must be 
decided by such w^ith reference to whether or not he is 
a consecrated child of God. The Scriptures do not apply 
in this age to any one except a pontsecrated spirit-begot- 
ten one, and a man mubt be the judge himself as to 
whether he occupies this position. Many of our organi- 
zation have been willing to take up non-combatant 
service when called for, and have readily done so." 

Reoasdino PATRionsM: "True patriotism means 
love for the people of one's own country ; and surely no 
one could have a higher patriotism than the follower of 
Christ Jesus, who would love to see the people of his 
country blest. "ftTien patriotism, however, is defined 
to mean the wreaking of vengeance upon another, tlie 
word is improperly applied. Concerning the Christian 
the Lord says : 'Vengeance is mine, I will repay*. Agaiu, 
directing his words to the Christian, the Apostle says : 
'Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves j but rather give 
place unto wTath ; for it is written. Vengeance is mine ; 
I will repay, saith the Lord*. — Romans 12 : 19. 

"Of course, the man who has not devoted his life to 
the Lord is not governed by this rule, but may take a 
different coarse. His responsibility is different from 
that of a Christian. The Quakers, Dunkers, and other 
religious organizations have made the matter of taking 
human Life a special feature of their starements of be- 
lief or creeds. There seems to be no good reason why 
other Christians holding similar views of the Scriptures 
cannot be governed by the same principles. For forty 
years or more Pastor Russell set forth the teaching of 
the Scriptures on this point, and those who agreed with , 
him followed these teachings. I dare say there are no 
people on earth who more willingly give their time, 
strength, and energy for the betterment of their fellow 
men than those who are followers of Pastor Russell." 

Regabdixo Ixstbcments of Satan: "Out people 
have been pcssecutec) by those who claun to be Chribtian, 
and doubtless many oi them thought they were doing 
God's service. T'upy have claimed that wc were instru- 
inents of Satan and probably thought so. Wc are sorry 
icr them, but -ac are reminded tliat it was the ultra- 
i-'-ligior'.i.-c in Jes'ia' time-that denounced bira as TSccIzc- 
Imb, tl;c rrir.c? of devils'. The .-iamc cla.-s accused the 
.\poiile !'■ •.] of being posscssi^d of the devil. ArA this 
has bren I'-.o favorite moans of the adversary for attack- 
ing Christians th.roi:zhout the whole age. We must re- 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



411 



member that Jeborah stated that there would be enmity 
between Satan's seed and the church throughout the 
entire gospel age; and this has been true. What Pastor 
Buasdl taught, and what wie believe and teach, exposes 
Saten and his wicked machinations, in full harmony 
with the teachings of Jesus and the apostles. And, of 
' oonrae, we expect the adversary and his instruments to 
^vmr against us, but we will not resort to his weapona 
of wai^are. Our purpose is to tell the Truth, having 
fall confidence that in due time the Truth will triumph." 

CoKCZBSmro PBKSEcxrrioii: Is it a new thing 
to be persecuted for righteousness' sakeT 

*^t is true that numbers of the members of the Inter- 
Bstimial Bible Students Association throughout the 
United States and Canada were arrested, tluown into 
j«il, held without bail, many of them never tried, many 
tarred and feathered and otherwise ill-treated, advantage 
being taken of the condition of war to do so. Are we to 
think it strange that such fiery trials come to the Lord's 
. people? Not i^ we b^eve the Scriptures which say, 
'B^ved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial 
which is to try you, as though some strange thing hap- 
pened unto you, but rejoice, inasmuch as ye are par- 
takers of Christ's sufferings'. (1 Peter 4:12,13) It 
'was Jesus who said, 'If they have persecuted me they 
will also persecute you. If ye vren of the world the 
world would love its own, but because you are not of this 
world, [not conformed to this present order] but I have 
^oaen you oiit of the world, therefore the world hatcth 
you.'— John 15:18-21. 

"Jesus was tried before the Supreme Court of the 
Jewish nation and was unjustly condemned. He was then 
charged with sedition against the Roman government 
and put to death for that reason. The first Christian 
martyr after his time was Stephen, condemned on the 
same charge and stoned to death. St Paul on the same 
charge of sedition was imprisoned for four years. St. 
John on the itame charge was imprisoned on the Ide of 
Patmos, during which time he wrote the wonderful book 
of Revelation. John Bum-an, because he refused to con- 
form to the state religion of Great Britain, was held in 
y prison for twelve years. During that time he wTote 
'Pilgrim's Progress*, which has thrilled the hearts of 
Christians from then until now. It will be notod that 
each one of these in turn was persecuted by men who 
claimed to be the followers of the Lord. We are not 
finding fault We are citing the facts and showing that 
they are e.xactly in harmony with what Jesus and the 
apostles said would happen ; and we are striving to fol- 
low the admonition of these great teachers : to rejoice in 
tribulation. 

"Every refomjation has mpt a violent opposition on 
the part of ultra-rplisrionists. It has b<>en a favorite 
indictment to charge with the crime of sedition the fol- 
lowers of JoiUi v.ho hiive meekly tried to walk in tha 
Master's fo«jtstt'i)s. Hi^tory discloses this throughout the 
entire gospel ago. Martin Luther did a wonderful work 



of reformation, and he had his portion of peraeentioo. 

"Since Luther's time no reformation along religious 
lines has taken place to compare with tiiat which has 
been conducted by the International Bible Students As- 
sociation. Our association has sought to torn the minds 
of the people to Bible study and to encourage mankind, 
by showing that the divine plan holds out the hope for 
the blessing of every one who wants to do right" 

Why was "The Finished Mystery" published 
and later suspended? 

"In 1869, aa a young man, Charles Ta« Bnasell was 
engaged in business in Pittsborgb, Pa. He was an 
earnest Christian. The doctrine of eternal torture, 
taught by the church to which he then belonged, became 
repugnant to him, and believing that the Bd>le sup- 
ported the church's teaching, he refoaed for a time to 
have anything to do with it Thai be tamed to the 
Bible for a personal investigation and learned that the 
Bible does not teach ^that God will punish any one in a 
place of fire and brimstone, but that aa tau^t by the 
Bible destruction is the everlasting ponishmoit of the 
wilfully wicked. He began a more extatarre stady of the 
Scriptures and to write and publish hia findings tiie^eon. 

"In 1879 he started an organization for the prraaulga- 
tion of the great truths of the Divine Plan. In the early 
80's he established a journal, Th4 Wateh Tover, which is 
yet published, devoted entirely to rel^ous teachings. 
In the early 80's he published the bod^ Tood for Think- 
ing Christians'. In 1886 he began tite pnUicatioB of a 
series of seven yoluraes designated 'Studies in the Scrip- 
tures'. In the preface ot the first volams^ published in 
1886, he stated that there would be seven volumes cov- 
ering this series. Time and again he pnblished the 
statement that the seventh volume would treat particu- 
larly the prophecies of Ezekiel and Bevelation. He 
wrote and published six volumes of this series, which up 
to the time of his death had reached the eleventh million 
edition, the greatest circulation that any books have ever 
had aside from the Bible. Upon his death-bed he ststed> 
in response to a question, that some one else must pub- 
lish the seventh volume. Within a month after his death 
the Society which he had established, through its prop- 
erly constituted officers directed the collection and prepa- 
ration of the data for Volume Seven. This book was 
designated 'The Finished Mystery'. 

"Carrying out Pastor Russell's original plan, formu- 
lated more than thirty years previous, this book deals 
particularly with the prophecies of fizdciel knd Revela- 
tion. By the 1st of March, 1917, the copy was prepared 
and ready for the printer. All of this was done — even 
the proof-reading — a month prior to the time the United 
.States entered the world war. The book was in the hands 
of the printer about the 7th of June. The Espionage 
Act was passed thereafter: on June 15th, 1917. That 
this book was prepared and published without any 
thought, much less intention, of- interfering with the 
government, must be clear for the reason of jts con- 



■f 



412 



T/ie Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



tempiation long before the country was at v,-ar cad iU 
completion before the passage of the Espionage Act. 

'•'The book, 'The Finished ilyoter/ came of! the press 
July 17th, 1917. Many persons, having known for 
years that such a book would be pubii.shed, had previ- 
ously sent in orders for it; and thus, less than a wcclc 
after it was off the press, 32,000 volumes were mailed to 
fill these orders. Tlicre was a phenomenal demand for 
the book. Its publish- 
ers bad no thought of 
interfering in any 
manner with the war. 
The war, however, fur- 
nished the occasion for 
charging the Interna- 
tional BiUe Students 
Association with tlic 
crime ol pn>-(ierTnau- 



Ban on "The Finished Mystery" Lifted, 
in Canada 

THE Canadian people hare recoTered many 
of the liberties tliey voluntarily surrendered 
under the War Measures Act. At midnight of 
December 31^ hundreds of Orders in Council of 
the War Measures Act came to an end, under 
which some of the people feared they might 
have to suiter restraint for some lime. Generally 
speaking, full liberty on a pre-war basis is now 
enjoyed by the Canadian nation, including free- 
dom to enjoy rights like those guaranteed in the 
American Constitution regarding freedom of 
speech, the press, and the exercise of religion. 

The press censorship is gone, with the other 
Orders. Objection was raised, however, by the 
Canadian clergy, who pat themselves on record 
by a resolution opposing the restoration of free- 
dom of speech and the press. This relief is the 
first-fruits of the Farmer-Labor revolution. 

Just why the Canadian clergy should want 
war-time restrictions maintained during peace 
was not slated, but it is well known that during 
the war and since, some of tlie clergy have acted 
in what was termed a high-handed, oppressive 
and intolerant manner in connection "vnth some 
who did not agree with them in things religious. 
Possibly the ministers thinii that time heals all 
wounds, and if the matter can be kept quiet it 
■will be forgotten in a year or two, and are 
playing for a safe position in this respect. 



society immediately suspended the sale and distribution 
of this book all over the countn,'. 

"On the Cth of May, 1918, an indictment was re- 
turned in the District Federal Court against eight of the 
officials, and members of the International Bible Stu- 
dents Association, charging a violation of the Espionage 
Lavr. Upon the trial of the case, the part of the book 
objected to was found on pages 247 to 2.33 inclusive: 

one paragraph on page 
247 being an explana- 
tion of Revelation 16: 
13, which St. John 
wrote on the Isle of 
Patmos while servin'^ 



"Early in January, 
1918, a leading clergy- 
man of WlTinipcg, 
Canada, denounced the 
book and the Bible 
Students from his pul- 
pit and stated that the 
book was being called 
to the attention of the 
Attorney - General. 
Within a few days an 
'Order in Council' was 
made forbidding the 
circulation of 'The 
Piiiished Mysterj'^ in 
Canada. This was fol- 
lowed shortly by a 
seizure of our society's 
account -books at the 
Ikooklyn office on the 
pretense that we were 
getting money from 
Genaajiy to carry on 
German propaganda. 
But after five weeks of 
diligent search of our 
account books they 
vrcro returned, not one 

item having been found to indicate that a^ much a^ a cent 
came from a questionable source. Secret service men 
. of tlic Army Intelligence Bureau, without proper war- 
rant or authority, seized not only the treasurer's book;, 
but a large amount of other books and papers. 'Hi'^ 
press tlien published the statement that 'The Fu.ishod 
3Iyst<T>'' contained seditious utterances. This was -he 
rirst intimation that any one or our society had tl-.ii: 
there was objection on ciic part of the government to t';.: 
tii-culaMon of the book, thereupon the officials of thi 



a term of imprison- 
ment on the charge of 
sfidition. The other 
objectionable quota- 
tions cited were: a quo- 
tation from a sermon 
delivered by the Rev. 
Dr. John Hayaes 
Holmes in Xew York 
City, and a quotation 
from another sermon 
by a New York clergy- 
man, which had be-::! 
published previously in 
The Watch Tower' 

"The members of the 
International Bible 
Students Association 
were charged with 
conspiracy to interfere 
with the progress of 
the war, and that they 
had published this 
book and attempted to 
get exemption under 
the Selective Sen-ice 
Act for the purpose of 
carrying out the alleg- 
ed conspiracy. 

"As a matter of fact, 
a conspiracy and inter- 
ference with the gov- 
ernment was t'.' last 
thing they would ha'-p thought of attempting ; an i thus 
they all testiiicd on the witness stand. That the officers 
of the society had no thought of interfering with tlie 
government is evidenced by a statement concerning the 
war published in The Watch Tou-er, the oificiai orga:i 
01 the Tuiernarioiial Riblo Students Association, under 
uat=; 01 May lO. Ifl".'; '■•hich we quote as follows: 

■■ 'Good men diilci" as to the mraBing of God's law. 
and herein is --here the law of the land justly recognizes 
that each n-.an shall be granted liberty to exercise hL' 



The QoUen Age for March 17, 1920 



413 



eoudflBtioas nllgioiu convictioiia. Let every man who 
CMXk mHi a clear cooacicaoe go to war, do so. Than!: 
Qod for the privil^;e of living in the XTnited States. 
While we all recognize that it is not a perfect go\-cm- 
aent, yet it ia the best of all earthly governments. Every 
eiw yrho lives under the flag of the United States should 
b* loyal to that government as against all earthly gov- 
eniaenta. No citizen of this country could be a Christ- 
isB and do violence to the government of the United 
States. To be loyal to the Law of God he mu^ render 
mto the United States government everything that is 
aoi in contravention of the Divine Law.' " 

*niw fact that these Bible Students sincerely intended 
ta pwch tha Qoepel of Jesus Christ and to not inter- 
tea vitt aaj one else seems to have been lost sight of. 
Tba icaalt it their trial in the District Court before 
Mr. Joftioe Howe is well known. 

"CoaineBting upon this triaL the Kew York Evenina 
Poti en Jane 21, 1918, first quoting the words of Mr. 
Jnstioe Howi^ said: 

" *A person preaching religion usually has much in- 
fliMBoe and if he is sincere he is all the more effective. 
After ottering these words. Judge H. B. Howe, of the 
United States District Court in Brooklyn, sentenced the 
tdigioiu persons before him to twenty years each in 
prison. It was necessary, he said, to make an example 
of Qume vho sincerely teught this religion, which, like 
that of the Mennonites and the Qudcers, and many 
odwr sects, fbrbids the taking up of arms. Th^ were 
goSty, plainly, of having urged men to f oUow what 
thay eonsidered the teachings of the Lord, and to apply 
litoally the commandment, "Thou shalt not kUl". So 
tha JQzy could do nothing less than find them guilty of 
bavinf violated the statutes of the country, whatever 
m^ be the correctness or incorrectness of their attitude 
toward the moral and religious law. We trust that 
teachers of religion everywhere will take notice of this 
judge's opinion that teaching any religion save that 
whidi is absolutely in accord with statute laws is a grave 
erima which is intensified if, being a minister of the 
gespd, yoa should still happen to be sincere. There is 
DO doubt that Judge Howe made hia sentences severe 
enough; they are about double those imposed by the 
Kaiser upon the Socialists who have been trying to upset 
his wicked regime, and three times longer than many 
ffipfiftiAM imposed upon would-be regicides.' " 

Is there any special connection with the per- 
secution just described and your present lecture, 
"The World Has Ended, Millions Now Living 
Will Never Die'? 

'Tor many years Pastor Russell called attention to the 
Scriptural teaching that the world would end, aiiu that 
1914 marked an important dat« in connection with the 
world's cad. He based his conclusioa upon the prophetic 



statements of Jesus and other Biblical witnesses. Ser- 
eral years in advance, he brought proof- from the Scrip* 
tures that the world war would begin in 1914. It began 
exactly on time. He showed that Jesus taught that this 
war would be followed doaely by revolution; and that 
prophecy has already been fulfilled with reference to 
Russia and Germany, and other countries are threatened 
with similar trouble. He told the people that Jesua 
and the apostles taught tiiat this war would be accom- 
panied by famine and pestilence; and this has been 
clearly fulfilled. He called attention to tha fact that tha 
world would pass through the greatest ttma of trouble 
ever known; and surely no one will attempt to gainsay 
that this prophetic statement is sot in ooona of ful- 
fillment. 

"Many people have f ocdishly tan^t that- €ba end of 
the world means the burning up of tha earth. That 
is an entirely erroneous view. Tha word world means 
social order of things^ conditions of soei^ prevailing 
for a specific time. There was a world, or a social condi- 
tion or order of things, which persisted fnm Adam to 
the Flood; SQd that world ended, as the Scr i pt ur es 
dearly state in 2 Peter 3 : 5, 6. ' Then followed another 
social order or arrangement of things, called in the 
Scriptures the present evil worlds. This order of 
things began to pass away in 1914 and therefore^ tech- 
nically speaking, the world ended then. JSo thoughtful 
person will attempt to say that sodety will ever return to 
the conditions that preyed ten years ag& TVe are in 
a time of reconstruction,, and in due time the people 
will be greatly blessed. The reason for this is set forth 
in tha Bible, one whidi Pastor Bussell and his associates 
dearly taught and yet teach, namdy: 

"That Adam's disobedience forfeited for him <he right 
to life everlasting in happiness ; and by inheritance tliis 
condemnation passed upon the entire human family. 
God promised to redeem the human race and ultimatdy 
restore mankind to its former condition, which is to be 
accomplished through the great atonement sacrifioe--ef- 
Jesus Christ. Since the time of Eden man has dili- 
gently sought three things, namely: life, liberty and 
happiness. All of his efforts to gain these have failed. 
The majority of men have reached the conduaion that 
these, desirable thin^ are unattainable. We are glad 
that they err in this; for the Scriptures teach, and this 
is what we are trying to tell the people, that in Jeho- 
vali's due time every man shall have a full and fair 
opportunity to render himself in obedience to the laws 
of God, and that all who do so shaU ultimately attain 
life, liberty and happiness. 

"This was the teaching of Jesus and the apostles; but 
bhortly alter the apostles died, Satan blinded the minds 
of prot'esiing Christians generally and turned them away 
from the beauties ox the divine arrangements. This re- 
fultod in great persecution of those who claimed to be 
Christian, and then the formation of many Christian 



414 



The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



sects, some teaching one saying and some another, and 
ail departing in some mcadure from the Bible. 

"To revive the message of good cheer taught by Je.ras 
and the apostles has been and is the object and purpose 
of the International Bible Students Association", which 
was organized by Pastor Eussell. This association is not 
political in any sense, but its work is wholly educational 
along Scriptural lines, and its members believe that Jles- 
siah's kingdom is the only panacea for the ills of human- 
kind. .Tesua taught his followers to pray for the coming 
of that kingdom, stating that when it comes God's will 
shall be done on earth as it is done in heaven. The 
establishment of that kingdom of righteousness will 
quite naturally mark the end of Satan's power to deceive 
and blind the people, and will destroy wicked schemes 
and schemers from the earth. This is the reason that 
the followers of Christ have earnestly desired his second 
coming. Our society, in harmony, as we believe, with 
the Bible, is vigorou.sly endeavoring to get before the 
people the truths now due to be understood; among 
which are these : 

"That no one is to bo/ tormented eternally in hell-fire 
and brimstone, but those who have died will he awak- 
ened out of death and given a fair trir.1 for life, and 
those who are living will be given the firtvt opportunity; 
and ihat with the establishment of Messiah's kingdom, 
millions of people then living on earth will never die. 
The Scriptural evidence shows, in conjunction with evi- 
dence that is daily before our minds, that we are now in 
a great transition period, passing from one order to a 
new and better order, and that Messiah's kingdom with 
•n its beauty and glory for the blessing of the human 
race, is now about to be inaugurated. 

"We, of course, expect Satan and his instruments to 
strive to blind the minds of the people to these g:reat 
truths. But under the reign of Messiah the longcher- 
ished desire of man will be realized, namely : life, liberty, 
and happiness. Of course, you cannot now expect ma 
here to give a full statement of the process of applvir.g 
these blessings, but this is exactly what I do e.-tplaiu in 
my public lectures and what Pastor Russell explained in 
his lifetime. I am trying to point out nov<- that wliat 
Pastor Bussell taught would happen is actiially taking 
place; and if the people could realize this, Bolslievism 
and Anarchism would cease and the people would rc-tnrn 
to a sane condition. We are not fighting anybody. We 
are merely trying to get the Truth before the world." 

Whence do you get your money? 

"That has been a source of mystery and annoyance to 
many religionists who spend much of their time in 
soliciting money. During the forty years or more of 
his experience, Pastor Ru.;=ell never took up a ocllcction, 
nor has any one of the International Dible Students 
Association solicited for money. 

"The association is compospd of men and womon who 
believe the Bible and arc engaged in preaching the mes- 



sage of Messiah's kingdom. For several years they have 
been expecting the trouble that is now upon the world, 
and marked its coming as a fulfillment of divine proph- 
ecy ; and they expect this to be followed by the Millen- 
nial reign of Christ, that will bring order out of chaos 
and blessings to all the people. So thoroughly do 
they believe this that they have been glad to devote their 
time and money to the proclamation of this message 
that others might know that there is a better time 
coming and might have hope for the future. 

"They really love their fellow creatures, even those 
who persecute them; and so sincere is their interest in 
telling others of a better time to come that instead of 
soliciting others for money they voluntarily contribute 
according to their ahility. They believe this work is the 
Ix)rd'3 work and that the Lord will not permit his work 
to suffer because of the lack of money. Many profes- 
sional and business men have left lucrative positions and 
have voluntarily engaged in the work without money and 
without price. Not one person in the association draws 
a large salary, and none get more than what is neces- 
sary for their actual necessities." 

What is there of special interest respecting 
your memberships! 

"The International Bible Students Association does 
not solicit members. It never has done so. Jesus fore- 
told that the age would end with a harvest, during which 
time his true followers woxdd be drawn together without 
regard to creed or denomination. Believing that the 
paiit forty years or more have been included in that har- 
vcot time. Christians from the Catholic and all Protes- 
tant denominations have united together in this work. 
Tiieir sole purpose is to bring the message of the Lord's 
kinjrdom to all wlio have a disposition to hear, to the 
piul tiiat truly consecrated Christians, regardless of creed 
or (!(n:oniination, mi.iht be gathered unto the Lord and 
ultimately participate in aiding the up-lift and blessing 
of humankind."' 

The foregoing interview with Judge Ruther- 
ford was secured just prior to his leaving for 
his homo in California. Upon his return he is 
fcheiinlod to deliver an address in the New 
York Elippodrome, March 21, on "Millions Now 
Living Will Never Die", This lecture is the real 
bogihiiing of an announced world-wide cam- 
paigii, and well illustrates the general plan 
which for years has been followed by the Rus- 
sellites, by using the largest auditoriums for 
lectures with seats free and no collections taken, 
and ^\'ith every one invited. 

I think T can well close this article by quoting 
a remark once made by a BrookljTi, N. Y., 
clerin-nian, who said: '"WTiat chance have we 
agninst Pastor Russell, wha offers seats free, 
no collections, a free lunch, and no hell-fire !" 



^ The Qolden Age for March 17, 1920 



415 



JUVENILE BIBLE STUDY 

ONE question for each day is provided by this JoanwL The parent wlU find It JnterMtlnR and Ixlpful 
to hat* the child take up the question each. day and to aid It, in flndins the answer in the Scripture;*, 
tlius developin; u knowlcdse of tlie Bible and learning where to nod ia it tlie Informatiou which is desired. 



1. What hind of tody did Jesus have before 
< he eiane to earthf 

Aaiwer: See Philippians 2:6; Joha 4: 24; 1 Cor- 
inthians 15:44:. 

2. What 13 th^ difference between a natural 
bodff and a spiritual hodijf 

Answer: The natural body is of the earth, flesh, 
blood «nd bone, and is risible The spiritual body is 
invisible, and we know not what it is like. — Genesis 3:7; 
Hebrewis 2:7, 8; Psalm 8:4; 1 John 3:2; John 4: 
24; Ltike 24:39; John 3:8. 

3. What tca^ Jesus' name in heaven before lie 
came to earthf 

Aasvret : See Daniel 13 : 1 ; Jude 9 ; Berelation 12 : 7. 

4. What did Michael create first? 
Answer: See Isaiah 14: 12. 

f^- - 5. Who was Luciferf 

Answer: See Isaiah 14:12-15; Ezekiel 28:13- 
18; Lake 10:18. 

6. What else did Jesus create? 

Answer : See John 1:3; Coloasians 1:16; Ephesians 
8:9; Hebrews 1:2; Psalm 33:6. 

7. What are spirit beings? 

Answo': See Deuteronomy 4:12; 1 Timothy 6: 16; 
Jdin 5:37; John 4:24; Luke 24:39. 



S. Did Jesus give up his spirit body and 
heavenly Jwme when he came to earthf 

Answer: See Hebrews 3:9; Philippians 2:6-8; 
2 Corinthians 8:9; John 1:14; Galatians 4:4; 1 
John 4:2, 3, 9; 2 John 7; Luke 9:58. 

9. When Jesus came to earth was he. more 
than a man? 

Answer: See Hebrews 2: 14; 1 Peter 3: 19; 2 Cor- 
inthians 5:21; Hebrews 4:15; 7:26. 

10. Was Jesus part God and part man, that 
is, part human and part divine? 

Answer: See l^alm 8:4, 5; 1 Timothy 2:5; 
Hebrews 2:9; Jdin 1:14-; Soman* 6:15. 

11. Did Gdd send Jesus into the world? 
Answer: See John 3:16, 17; 7:29. 

12. Why did Jesus come into the world? 
Answer: See Matthew 20 : 28 ; Mark 10: 45; John 

6:38-40; 10:11, 15-18.. 

13. Why was it necessary for Jestts to die? 
Answer: See 1 Peter 1:18, 19; Hoses 13:14; 

Romans 5:6; Hebrews 9:22; 1 Corinthians 15:21; 
1 John 2:2; Isaiah 53:5. 

14. What will be the resuU of the death of 
Jesus? 

Answer : See John 5 : 28, 29 ; 10 : 10 ; Bomans 6 : 
33; Daniel 12:2; 1 Corinthians 15:22. 



BE JUST AND FEAR NOT 

By J. B. Aljord. 



\ 



Speak thou tlie truth! Let others fence 

And trim their words for pay: 
In pleasant sunshine of pretense 

Let others bask their day. 

Ouard.thon the fact: though clouds of alght 
Down on ttty watcb-to^ver stoop; — 

Though thou shouldst see thine heart's delight 
Berne fron tliee by their swoop 1 

Face fhm the wind! Though safer seem 

In shelter to abide: 
We were not made to sit and dream ; 

The safe most first be tried. 

Where God has set hts tlioms about, 

Cry not, "The way Is plain" 
His path .within, for those without. 

Is pared with toll and pain. 

One fragment of his blessed word 

Into thy spirit burned. 
Is better than the whole, half>he«rd, 

And by thine Interest turned. 



Show thou the light! If conscience gleam, 

Set not the bushel down; 
The smallest spark may send hla beam 

O'er hamlet, tower, and town. 

Woe, woe to him, on safety bent, 
^Vho creeps to age from youth. 

Failing to grasp his life's Inteat 
B eca u s e tw f$ars the truth! 

Be true to erery inmost thought: 
And as thy thought, thy speedil 

What thou hast not by suffering bon^t. 
Presume not thou to teach! 

Hold on, hold on! Tboa bset the rock: 

The foo.» are on the sand: 
The Or<t world- tempest's nithless shock 

Scatters their aliifting strand; 

While each wild gust the mist shall clear. 

We now see darkly through, 
And Justifed at last appear 

The true, la him that's true. 



PALESTINE THE NEW 



GOLDEN AGE REMITTANCE 
COUPON 

Zionist Obcakizatio:* of Amzbica. 
55 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Gentlemen : — I desire to belp the 
Jews In the restoration of Palestine 
as ttieir national bome and enclose 

9 for that purpose. 

> 

Name.—. 

Address 



THE imagination of manldnd is fired today by the 
picture of a New Palestine — a Palestine Restored. 
In this the world sees more than the return of scattered 
Israel to the Promised Land — more than a realization of 
the age»long aspirationyof a people. It sees the renewal of 
a fount from which, for centuries past, civilization has 
draivn rich inspiration — moral, intellectual and spiritual. 
Once more united on the sacred soli of their fathers, ioapired 
anew by their trartltions of old. their wisdom enriched by tha 
accumulated lore of many peoples and many lands, the modem 
sons of an ancient race will give new treasures to the world. 
Palestine Restored holds out new promise to mankind. 

U. S. SENATOR JOHN SHARP WILLIAMS says: 

"I think It all consti^tes an epoch in the history of the 
'Chosen Hace,' and still tiidre than that. It constltntea an epoch 
in the hiito'ry of civilization." 



PALESTINE RESTORATION FUND 

Write for free literature. Contributions to authorized represenfatlres or direct to 

The Zionist Orgranization of America 

55 Fifth Arenue, New York City 



"TALKING ™THB DEAD" 



The new book that tells the secret of the 
mysterious communications from the unseen 
world — 

Touches every phase of these remarkable 
phenomena — 

Lets the light of truth shine upon a theme 
hitherto shrouded in gloom and darkness. 



ORDER COUPON 

Sfark X In th* proper space, cut «tit and maU 
wltli TOUT addrcsD. 

[ ] I enclose $1.50 ($2.00 tor Canada or 
foreign) for the book *T?.ujsiwo wrra the 
Dbao" and The Golden Acs for one> year. 
[ ] I enclose 50c for a copy of the book 
"Tauciho wriH 'thz Deao". 

{fame-, 



AMitma.. 



Do you seek to know of your loved ones in 
death? converse with them? see them face to 
face ? 

Would you know the exact truth about their 
condition ? 

Then you cannot procure this book too quickly. 
It tells you clearly what the Bible teaches on 
this important subject. 

NO OTHER BOOK HAS EVER BEEN IN 
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250,000 copies in the first edition alone. 
Everybo'dy wants it because it contains detailed 
information not to be found in any other work. 
Order your copy today. 

Price, oOe prepaid. 
Address all orders to 

International Bible Students Association, 
^ooklyn. N. Y. 



FteaM menUon The Goldes Aoa wbea aiuwerlns adrertiaeia. 



March 31, 1920, Vol. 1. No. 14 

PiibliaK«d tvtry oi/Ur 
vjteh at 1S65 BriHidmu/, 

Tm CMte B C«fr-«LM h TMt 

Porelca Sabscriptlon Price 12.00 



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..A-.jOURJvl>\L'OF FACT 

hopl-and-convicIjon 




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^ 



Volume 1 IVEDNESDAV. JJ.irLCII CI, 1320 dumber !f 

CONTENTS of the GOLDEN AGE 

LABOK and ZCOKOMICS 

Shipyard "Wortere" WasH..4Id Foreicn Wage Kemi 4"0 

Other OoTernmert Mitc«llati«iun Ww Itemi 4J] 

New York WaiP Items 41'J <^»'™ Jmlgment >Mdod 4.1 

Mauadiusetts %Vace Itunc..4£(> Crltiah Economtca ^..^.A22 

SOCIAL and EDUCATIONAL 

Am«fflca'« CreatMt A»»et. .423 rrnhiWilnti In 

Child Labor 424 New Hampuhlre 424 

MANUFACTURIKO and MINING 

Failioe Jlineral E«sourc«B .4-3 The Making of a Ford 410 

riNANCS, COUKXKCK. TItANSFOKTATION 

Kew York Jltoer Lioea 427 Builoeaa Cosdltloni in T. S. 429 

POLITICAL. DOVESTIO and FOKEIGN 

Jn»ti«« and the P(»r, «l) Questioua to Candldatai 432 

EjigUab Labor Politics 431 

AGXICOLTUBS and KU8BANDKT 

Proflt and Loa on Hofilcrr for Cattlr —..451 

the Farm. 433 A Farmer Caa(rc» 434 

SCIZNCK Hd INVENTION 

Thonrr of Relatlrltr 435 Beada to the North...- 43K 

FrorOMd Qock Bei-iaion.-..436 lt, Barthli Imaiei 438 

aOUSSWIFXXT«aad BTGIZNK 
Keep Well 437 lirtemel Cleaallnees 43T 

Tlie Bmnblo Bean. 437 

TXAVXL aad MISCELLANY 

Color. Boiiild. Form 4.39 rneipected Bjriti!.. 440 

Tamiiii a Bofahi 439 A Correfpaodest Seta Bed»440 

RELIGION and PHILOSOPHY 

The niWe lffnnrp.1 441 .Tuvenllc BIW* Btndj 44S 

Those D»ttr ramilinr I'eft..4H The Crj- of Jewry __s446 



«00n«0RTfi. KUBCINCa aad MAEhST 
CLAY70N J. wufift^**™-.:.;--:. .i"*!iS! 
« M F- VJBVUGM Mr mi Tnw 

tjir dura A Con— *1.M A in*. 
Uake lexnlttaBeaa to T7i» (Joide»i 4s«. 

- -. ■ „ II il ■ auihr, %»li>« r «. »I«. >: 



crtc Golden Age 



Tolsme I 



N«w York, WcdnMdkT. March 31. 1920 



SHIPYARD WORKERS' WAGES 



Number 14 



WHEN the constant sinking of merchant ves- 
sels convinced the United States that it 
must enter the World War, one of the first 
things decided upon was to bnild a large fleet 
to replace the vessels sunk and to transport the 
American amiy to PVance. To bmld this fleet 
■within the short time in -which it mnst be done 
required an army of ship workers. These work- 
ers had to be taken from other American indus- 
tries, already crippled by the draft. The only 
way these workers could be obtained was by 
offering them wages large enough to induce 
them to leave their jobs and their homes and 
go to the points where the shipyards were lo- 
cated, and livB in the overcrowded conditions 
tlien necessary. The wages had to be enough, 
in effect, to enable each to support two homes. 

The wages necessarily paid in the shipyards 
aifected the whole country. Otlicr employers 
everywhere had to boost the wages in order to 
hold their men. Every time they boosted the 
wages of their men they boosted the prices of 
the things which the men made, so as to get 
their money back. Thus the wave of high wages 
and high prices spread. 

G overnirtent employes in common with 
other workers felt the pinch of rising prices 
and clamored for relief. In August, 1919, over 
tiie protest of the Postoffice Department, the Na- 
tional Association of Postal Employes suc- 
ceeded in securing the passage of a bill grant- 
ing to the clerks and carriers an average in- 
crease in salary of about $150 per year. About 
250,000 men and women workers Avere affected, 
thus increasing the postal budget by about $40,- 
000,000 per year, 

A little after the bill for relieving the condi- 
tion of the postal workers had passed, attention 
was conspicuously dra-wn to another class of 



workers in Washington, and the Nolan bill was 
passed making the minimum wage for Govern- 
ment service at the capital $90 per month. This 
raised the wages of 66,000 employes, some of 
whom were then receiving only $60 and had not 
had an increase of salary in eleven yeai-s. One 
of these was a woman eighty-four years of age 
who entered the Government employ forty-nine 
years before at $432 per year and was in the 
fall of 1919 receiving $729 per year. 

Other Government Advances 

THE advance of wages of Government em- 
ployes was not confined to Washington. It 
also occurred in New York City, where an exten- 
sive campaign for better living conditions was 
carried on in the faU of 1919 by policemen, fire- 
men and other municipal employes. As a result 
of the agitation the pajToU of the city for 1920 
was increased to the extent of $10,000,000, an 
average increase of about $100 to each of the 
109,000 employes on the city payroll. Of t^his 
amount $1,250,000 went to the firemen and 
$2,750,000 to the police. These increases raised 
the pay of first-grade firemen and policemen to 
$1900 per year. Before the increase went into 
effect it was said that the policemen of New 
York were receiving less wages than the union 
dishwashers in the restaurants. No increases 
were made in New York to city employes receiv- 
ing more than $3000. We thinlt Mayor Hylan 
handled tliis matter in a very just and proper 
way. Others may well profit by his example. 

New York Wage Items 

ACCOKDING to the information Avhioh reaches 
.us, ■window cleaners in New York City receive 
$36 per week, telegraph operators $37 to $40 
per week, street car conductors $6.40 per day, 



420 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



andpaperhangers $8 per day. Tailors get $50 per 
•week for a forty-four-hourweek; tailors' helpers 
get $40 and the "women helpers get $35. Alter- 
ation -workers get $45 per week. All garment 
workers get time and a half for overtime. 

The president of one of the largest retail 
clothing concerns in New York, a concern which 
does its own manufacturing, has stated that the 
labor costs in clothing are now so high that 
fully 80% of tlie prices charged go into the labor 
required for making the cloth and trimmings 
and putting them into the finished suit. It is 
also said that in the last three years the work- 
ers have received advances in wages of more 
than 100%. A bright feature for dealers in 
clothing at present is that on account of the 
prevailing shortage in all lines there are no 
losses from shopworn goods, as nothing is car- 
ried over from one season to another. 

In September the longshoremen of New York 
demanded an increase of 15 cents per hour, 
bringing their wage up to $1 per hour, with 
double pay for overtime and for handling sal- 
vage. In the same month the stevedores of 
Porto Kico, backed by the International Long- 
shoremen's Union of America, surprised the 
natives and surprised the world by suddenly 
presenting demands for an increase from 30 
cents per hour to 75 cents per hour, with time 
and a half for overtime, night work, Sundays 
and holidays. 

In August, 1919, the average weekly wages in 
New York state were $23.85. The average week- 
ly earnings of factory workers were as follows : 
AVater, light and power $28.80 



Metals and machinery.. 
Paper manufacture— 
Sjonp, clav and' glass.. 



Printing and paper goods. 
CheTnicaly, oils and paints- 
Furs, leather and rubber — 
Clothing 



Wood rnanufactures 

Food, beverages, tobacco... 
Textiles 



26.44 
25.96 
24.11 
24.05 
23.40 
23.30 
22.56 
21.99 
21.69 
18.88 



Massachusetts Wage Notes 

AT BOSTON in October the National Indus- 
- trial Conference Board reported that in the 
five years from July 14, 1909, to March 19, 1919, 
the wages in eight leading industries had ad- 
vanced all the way from 62% to 110% to offset 
advances in cost of living ranging all the way 



from 74% to 112%. Thus the net condition of 
the workers is worse by 12% to 2%. 

Items frequently get into the New York 
papers which are calculated to misrepresent the 
workers in various parts of the country. The 
papers here have been circulating stories to the 
effect that shoe workers in Boston are making 
$120 per week. Like the stories of the fabulous 
wages paid to engineers and conductors, this 
is probably some isolated case where a single 
worker by working two days in one has made 
this wage for one week. We doubt that this 
is a truthful report. 

It could hardly be true in Brooklyn, where the 
8000 shoe workers average between $35 and $40 
per week. The cutters make a little more than 
this, their earnings on piece work frequently 
running to $60 per week and sometimes as high 
as $75 per week. Those who make th6 higher 
wages have to work very hard for it, and they 
earn their money. The shoe factories are ivj- 
ing now to standardize costs, and the workers 
are trjdng to get a standard wage. "Where the 
employes do network at piece work they are ask- 
ing for $1 per hour for a forty-four hour week. 

In Massachusetts there has been established 
a minimum wage of $12.50 for candy workors. 
This amount is said to be the very least that 
a self-supporting woman can exist upon and 
maintain her health. The $12.50 is itemized as 
follows. We hope the thoughtful will not fail 
to take note of the sum which is set aside for 
self-improvement. It represents the chajicc 
that the young woman has of getting a footing 
in a better occupation: 

Board and lodging ST.OO — .. 



Clothing 

Carfare 

Laundry 

Vacation 

Kecreation 

Doctor and dentist 

Savings and insurance- 
Incidentals 



Newspapers and magazines- 

Self-improvement 

Church . 



2.25 
.'Q> 
.50 
.40 
.30 
.30 
.30 
.25 
.18 
.15 
.11 



$12.50 

Foreign Wage Items 

THE wage situation in England is still in a 
very unsettled condition. Large smns were 
until recently paid out in unemplo3-ment pen- 
sions. Table hands in England now receive mini- 



'■i^i 



I 






The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



421 



muni wages of $lu per week. This is a great deal 
more than formerly received, but does not rep- 
resent a liigher wage when the cost of living is 
taken into account. 

Wages for tJie well-to-do continue to improve! 
In IWV. ihoro A\ere in England 11,000 men 
wliofo earning.< were $23,000 per year, and in 
1919 this number had bpcome 18,000. In 1909, 
there were IGG whose incomes Avere $250,000 
per year; in 1019 this number was 321, almost 
double. In 1909, there were 65 whose incomes 
were over $500,000 per year ; in 1919 this num- 
ber was 148, more than double. As a class, 
the well-to-do are as anxious as other workers 
that their wages should not be reduced, and 
they generally move in select circles Avhere their 
opinions count for something. 

Miscellaneous Wage Items 

WHAT wages ought a rich man to receive? 
Wliat wages ought anybody to receive? 
It all dei>end.s upon circumstances; upon what 
his value i.s to the community. It is often more 
profitable to a business, and therefore to a com- 
munity, to have an expert brought in at $100 
per day than to have all the wages of all the 
regular employes in the business advanced 10%. 
The expert might save the business; the un- 
•wLse raise in wages might kill it. The right 
way to compare f-kill and energy and get the 
1>est results i'rom botli is an unknown way. The 
nineteenth century did not know all about this 
problem. Perfect economio wisdom is ahead, 
not behind. Wc all want to do full justice to 
the workers of every class. 

Ford, of the Ford Motor Car interests, is 
trying to solve Ih"^ problem for himself and his 
men, and let oeonouiipt? of the next generation 
" decide wliothor lie acted wisely or foolishly. But 
ho is geiiiiig results. The minimum wage of 
his men until recently was $G per day, but in- 
stead of bemoaning this, as is the case with so 
many capitalists, he has now raised the mini- 
mum wage to $3 per day, the wages in some in- 
stances going as high as $12 per day. Besides 
this, he expects by next summer to reduce the 
prices of Ford automobiles and to have back 
exclusively in his ovm hands all the stock of the 
Ford company, now approximating in value 
$1,000,000,000. Tills would bo the largest single 
cnter])i-isL' over owned and managed by one man. 

In September, tlie board of trustee.' of the 
University of Chicago increased tlie salaries of 



all faculty members by an addition of approxi- 
mately 20% to partially cover the 80% increase 
in cost of living. This reached all those whose 
salaries were less than $7000 per year. 

Turning from college professors to street 
railway men, the Amalgamated Association of 
Street and Electric Railway Employes stated 
before the Federal Electrical Bailways Ccmims- 
sion in October that a minimum wage of $6.40 
was desired for each employe as a living wage. 
To some papers this seems a terrible thing; they 
argue that this would be entirely too much to 
pay to a stenographer. Maybe it would ; it all 
depends upon what the stenographer had to do 
with his or her wages. It costs stenographers 
,iust as much to live as it does other people, and 
it takes as much brains to transcribe shorthand 
notes and operate a typewriter as to collect 
fares or run an electric motor. 

Calm Judgment Needed 

IT IS a time for calm judgment. In his state- 
ment to the railway shopmen shortly before 
he began lus "Western trip, the President said : 

"It i3 ncitlier wise aor feasible to take care o£ io- 
creascii in the wages of railroad employ^ at this tizne by 
increases in freight rates. Only by keeping the coet of 
production on its present level, by inctcasing production 
and by rigid economy and saving on the part of the jieo- 
p]e, can wc hope for large decreases in the burdensome 
coat of living which now weigiis us down. Demands ua- 
wieely made and passionately insisted upon at tius time 
menace the peace and prosperit}' of the country as noth- 
ing else coiiid, and thus contribute to bring about th« 
very results which such demands are intended to 
remedy/' 

In the spirit of the President's counsel, TEe 
painters, paperhangers and decorators of Ho- 
Ijokcn in August last voted to renounce their 
demands for $1.50 increase per .day and de- 
cided to make the best of their $6.50 per day. 
At about the same time certain rapresentatives 
of the Midvale Steel Company, in convention at 
Atlantic City, issued a published protest against 
further advances in wages, declaring, "That the 
persistent and unceasing demand qf workmen 
employed in all classes and kinds of industries 
for a shorter day's work and an increased wage 
in order to meet the present high cost of living 
is uneconomic and unwise and should not be 
encouraged''. We do not know whether or not 
it is true, as reported, that the Midvale Steel 
Company paid the expenses of these representa- 



422 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



tives to and from Atlantic City and while there. 
If 80, it would detract somewhat from the value 
of their published statement. 

To settle the wage warfare we need the guid- 
ance of the Avisest worker of all the ages. Not 
many have noticed the premium which the Lord 
pats upon work. Not eternal loafing but eternal 
work in the interest of others is held out in the 
Scriptures as the reward of the Lord's over- 
coming saints. Of the divine attributes it is 
said, "They have no rest day and night". (Reve- 
lation 4:8) Other statements of similar import 
are the follo\nng: "My Father worketh [right 
•long] until now, and 1 work". (John 5: 17) "I 
must work the works of him that sent me, while 
it is day: the night cometh when no man can 
work." (John 9:4) "We are his workmanship, 
created in Christ Jesus unto good works." 
(Ephesians 2 : 10) "It is God which worketh in 
you both to \n\\ and to do." (Philippians 2: 13) 
"We are laborers together with God." (1 Corin- 
thians 3:9) "Workers together A\-ith him." (2 
Corinthians 6:1) "Who shall change the body 
of our humiliation, that it may be fashioned 
like xmto his glorious body, according to the 
working whereby he is able to subdue all things 
unto himself." — ^Philippians 3 : 21. 

British Economics 

THOSE who have given the matter careful 
study claim that if the war interest is to be 
paid and if labor and capital are to receive their 
present rewards, England must produce two or 
three times as much as she did in 1913. But 
although there is less unemploj-ment in England 
now tlian was ever kno-wm before, and although 
production is going ahead full blast, yet the 
production is not enough to enable the people 
as a whole to. turn over annually to the govern- 
ment the three or four billion dollars necessary 
to meet the interest charges owed to those in 
England and America who financed the war. 

The economics of the situation would seem to 
say in stentorian tones that if it was necessary 
for the people to work and save during the war 
in order to win it, it is now necessary for them 
to work and save to recover from its effects. 
The people are working hard, but they are not 
working the same hours as formerly; and it is 
«!aimed that the figures show that in proportion 
tts the hours were reduced the production was 
njduced. Tliis helps to keep the cost of living 
lip, and has the effect of narrowing the market 



for the goods produced, because the higher the 
prices of goods the fewer people can afford to 
buy. Production is the backbone of prosperity. 

The people are not as frugal as during the 
war, or even before the war. The food statistics 
show that they are eating more per capita than 
they did. This is partly due to the fact that 
more families than formerly have been able to 
lay in stores of provisions, and partly to the 
reaction which has followed the strain of the 
years of privation. 

Then the war has had the effect of fostering 
extravagance. War profits in some directions 
have been enormous, and a get-rich-quick boom 
has been sweeping the country. Speculation is 
rife, the eldest cotton mills are changing hands, 
and war profits are being used for other things 
than the pajinent of debts. Small factories, 
capable of producing but half a dozen cars per 
week, have been flooded with orders for thou- 
sands of automobiles. It is estimated that 300,(K)0 
people have ordered cars and paid $250 apiece 
deposit upon them; but multitudes of these 
orders caimot be filled because raw materials 
cannot be had. Mills and factories are being 
sold at five times their pre-war figures. Trusts 
are in the making, and what was a land of small 
corporations promises to be a replica of Amer- 
ica. Minds accustomed to war cannot accustom 
themselves to the economic conditions of peace. 

The women workers, of whom 4,000,000 were 
drawn into industry during the war to take the 
place of men, cannot be induced to return to 
work as seri'ants; and their griefs, family dis- 
ruptions, unfamiliar work and high wages have 
made them factors of a kind never before 6% 
countered. The men, too, after lining in the 
open for five years, can with difficulty bring 
themselves to face the daily grind of factory 
work, and are disturbed by the high cost of 
living and the inequalities of the wage situation. 
All of these items work against the phenomenal 
production which seems to be so necessary in 
an economic sense. 

In~order to allay discontent the government 
has been selling flour at less than cost, operating 
the railways at an annual loss running into the 
hundreds of millions, and producing and mar- 
keting coal on the same basis. This cannot go 
on indefinitely. It is folly to think that wealth 
is inexhaustible, and that any government can 
continue to expend without having a day of 
reckoning with those whose money it is spending. 



I 



Tlic Qoldcn Age for "Klarch 31, 1920 



423 



SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL 



America's Greatest Asset 

HAPPy, intelligent, swept-dispositionecl chil- 
dren constitute tlio nations most valuable 
aiiset. Stos-t chilcii-en arc happy, intelligent and 
sweet if they arc avcII, The Children's Bureau 
of the Department of Labor describes a well- 
nourished child as one vcho "first of all, meas- 
ures np to racial and family standards of his 
agB in heiglit and weight. He has good color, 
bright eyes — no blue or dark circles underneath 
them — ^and smooth, glossy hair. His carriage is 
good, his step elastic, his flesh firm, and his 
muscles -well developed. In disposition he is 
nstiRlIy happy and good-natured; he is brim- 
ful of life and animal spirits and is constantly 
active both physically and mentally. His sleep 
is sound, his appetite and digestion good, his 
bowels regular. He if, in short, what nature 
meant liira to be before anything else — a happy, 
Jicalthy young animal." 

It is a most unfortunate fact that the average 
American family is shrinking in size and that, 
as previously stated in these columns, the 
quality of the cliildrcn, physically speaking, is 
poor. We think the people of tliis country ought 
to give move attention to building up these 
children and less to building guns and battle- 
sliips. Kor are ive anxious to have the childreji 
properly developed so that they will be the 
Ijetter cannon fodder when some wave of crim- 
inal limacy and greed under the guise of militar- 
ism sweeps over the land. We want the children 
to ,grow up so that they can enjoy the blessings 
of life and peace. 

Som« progress is being made in the care cf 
the children. In 1880 the infant mortality in 
New York City Avas 2S6 per thousand infants 
bom ; by 191S this had fallen to 92. And even in 
the orphan asylums, where one would hardly 
look for progress along these lines, it is claimed 
that when recently a record was taken of the 
weights and heights of the children in New York 
state asylums, as compared with children out- 
side the institutions, even the thrifty State 
Board of Charities found that only a small 
percentage of undernourishment existed. It is 
claimed that one important reason for this is 
that all the food the children do get in these 
institutions is properly utilized. The children 



go to bed early, and do not have their digestive-^ 
apparatus injured by meals that are too hravy 
for them or by food betv.con meals. A person 
who remains in bed several hours longer than 
the normal hours of rest does not re<|uirc as 
much food as one that is awake and active 
during a portion of that time. 

Herbert Hoover has expressed his conviction 
that^ if the children of the United States are 
properly cared for, the whole problem of Amer- 
icanization will be solved in twenty years, and 
that "tlie attitude of a nation toward child wel- 
fare will soon become the test of civilization" — 
ratlier than tlie number of battleships it pos- 
sesses, we feel like adding. Mr. Hoover is sup- 
posed to be in grooming by the high priests of 
Wall Street as the joint candidate of the now 
practically unified European, British and Amer- 
ican interests, representing what remains of 
former American parties. He is no doubt a very 
fine man, and has touched American hearts in 
the right place in speaking to them about their 
children. That is what Americans Avant to know 
— ^liow their children can bo properly cared for, 
physically, mentally and in every way, so that 
they will be qualified for manhood and woman- 
hood. Manifestly, then, the thing to do is to give 
attention to them,' to consider their needs. 

One of the first things that children require, 
if they are to keep well, and if they arc to grow, 
is milk. Most children in America get the milk 
they need, although there arc millions who do 
not, but in Europe, following the war, there are 
literally thousands upon thousands who were 
several years old before they had ever tasted 
milk, and who did not know what bread is. 
When these children were reached by the food 
reliefs they were emaciated or bloated from 
starvation ; but after the condensed ndlk stations 
were opened, many of these poor little fellows 
that were not able to stand because malnutrition 
had so softened their bones, were able to walk 
and play in two weeks time, all because their 
starving bodies had a little watered condensed 
milk fed to them. The same children were so in 
need of fats that when given plain army soap 
to help them get cleaned up, they ate the soap. 

As a result of the relief work, the disease 
mortality of the Belgian children is now less , 



424 



The Qolden Age for March 31,^1920 



than ■what it was before tho war, despite the 
fact tljat they Aveiit through five years of famine. 
In New Zealand, wliere they did not especially 
feel the economic strain of the war, and where 
there is a superb nursing service, vriih hospital 
and medical care and instruction of mothers in 
■the science of cliikl nurture, the infant death 
■*ate is the lowest in the world. 

Child Labor 

THE national child labor law proliibits the 
employment of children under fourteen in 
factories, mills, canneries and workshops, and 
under sixteen in mines and quarries. It is esti- 
mated that child labor was reduced 40% in the 
.United States since tliis law went into effect, 
but the war affected these figures unfavorably 
and the conditions arc still bad. There are 
forces working against effective child labor 
legislation. Southeni cotton mills (financed in 
Wall Street) have contested the right of Con- 
fess to place a near prohibitive tax on child 
labor products, and the Supreme Court has 
declared unconstitutional the law prohibiting 
the use of child labor on any products that 
enter into interstate commerce. 

During the war the number of young children 
■''gainfully'' employed increased greatly, as was 
inevitable, and the hours of labor of those who 
did "work were also increased. Violations of the 
law are so common as to attract almost no 
attention. In the summer of 1918, in one state, 
despite the law that the minimum age for em- 
ployment in canneries is fourteen years, there 
were found 721 children under that age, in- 
cluding fifty that were not yet ten years old. 
The 1910 census shoAved 1,419,098 children be- 
tween the ages of ten and fifteen employed on 
farms and 338,420 in miscellaneous occupations, 
not including manufacturing and mining. 

One of the first acts of the Czecho-Slovakian 
republic was to pass laws making the minimum 
age for child workers fourteen. In Belgium the 
minimimi age for child labor is fourteen, and 
children and women are positively forbidden to 
■work in acid factories or other plants where 
their health would be endangered. These laws 
are strictly enforced. 

The conditions of children in the Argentine 
republic arc very bad, due to the fact that the 
father docs not earn enough to support a family 
properly. Like the South of Ireland, the country 



is largely under the domination of ecclesiastical 
politicans, and what else can be expected? 
However, in less benighted lands conditions are 
not as favorable as we would like to see them; 
for even in enlightened Massachusetts investi- 
gations have slww-n that 30% of the families 
can not give the children schooling beyond the 
compulsory age limit. 

Prohibition in New Hampshire 

IN THE eleven cities of New Hampshire: 
Berlin, Concord, Dover, Franklin, Keene, 
Laconia, Bochester, Manchester, Nashua, Ports- 
mouth, and Somersworth, with a combined popu- 
lation of 207,836, there were arrested for drunk- 
enness in the year 1917, under the local option 
law then in effect, 9,260 persons. In the same 
cities during the year 1919 the total number of 
arrests for drunkenness were 1,660. This is a 
reduction of more than 80% for all the cities of 
the state taken together. 

In three of the foregoing cities, Keene, Lacon- 
ia, and Bochester, there were 369 arrests for 
drunkenness in 1917, due to liquor having been 
obtained elsewhere, as those cities "were No- 
License cities in the year 1917. The wholesome 
effect of state-^wide prohibition may be seen in 
the fact that in the same cities in 1919 the total 
arrests for drunkenness were 73. 

This is a decrease in drunkenness, with its 
attendant miseries and crime^ in which all de- 
cent men and women can rejoice. "We discern 
the hand of God in the ruin of the liquor business 
in- America, and give God the glory for it. 

Something Coming Down 

THEKE are four newspapers in Buffalo, 
N. Y. ; and one of them, evidently believing 
that the present high prices cannot continue 
and determined to build up a large circulation, 
suddenly surprised the other papers in the city 
by going back to' the old rate of one cent for the 
daily paper and five cents for the Sunday paper. 
The' cut in the price of the paper has caused 
considerable excitement, ■with numerous fights 
among the newsboys. It is said that the three 
higher-priced papers have combined to prevent 
newsboys and news-stands from selling the 
cheaper paper, and that the publishers have been 
compelled to hire girls to handle the paper in 
order to prevent street fighting among the news- 
boys, as the newsboys ■will not fight the girls. 



B#if 



i ft 



1 



, J 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



423 




Failing Mineral Resources 

TX THE GOLDEN AGE for October 1, 1919, 
•*• ye presented facts showjiig that the oil 
basins in the United States ai-e rapidly playing 
out. They ^ill produce somo oil lor a long time 
yet, but the oil consumption for explosive motor 
engines and other purposes is now so great that 
the United States can no longer find within its 
borders sufficient crude oil to supply its needs 
and is importing large quantities from Mexico. 

Fuel oil for steam-raising purposes is now 
being discouraged in the technical journals, the 
attention of users being drawn to the fact that 
the thermal efficiency of oil when tised as a fuel 
is only 10% to 15% ; whereas, when it is -used 
in internal combustion engines, its thermal effi- 
ciency is from 30% to 35%. This gradually 
evaporating oil supply is sending up the price 
of gasoline, and it must go higher and higher. 

We used to think of the mineral resources of 
the "United States as inexhaustible, and that is 
still a proper term to use in describing them ; but 
it comes as a shock to have a Congress of Min- 
ing Engineers meet and solemnly consider what 
can be done to prevent the complete cessation 
of gold production in our country. 

They call attention to the fact that the, reduc- 
tion in gold output of the United States in 1918, 
the last year for which figures are available, was 
$15,000,000 less as compared with the previous 
year. It is now only $68,476,700 per year. Gold 
is being used faster in the arts than it can be 
produced; and at that rate of decrease in pro- 
duction the whole story will be finished in less 
than five years. The trade demands for gold 
in the United States are about $90,000,000 per 
anntun. It is now profitable to purchase gold 
from the United States Treasury, at the coinage 
value, and use it in the arts. In other words, 
gold is now really at a premium, though not 
monetarily so. 

Tlie gold-producing states, in the order of 
th*.-ir importance as gold producers, are Cali- 
foi-nia. Colorado, Alaska, Xevada, South Da- 
kota, Arizona, Montana, and Utah. Smaller 
quantities come from the Philippines, Oregon, 
Idaho, New Mexico, and Washington. Eleven 
o'ther states produce negligible quantities. 



Gold is failing elsewliere. Condition? similar 
to those in the United States prevail in South 
Africa. During 19lS, as «*omparod with 1017, 
there was a decline of approximately .$10,000,- 
000 in the value of the total output of gold in the 
Transvaal region. Added to the declining pro- 
duction is the gold hunger of tlie war, the ex- 
travagances due to inflation, Avhich have led 
myriads ot" people into the purchase of articles 
made of gold or plated with it, and the hoarding 
which has been practised by the timid, who de- 
lusively hope that they can thus avert impend- 
ing calamities. 

The loss in silver production is not as great, 
amounting to only about $4,000,000; but the 
total value of the amount produced is some 
$2,000,000 less than the value of the gold pro- 
duced; and neither production amounts to 
much for a country boasting of 110,000,000 peo- 
ple. The value of the silver production in 191S 
amounted to $66,480,129, 

The silver-producing states, in the order of 
their importance as silver producers, are Mon- 
tana, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Colorado, and Ari- 
zona. Smaller quantities come from California, 
Alaska, New Mexico, Texas, Michigan, Wash- 
ington, South Dakota, Oregon, and Tennessee. 
Twelve otlier states produce a little silver. 

As a matter of fact, American mines are now 
actually producing a less tonnage of gold, sil- 
ver, lead, zinc, and even of iron than they were 
several years ago. The statistics usually pub- 
lished make the value of the product seem to be 
more, but this is because of the vanishing value 
of the dollar. The actual quantity produced per 
capita is less than in former years. 

The Scriptures seem to indicate that a time is 
coming when gold r.nd silver will not be as much 
prized as now. "I will make a man more pre- 
cious than fine gold ; even a man that the golden 
wedge of Ophir. Therefore I will shake the 
heavens [ecclesiastical powers], and the earth 
[usual social arrangements] shall remove out of 
her place, in the wrath of the Lord of hosts, 
and in the day of his fierce anger. Behold I will 
stir up the Medes against them, which shall not 
regard silver; and as for gold, they phall not 



delight in it."- 



-Isaiahl3:12,l'>,17. 



426 



The Qolden Age for March 51, 1920 



The Making of a Ford Jin R. r. Rockhoff 

ONE 01' the venders of ihe present indus- 
trial -VN-orld is the malung of the Ford car. 
System and attention to detail have won for this 
industry a -world-wide reputation. A detailed 
analysis ol every problem of production has 
enabled Mr. Ford to put on the market thousands 
of cans at a moderate price, and still be able to 
pay his employes a minimum wage of $6.00 
per day, and also receive a comfortable return 
for his own efforts. 

A visit to the Ford plant reveals some very 
interesting facts. In the warehouses immense 
quantities of material are handled, necessitating 
a systematic and orderly method of handling. 
Thousands o£ tons of iron and steel, piled tier 
upon tier, are classified as to kind and quality 
and stored in such a manner as to be easily 
accessible and ready for immediate use. 

In the production departments each piece of 
production machinery is carefully studied with 
a view of its achieving the greatest possible 
results with the least effort, and of avoiding 
every possible waste. Each man has his specific 
duties to perform and the work is so simplified 
that an unskilled worker can, in a short time, 
produce a nbrmal day's work. 

Every employe is given an opportunity to 
make good at work to which he can adapt him- 
self according to health, strength, size and 
ability. A tall man is given a tall man's job, 
while the little man is saved the extra effort of 
a long' reach, and possible over-exertion, which 
might prove a handicap to him. Too often large 
concerns loss sight of the fact that there is a 
htunan element about their employes. 

The parts of the Ford car are first assembled 
in units; engine, radiator, steering wheel, axles, 
wheels and other parts being each assembled in 
different departments as units. These depart- 
ments are kno\vn as sub-assembly departments, 
and serve as feeders to the final assembly. 

The final assembly is accomplished on a pair 
of rails or tracks about four feet apart and 
eighteen inches from the floor and running the 
length of the building. To thi.s track at various 
points the sub-assembled parts are conveyed by 
chutes, chain carriers, and other modem meth- 
ods of conveyauce. Beginning at the end of the 
track, the first units to be assembled are the 
axles and chassis. These assembled, a traveling 
chain is hooked to the prospective car. which 



starts it down the track at the rate of a slow 
walk, while the various parts and assembled 
units are dropped into their proper places and 
secured. In these operations each man has his 
specific duty to perform, and the proper equip- 
ment to do Ids work in an efficient manner. 
One man places the part, while another puts in 
the bolts, and still another tightens them. 

Upon reaching the end of the track the rear 
wheels of the car drop between two revolving 
grooved pulleys protruding through the floor, 
thus forcing them to turn. A driver then jumps 
on the car, throws in the clutch, which starts 
the motor, and away it goes — complete, less a 
body. The body is supplied in another depart- 
ment from an overhead chute and is bolted on. 
Then the car is complete, this final assembly 
having been accomplished while the car was 
in motion and in less than half an hour. 

As many as 3,600 cars have been produced in 
one day, this being an average of about five cars 
every two minutes. This stupendous output 
necessitates a perfect shipping schedule to avoid 
congestion in transportation, as obviously sd 
great a quantity of cars cannot be stored. To 
avoid this Mr. Ford has assembly plants in the 
larger cities to which parts and sub-assembled 
units are shipped and the cars assembled in 
these branches. In this way great economy is 
effected, it being cheaper to ship parts than to 
ship a completed car. 

The quota for the Ford Company for 1920 is 
set at 1,000,000,000 cars, or one car for every 
100 people in the United States. Prospects are 
that this mark, will be passed, as for the six. 
months beginning witli August, 1919, the output 
has been 506,000 cars. 

The Ford industry is without question the 
most wonderful industry in the world both as to 
production and management, and recent conces- 
sions to employes have granted a very reason- 
able return for their labors, and it seems as 
though the Ford interests are a little oasis in 
the desert of human selfishness of our day. 

AVhat developments in industry will be pos- 
sible for the betterment of humanity in the 
Golden Age are hardly imaginable now, even as 
the present achievements were not dreamed of 
fifty years ago. "Eye hath not seen, nor ear 
heard, neither have entered into the heart of 
man, the things which God hath prepared for 
(hem that love him." — 1 Corinthians 2:9. 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



4-^7 




New York's Jitney Lines 

IN MANY Western cities, and in some Eastern 
ones, automobile bus lines or jitneys, as they 
are commonly called, are familiar features of 
the streets, and are a byproduct of the precar- 
ious conditions into which the electric street 
railways have mismanaged themselves. It was 
characteristic of New York City to wait until 
all the other cities in the country had tried 
jitneys before having anything to doAvith them, 
bnt-the trolley strikes last Fall forced the issue 
and finally the jitney arrived. 

On account of the strikes, and for other 
nasons, some of the electric railway companies 
in Brooklyn and Manhattan ceased operating 
certain lines which they found to be unprofit- 
able, and operated other lines oiily part of the 
distance. The Board of Estimates of the city, 
which is the ruling power, considering that an 
emergency in the city's affairs had arisen, 
nndertook to bring about a remedy. 

The Board claimed that the changes in 
Brooklyn's transit facilities, with the conse- 
quent creation of 970 new transfer joints, caused 
anch congestion of traffic and people at certain 
points as to threaten disorder, and that such 
disorders actually occurred. They therefore put 
eighty busses at work in Brooklyn and a number 
in New York, temporarily, in some instances, 
using policemen as checkers and starters at the 
fans terminals. It was astonishing how the 
people took to the new conveyances. 

On November 14th, 114 of the busses carried 
75,000 passengers daily. A little later it was 
claimed that 150,000 people were making use of 
them daily. It was not intended to run them 
beyond December 31, 1919, but they became so 
popular that it did not seem wise to discontinue 
them at least during the season of icy sidewalks, 
and on January 5th it was estimated that in 
Brooklyn alone 3,200,000 passengers had been 
carried upon them, with correspondingly vast 
numbers in Manhattan. 

It is not to be wondered at that the trolley 
companies have fought tliis innovation; for 
some of them were losing money even before 
the jitneys came. Tlie companies appeared in 
court asking for restraining orders on this pro- 
gressive movement, and the courts decided that 



the jitneys should be permitted to continue the 
iiso of the streets in the interests of the people. 

When the trolley companies appeared in court 
to ask for the injunction, they used every kind 
of argrnnont except the one they knew would 
not hold good, i. e., that the people would not 
Ti?e the bu.sses in any case. They did say that the 
Brooklyn trolleys were carrying sixty times as 
many passengers as the busses and were carry- 
ing them 4.2 miles as against the busses' 3 
miles, and that tlie busses could not possibly 
be operated at a profit. 

They went on to say that if the city gave up 
its street-cars tind operated busses exclusively it 
would lose $2,950,500 due to the smaller carry- 
ing capacity of the busses, $6,000,000 in the 
lo7iger haul, $2,395,899 in taxes and paving, 
$500,000 in snow removal and $900,000 in money 
paid for accidents, a total of $12,752,399. 

New York is so congested that it seems able 
to absorb and use every transit facility that is 
provided; and the city authorities are so well 
pleased with the temporary use of busses that 
they are contemplating an appropriation for 
100 new busses to be owned by the -city and used 
to alleviate traffic congestion whenever and 
wherever the city sees fit. 

These new busses are designed to hold 27 
seated and 15 standing, with no seats on top. 
The busses themselves would cost $550,000, and 
the garage equipment and spare parts $20,000 
more. The proposition of the Commissioner of 
Plant and Structures is to operate 92 of these 
busses on nine routes totalling 25 miles of 
streets, 8 busses being held in reserve. 

Despite tlie predictions of the trolley compa- 
nies, the Commissioner estimates that with a 
total annual expense of $650,000 per year, in- 
cluding the employment of 180 chauffeurs at 
$1,800 per year, the citVs profit on the venture 
would be $376.80 per day, all fares being on the 
five-cent basis. 

This estimate would make the average oper- 
ating cost per bus about $20 per day, necessitat- 
ing the carriage of 400 fares to each bus, to cover 
expenses. It must make ten trips each way, or 
sixty miles in all, and carry 20 passengers each 
way in order to do this. This seems like a big 
undertaking, but the Commissioner and the bus 



^. 



428 



The Qolden Age for March 51, 1920 



operators have figured that they coiild do it and 
even rnahc ihc route four mileE instead of three 
aiid'faill mai:e a profit on a live-ceiu fare. 

We, do not kno\v- whetiier we are approaching 
t. time Avhen we must bid goodbye to the trolley, 
it is ail a matter of cost. If it costs less in the 
long run for a. trolley ear with cheap iron wheels 
10 travel on a smooth iron track, propelled by 
electric power from a single plant, then tlie 
trolley it will bo; but if it costs less to travel on 
rnbber tires ov'er the pavement surface, pro- 
pelled by individual engines, then the trolley 
liiies must go. 

A bus company with $2,000,000 capital has 
been incorporated to operate throughout New 
Jersey, promising to charge five-cent fares in 
competition with the seven-cent trolley fares. 
We eaimot but wonder, Will it pay? The owners 
of these busses will be subject to great expenses 
for repairs and depreciation. They will not be 
■nithout labor troubles. They must provide for 
supervision of their men, for bus licenses, 
chauffeur licenses, and the inevitable damage 
suits for accidents. 



The city of Buenos Ayres has just gr-amed a 
fiity-year charter to a bus line to operate four 
lines from the center of the city to certain sub- 
urbs. At the expiration of the charter tiie lines 
are to revert to the city. The fares will be the 
same as charged by trolley and subway lines. 

If the jitney can be made to pay better than 
the trolley we would think that fact would have 
been discovered earlier, but perhaps now is the 
due time. There are advantages in the trolley ; 
there are places where the trolley cars are some- 
times heated in the winter. There are advan- 
tages in the jitney; it can run anywhere, track 
or no track, and on any schedule; but is the 
latter an advantage or a disadvantage! 

First the omnibus, then the horse car, then 
the cable car, then the trolley car, and then back 
to the omnibus. Is this to be the cycle f Some- 
time we shall arrive at the true solution of the 
problem of urban and interurban transporta- 
tion. How long must we wait for it? Not long, 
we thinlc. Multitudes of bright minds are work- 
ing on these problems, and in due time tlie Lord 
•will guide some one to the right solution. 



V 

■^ 







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^A j/:. — r- 'f 
a«»-oi\*>«*t dpi ' ' _ 





Charl of Pretent Business Condition*" Prepared by the Chamber of Commerce of the United States 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



429 




Justice and the Poor Bu HeginaU lUher smith, 

of the Vuaton Bar 

THE end of all our k-gal institutions is to 
sst'cure justice, ^\'hat is the just decision in 
any controversy, ve determine, not by the arbi- 
trary will or opinion of any individual, but in 
accordance v.-itli definite rule? of law. This is 
the metliod of justice according to law, and 
because it so far surpasses all other attempts 
at htiman justice it stands as a basic principle 
from ■which we cannot safely depart. 

Our system of justice according to law has 
clear defects which exist, first, because law is 
not onmipotent but has limits beyond which its 
action is ineffective, and second, because the 
system, like all finite projects, has its o"\vn par- 
ticular weak points. From the ensuing discus- 
sion, defects traceable to these limitations and 
disadvantages must be eliminated ; for so long 
as' we desire to retain the manifold benefits of 
justice according to law, it is profitless to 
quarrel about its concomitant and inherent 
shoVtcomings. 

Freedom and equality of justice for the poor 
.depend, first, on an impartial substantive law 
and, second, on an even-handed administration 
of that lav,'. The substantive law is primary; 
for through it are created, stated, and defined 
all the rights, obligations, and relationships 
between individuals and tho state, and throu^ 
it are secured the social interests in the health, 
safety, security, and general well-being of the 
individual and the community. It is an absolute 
condition precedent; for if it acknowledged 
differences in right between rich and poor, a 
perfected machinery of enforcement would 
serve only to accentuate the distinctions and 
make them the more intolerable. 

The body of the substantive law, as a whole, 
is remarkably free from any taint of partiality. 
It is democratic to the core. Its rights are 
conferred and its liabilities imposed without 
respect of persons. While in this age of trans- 
ition, it is confronted with tremendous problems 
as yet unsolved ; while it is slow to employ the 
more liberal promises demanded by a new era, it 
de.servos to be recognized as a remarkably satis- 
factory hmnan achievement. This is the opinion 
of our greatest legal scholars and of the most 



searching critics o' oar judicial institutions — 
such men as Boscoe Pound, Jonn H. Wigmore, 
and the group who compose the membership of 
the American Judicature Society. A careful 
examination of the substantive law from the 
point of view of tlie poor has recently been made 
by Judge Parry of the English Count)' Courts, 
from which it is instantly apparent tliat the 
legal disabilities of the poor in nearly every 
instance result from defects in the machinery 
of the law and are not created by any discrim- 
inations of the substantive law against them. 

Three branches of substantive law, it is true, 
have been much criticized. With regard to pub- 
lic service law it has been popular to claim that 
the railroads, traction companies, gas and elec- 
tric light corporations were imposing on the 
public without let or hindrance from the law. 
The better opinion is that the provisions of 
substantive law were entirely fair and adequate, 
but that the courts, without administrative 
machinery, wer^ unable to oope 'with the 
problems of enforcement and supervision. 

Again, much of our landlord and tenant law 
is still feudal in its conceptions. The rule that 
most of our city dwellers,- because they occupy 
without written leases, are only tenants "at will" 
and so liable to inamediate dispossession does 
not accord with modem conditions and often 
causes extreme hardship. Legislative attempts, 
as in Massachusetts, to invest such tenant with a 
measure of secxirity by requiring notice to quit 
two weeks in advance have been f rustratedTby 
the courts' . adherence to the common law rule 
that the landlord may give a written lease for 
a year to a third person, who then has a higher 
legal estate with rights of possession after 
forty-eight hours' notice. In practice this means 
that fictitious leases are delivered to ejectment 
companies, which exercise their superior title 
by removing the tenant's household furniture 
to a warehouse to be interned till all charges 
are paid. This anachronism conld easily be 
remedied, however, by giving to proper courts 
discretionary power to control the time in which 
tenants, for cause shown, may continue in pos- 
session after the landlord's notice to vacate. 

Finally, the redress afforded injured employes 
by the law has called forth the bitterest attacks, 



43 o 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



and hero tlie impartiality of Uic substantire law 
ba.= most justly been challenged. I'iio worlurian 
who sought to recovor for iujurit- .vaiiiiiincd at 
work, due to tlie negligence of liis eiviployer, 
was placed at an enormous disadvantage by the 
rules defining tlv.- master's liability. The i'Gllow 
servant rule and the doctrine of assumption of 
risk, growing out of two cases which are now 
se%'eroly condemned, and elaborated by a pro- 
cess which can only be called judicial legislation, 
came perilously near to constituting an actual 
class distinction in the law. Happily this stigma 
no longer attaches, because within the last seven 
years worlanen's compensation statutes, which 
supplant the outworn doctrines of liability with 
the principle of insurance, have been enacted 
in nearly every jurisdiction. 

On examination and on authority, the state- 
ment is warranted that the substantive law, with 
, minor exceptions, is eminently fair and impar- 
tiaL In other words, the existing denial of 
justice to the poor is not attributable to any 
injustice in the heart of the law itself. The 
necessary foundation for freedom and equality 
of justice exists. 

In sharp contrast, there are grave defects in 
the administration of the law. It is the wide 
disparity between the ability of the richer and 
the poorer classes to utilize the machinery of 
the law, which is at bottom the cause of the 
present unrest and dissatisfaction. Denial of 
justice to the poor is due to the conditions, im- 
posed by our traditional system, upon which 
alone cnn suits be brought and conducted. There 
is something tragic in the fact that a plan and 
method of administering justice, honestly de- 
signed io make efiicient and certain that litiga- 
tion on which at last all rights depend, should 
result in rearing insuperable obstacles in the 
path of thope who most need protection, so that 
litigation becomes impossible, rights are lost, 
and VTongs go unredressed. 

The present inequalities and defects in the 
administration of justice are not the result of 
any deliberate intention. No dominating group 
or class has consciously set out to foreclose the 
rights of tlie poor. The procedural laws have 
been passed by the legislatures in good faith. 
The courts have interpreted and applied the 
adjective law witliout bias or favor. Corrup- 
tion has played no part. 

The fact is that no one clearly perceived the 



general trend of affairs. A Bureau of Justice 
of tiie typo advocatecL by Dean Pound before 
the Conl'oreuco of Delegales of State and Local 
Bar Airirociations in 1917. could have detected 
and prevented the breakdown before it became 
serious; but as yet our judicial administration 
lacks that necessary adjtmct. Cloiaplaints grad- 
ually became audible that whereas all other 
businesvs was pointed toward efFicieney, reduc- 
tion of costs, and a general speeding-up, judicial 
machinery remained cumbersome, wasteful, 
time-consumiiig, and very expensive. Tcese 
complaints sounded in terms of delay and an- 
noyance, not prohibition. Even today it is only 
dimly understood that this faulty organization 
and procedure, which is exasperating in large 
suits between persons of means, in all small 
suits and in all litigation to which the poor are 
party causes an absolute denial of justice. 

The conditions, under which our customary 
system requires litigation to be conducted, im- 
pair rights guaranteed by the substantive law 
because law is not self -enforcing; only through 
application in the courts does the law have life 
and force. The most fundamental rights remain 
idle abstractions unless the courts are able to 
give them efficacy through enforcement. The 
Mexican Constitution exceeds any of our bills 
of rights in its solicitude for life, liberty, and 
property; and yet in no country have these 
rights been more steadily violated with impu- 
nity. For this reason the mechanics of the law 
occupy a place of great importance. The vital 
problem of today in the administration is to 
repair the breakdowns and to overhaul parts of 
the machinery so tliat it may work more smooth- 
ly and may be workable at ail. 

The defects in the administration of the law 
fall into three distinct divisions. In the lan- 
guage of Piers PloM-man: 

"To the poor the courts are a maze. 
If he plead there all his life, 
Law is so lordly 
Ar.d looth to end his case; 
Without money paid m presents • 
Law listeneth to few." 

These three diiSculties are not yet overcome. 
They still weigh hea%-ily on the poor. Delay 
plays its unfair part. Money must be paid in 
fees and costs, or else the courts are closed.^ 
The law is necessarily an intricate and compli-, 
cated science, Avhicb may not be understood or > 



■4,: 



\ 



The Qoldsn Age for March 31, 1920 



431 



milized •vviiliont die assistance of a trained 
counetllor and advocate v,-ho must bo paid. 

These are the conditions of modern litigation. 
The articles that follow consider tln-ir ]>rfeiso 
natTire and their results. 

iTliis is the tliirtl of a scries on "Justir* and tlir Poor" 
by Mr. Smith, published in an iniportact book of Umlied 
circulation by the C.irneglP Foumlation for tlie AJvancvnietit 
iif Teaching, of N«w lorli. The orticies to follow aif : 
( i ) The First Defert : r>elaT : ( ". ) The St^contl Defect ; Court 
Co#ts aod Fees ; (6) The Third Def«'t : Exppns* of Counsei; 

English Labor Politics 

rri HE present parliament, convoked in Febrti- 
-»• zxv, 1919, is supposed to remain in power 
for five years, imless in the meantime it is 
evident that it no longer has the confidence of 
the people ; and the people through a long-estab- 
lished custom eqiiivalent to the recall, seem bent 
on helping them to arrive at that conclusion. 
The war issues are now virtually extinct, and 
the people seem to think that hov.'ever well the 
present coalition government has worked in war 
time it is now cumbrous and disappointing. 

Mr. AsquiUi has denounced the present Lloyd 
(5«orge government as "a perpetual game of 
Jog- rolling between groups of business and 
interests determined by the exigencies of the 
parliamentary hour". Lloyd George himself has 
expressed the fear that in a few months he may 
be relegated to the j'ear; and the fact seems to 
be that, as in Canada, the two old parties have 
been thrown into the melting pot and a new ad- 
ministration of the government will emerge. 
The country will not go on supporting an ad- 
ministration which is merely opportunist in its 
nature, and the present one is believed to be 
little else than a combination of diverse elements 
that arc fearful of labor domination. 

In the last three important bye elections the 
labor candidates polled a total of more votes 
than either of the old parties, and they drew 
the clerks and young professional men with 
them by reminding them that when they got into 
power they would need the services of tech- 
nicians, experts and business managers. Then 
there were great numbers of the middle classes 
who Avere made poor by the war and who think 
they see some chance of relipf in labor policies. 
The labor victories were won not only in dis- 
ti-icts having a large labor element, but in some 
^i the most aristocratic sections; and as all the 
/voting seemed to take the form of pronounced 
; dissatisfaction with the coalllion govornirient it 



i< gc-nerally taken for granted by students of 
political conditions thai England is to have a 
parliamentary revolution. 

In the Bromley district a December, 1918, 
coalition majority of 12,501, was reduced in a 
year to 1,071. In the Spen Valley district the 
successful Labor candidate, and the Liberal 
candidate, who stood second, polled together 
L'i.',206 votes against the coalition candidate's 
8,134. This alarmed Mr. AVinston Churchill, and 
he declared that "a return to party govenunent 
in England would simply mean turning the 
country over to the Labor party". 

The Labor leaders merely smiled and said, 
'•Well, suppose it did ; it could hardly fall into 
more incompetent hands than it had been in 
when the Antwerp fiz7,le took place, or the Galli- 
poli disaster, in which the lives of thousands of 
men were sacrificed to no purpose". In the 
latter place the whole attacking force was likely 
to be destroyed witli dysentery because the 
water supply had not been looked after. These 
criticisms rather spiked Mr. ChurchiU'a yons, 
Hot the reason that he has had full credit for the 
Antwerp and Gallipoli campaigns and their out- 
come. Mr. Churchill says that Labor is unfit to 
govern. Labor says that Mr. Churchill was tin- 
lit to govern and cites instances. 

Not all the great men of England take the 
gloomy view of a Labor landslide that is enter- 
tained by Mr. Chuchill. Viscount Haldane, one 
of the most prominent of English statesmen, 
has declared Uiat "the Labor party alone has a 
vision which will enable it to possess and serve 
the future". The Nortbcliffe press, a very iBa.-_ 
portant factor in the maldng of public opinion 
in England, has swung to the Labor side. 

The British Labor leaders are generally con- 
sidered dear-thinking, moderate men, brilliant 
campaigners, opposed to ultra radicalism, and 
opposed to the rule of Ireland by ecclesiastical 
politicians. They are also opposed to large arma- 
ments, claim that their aim for all the subject 
races of the British empire, as well as all other 
empires, is self-determination, and desire to 
study closely the problems of nationalization of 
as many inclustries as will be to the best inter- 
ests of the people as a whole. They are said to 
recognize the difficulties in the way of establish- 
ing a good government under present debt- 
burdened conditions, but thinlt they can obtain 
capable as-jistnuce in solving their problems. 



432 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



Questions to Candidates 

THE Ohio Fanners' Defense League is out 
"valh the folloAviiig statenii iit ol things upon 
vhich it demands that political candidatt'S in 
1020 must take a stand: 

'•Politkal canJkiatcs in 19:20 must mak(» ihelr position 
clkdi- as io why Conoress erpendid %-lT,00O,O0u.000 
since the cieclaraiion of ivar againsi CleiUiaiiy, which 
is rnoTe, by $j,OoO.OOO,000, than the entire cos-i of 
operating the entire government from Washington's 
administration up to Wilson's. 

They must show why the young meji were conscripted 
and not the dollar, or war profits gathered in by tlio 
profiteer; wliy the profiteering upon al! .Trtiele* of 
subijjstence was permitted and ii stilJ being permitted 
by Congress ; why the collection of tlie interest on the 
$9,500,000,000 loaned to foreign coiiiitiies has been 
waived; why our soldiers fought in Kussia when no 
declaration of war existed; why soldiev;; should fight at 
any time or in any place without a referendum by the 
people; why military training and conscription are ap- 
proved after a war which is allegod to have been fought 
lor the abolishment of these conditions ajid which forces 
the demand for over a billion dollar appropriation by 
the war department for 1920. 

"Why was the 2919 crop of sugar not purchased at 
oi and (>A cents per pound l-* Why have this important 
' product and all articles of subsistence been exported in 
greater proportions than in the periods just prior to the 
war, if not for profiteering purposes ? ' Why did not the 
Congress that declared war declare peace on the next day 
after the armistice? Why has a resolution of peace any 
relation to a League of Nations or a despicable alliance 
with foreign countries ? Now that peace has been granted 
to the German generals of war, why have not liberty and 
peace been granted to all political prisoners, who simply 
voiced their opinions of the world war? 

'•AVhy have the political rights of the people at the 
ballot box* been disfranchised and their duly elected 
representatives been denied seats in the legislative halls 
and in Congress, establishing ta^-ation without repre- 
sentation, the very cause of the Eevolutionary War, and 
why have our representatives violated their oath of ofiBce 
and particularly the vital principles of the Constitution? 

"These are a few of the questions ^vhich must be 
answered satisfactorily to the voter of 19'30. Briefly, it 
is an off-year for the class already in the field, also for 
attorneys, doctors, and professors. We must have busi- 
ness men, upon a specific platform; else our government 
and cherished institutions will fail." 

These same enterprising jx^ople have also 
written to us, urging that we loUow the railroad 
article which appeared in our is.sue of January 
J vriih further information: 

"F.xplaiair.g to wliat remote extent the government 



controlled the railroads ; that the present' owners of the 
lines never figured their earnings or profit as on a basi» 
of being pubUe service carriers, but on the basis of the 
sale of watered stock; give the conditions just prior to 
partial government control ; the sub'sequent advance of 
coal, all material, and of labor; how freight and passen- 
ger fares could be reduced under absolute government 
control (watered stock eliminated), and what the inter- 
locked financiers propose to do in this regard when the 
Cummins bill becomes a law. You should, at the same 
time, stale that if the private owners were to frame « 
bill for the absolute return of the roads, they could not 
formulate a contract that would be more favorable to 
themselves." . 

We are open to information and conviction 
on any of the items mentioned. Those who have 
definite first-hand information on any of these 
subjects may send it to The Golden Age, with 
the assurance that it will be appreciated. We 
are interested in anything that is for the welfare 
of society as a whole. Articles should be written 
on one side of the paper only and should be of 
general interest to be accepted. The farmers 
viewpoint must hereafter be carefully weighed. 
He resents the simple mental attitude of the cave 
dweller of the city that it is the "duty" of the 
countryman to produce food regardless of price, 
and especially to furnish cheap food when every- 
thing else is dear. If the industrial w^orld is to 
indulge in strikes, inefficient production, and 
lururies, the canny farmer does not propose to 
become a blind victim, but he does propose to 
watch the pennies all the closer, and to watch 
this fall in a manner of his own choosing and 
place men in official positions who will be obliged 
to do the will of the farmer constituency^.— 

Not a few, who are keeping close tabs on the 
course of events, think that a reckoning day had 
come with those that have not dealt right witli 
the farmer. If so, and the farmers are to have 
their day in court, the prophetic utterances of 
the Apostle James may b^ at the point of fulfill- 
ment : "Go to now, ye rich men ; behold the hire 
of the laborers [farmers] who have reaped do-»-n 
your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, 
crieth; and the cries of them which have reaped 
are entered into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth 
[armies]"'. (James 5:1, 4) For the farmeV' 
standing in battle array in the combat of :hV 
ballots are an important part of the army o\ 
the Lord which will help to straighten out many* 
of the difficulties in which the coimnoTi people 
find themselves. 



TKe Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



433 



AGRICULTURE AND HUSBANDRy 



Profit and Loss on the Farm 

UP TO 20 years ago American farm produce 
■was marketed at a loss. That era of low 
prices for eatables can never be repeated. Tlie 
farmer does not have the virgin land for whose 
declining fertility he made no charge. He does 
not have the constantly rising values of farm 
lands to stimulate him'witli the idea that he is 
getting ahead. He does not have the old type 
of land that yielded twice as mucii as it does 
today. He cannot get farm labor for board and 
$10 a month, but must pay a good wage, or lose 
the laborer to the city. The childi-en no longer 
feel it their duty to work on the farm for 
nothing, but insist on fairly good pay, so as to 
appear well with the other young folk. Running 
a farm is no longer a charitable work, but a 
proposition of profit and loss. 

IhJTing the war the farmer planted and pro- 
duced more food than ever before. He sold his 
wheat — ^when he could get cars to ship it in — 
and the Government gave him a "guarantee" on 
the price, which worked out as a fixed maximum, 
when supply and demand would have sent wheat 
far above 42.26. The "guarantee" price often 
meant wheat raised at a loss; for the cost of 
fertilizer, seed wheat, jagricultural machinery, 
transportation, and farm labor ate up the profit 
there might have been wher tlie price was form- 
tdated. When war was over and in 1919 the cost 
of everything kept running up hill, the Govern- 
ment again took the farm-produce situation in 
hand and cut the cost of living, by practically 
f oreing a decline in prices of farm products — in 
hogs as much as ten cents a pound. The drop 
was helped along by the packers, who wished to 
"punish" the farmer for backing legislation for 
the regulation of the packing interests. Over 
$200,000,000 was the loss on this account in 
one state alone. 

Farmers, -and especially their cliildren, get 
discouraged at the fabulous profits made on 
thtfir products, on which they receive only a 
. nominal sum. They sell milk at eight cents a 
qtiart, and the consumer pays twenty to thirty 
afents; country oggs bring the farmer fifty cents 
joT less a dozen, but the user pays eighty cents 
'to a dollar; turkeys sold at forty cents are eaten 



by people who pay eighty cents and upward; 
melons leave the farm at ten cents and retail at 
eighty cents. Wool leaves the farm at si.xty 
cents" a pound, but the farmer pays $80 for five 
pounds in the shape of a suit of clothes ; cotton 
goes at thirty-five cents a pound and comes back 
as cloth at $1.40 per yard ; leather goes into the 
city at fifty cents' worth for enough for a pair 
of shoes. aud costs $12 when the shoes get into 
the house. The producer sells food at five cents 
a poimd, at a season when demand is dull, only 
to be offered nineteen cents when demand is 
high and he has none to sell; he sells the entire 
product of his farm to a produce house, only 
to ha%'e half of it refused, though perfectly 
good, and in the dispute to lose all the profit 
on his investment. 

If raising a particular article does not pay, 
it will not be raised. If $2,26 is too little for a 
fair profit on wheat, it will not be planted; at 
least the acreage that is unprofitable at that 
price will go into something else. If the pros- 
pects are that the market price may be set by a 
few importations of cheaper grain stiU more 
acreage will go out of the wheat column. This 
accounts for the 25% reduction in the area 
planted to winter wheat last fall as compared 
with the year before. Eggs and butter coming 
in at low price from Denmark or China signify 
just as many hens and cows "scrapped" as are 
unprofitable at the lower standard market priw^' 
set by tlie importations — for a price is set by 
the lowest offer. A chaotic condition of foreign 
exchange means inability in Europe to pay for 
wheat and other farm products, and the well- 
informed American agriculturist cuts down the 
expected production in the articles affected ; for 
if farming is a matter of profits, the non-profit 
lines must go. 

Little wonder the farmer is dissatisfied! He 
is not at all the "rube" of the "humorous" jour-, 
nals, nor the "hayseed" of the city Solon, for 
the leaven of farm papers, farmers' leagues, 
agricultural schools, colleges and universities 
has worked deep; and the man on the farm is 
the peer of any one in America in the matter of 
information and progressiveness. He is more 
given to reflection than most men. 



434 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



Hosiery for Caiile 

WHETHEE or not tlio idea of an Illinois 
farniGi- is 10 be taken seriously, it seems to 
be an exception to tiio anciont saying that there 
is nothing ne-w under the sun. It is impossible, 
at this writing to ascertain to -what extent, if 
any, Wall Street is back of the scheme, in the 
interest of the textile industrj-; bnt if it is a 
widespread success, ihe stocks of textile mills 
may go higher and cotton find a wider market 
and bring more money to farmers of the South. 
When attempting to extract the lacteal fluid, 
■who has not been switched in the face by the 
cow's frantic endeavors to stop the flies from 
biting? Who has not received a more substantial 
impulse when the beast's leg was brandished m 
search of some particularly vicious fly? And 
who that knows anything about the injurious 
effect of a disturbed stale of mind upon bodily 
secretions can doubt that the quality of even 
milk may be affected by the incessant irritation 
of_a communitj' of eager insects' 

If the new Illinois invention is successful in 
increasing the yield of milk only a small per- 
cent, or of putting a higher proportion of butter 
fats and other solid constituents into the milk, 
or of making the cow "safer for the baby", it may 
not be long before the great city dairies adver- 
tise that, "Our covrs wear stockings''. Life will 
be easier for the farmer's wife, in spite of the 
extra time required for making and darning the 
hosiery for the enlar,c,rd family circle, and tlio 
number of women going from the farm to the 
insane asylum be diminished, if ihe temper and 
general disposition of the men fMk 'be made 
more tranquil by the peace of mind to come 
through the bestockoning of the live stock. 

The idea started y^-'ith one farmer who, whilf 
milking, received a good solid impression 
from the cow's hoof. He made a trip to the 
village store, and the next day the other farmers 
saw, and went to market for stockings for their 
cows ; for the cow with stockings on did not kick. 
Neither did she consume the accustomed amount 
of nervous energy in keeping her switch going 
throughout the day. 

WIio knows but that this humanity of man to 
cattle may result in increas^ed humanity of man 
to man? The world's betterment con?i?ts 
largely of doing litlle things better, and the 
Golden Age will bo what it is partly because 
every one, in all the little contacts, wnll be 



seeking to manifest over a little more efficiency,, 
justice, square-dealing, brotheriiness and love. 

A Farmer Congress 

IF THE farmers were represented in Congress 
in the same proportion as ;heir percentage 
of the total population, there would be a quite 
difl'erent House of Representatives. The fol- 
lowing table shows the cUstribution of the indus- 
trial population in 1917, and the number of 
representatives in the same ratio: 

PoputaUtM 



AgriCTUture, etc.. 



.10,371,834 



Manufacturing, etc. — 6,071,208 

Commercial, etc. 4,708,908 

Domestic Semce, etc. __4,208,863 

Laborers, etc. 4,0i)3,38.5 

Building, etc 2,878,792 



Transportation, etc. ._ 

Professional, etc — 

Minim, etc. 



Public Service, etc._ 
Total 



....?,831,0C6 
„..2.202.f)09 

......520/Jir. 



rrtumt.t 


% 


174 


39.9 


60 


13.8 


42 


9.8 


38 


8.7 


37 


8.4 


26 


5.9 


25 


5.9 


20 


4.(3 


8 


1.9 


5 


1.1 



_..48,2S1,911 435 100% 

The existing House of Eepresentatives is 
composed almost entirely of men from the pro- 
fessions — la^^-yer-s — and public -service classes, 
for under.no other heading is it possible to 
classify the professional politician who makes 
up the bull: of the representation in Congress 
and the State legislatures. If the farmer move- 
ment this year iifa success, there should be a 
goodly number oi' politicians succeeded by real 
farmers, v.-hose hard-headed common sense 
.should furnish a balance wheel, and their 
number a balance of power. 

Perhaps the farmer vote might give the 
country a farmer president. But some one new 
will have to appear as a '\lark horse"; for the 
occupations of the men mentioned as possible 
candidates ignore the farmer and have the ap- 
pearance of a la^v^■ers' conteJJt : 

J-'ngineer: Hoover 

Julucftlor: Butbr 

Soldier: Wood, Pcrsl:ii)g 

Kditor: Cox. Hardin?, lin-.in, Sutherland 

liOTiyer: Mc.\doo, Palmer, Pomorene, Hitc'nt'ock, 
Marshall. Gerard, DavLs. Lor.-dcn. Poir.dext''r. 
KoUoe. Coolidgi', Borah, Johnson. \ 

Perhaps laA\-ycrs know bettor than any one 
else hov.' to run other people's affairs; but Vat 
is the year when the farmer may remember th^ 
old adage, '"If you want an>i:hing done right,\ 
do it voursolf. 



f 

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The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



435 




Theory of Relativity 

TX OUIt arti<?]t> on page 277 we mado refor- 
•»• ence to Dr. Einsteiu's discoveries that the 
rays of light bone! wlieii tliey pass the sun. Many 
other things in physics are affected by his dis- 
coveries, including the lav.- of gravitation. It is 
claimed that his mathematical calculations are 
so difficult that there are not more than a dozen 
men in the world capable of understanding them 
to the last item. 

It is intere.'ting to note the ins;cnious way in 
which Dr. John Q. Stewart, in the Scientific 
American, goes about the task of making some 
of these matters partially clear to minds that 
wonld not be able to understand any of them 
• vrithont such help. We will try to give in a few 
words the gist of his argument. 

He proposes that we imagine a perfectly flat 
nuui, lying on the top of a tank of water in 
whicji the water level is rising at a fixed rate. 
In the tank is a smooth pole, placed vertically, 
partly in and partly out of the water. As long 
as the pole iS vertical, the flat man can have no 
knowledge of the rise of water on the pole. 

But let the pole be inclined and its relati-vity 
to him will be such that he will at once say, "The 
pole is moving". He Avill conclnde, too, that the 
pole is not circular but elliptical in form. He 
will further be forced to conclnde that bodies 
change their sliaj)o when they move. And if he 
could mark tlic pole, and note the rate of move- 
ment of the v.-atei-s upon it, he would additional- 
ly conclude that a '•'moving"' pole does not kot^p 
the same "time" as a fixed one. ITe would be 
wrong in all of these conclusions, liis erroneous 
findings being due to his ovm relativity to tlie 
pole and the water. 

A somewhat analogous situation, nnd equally 
"simple," has been created in the worid respect- 
ing the nature of man. The Bible is perfrclly 
clear on this point, that the end of a siniul 
course is death, cessation of being, and that none 
will have eternal life except those to wlioni it 
comes as a gift from God through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. (Komans 6:23) Yet we are so accus- 
tomed to being tJ:e flat man in tlie t;ink, and 
letting somebody else do all our thinking and 
irtudj'ing on this sul\ject that we make the great 
^error of thinking that the Scriptures do not tell 



the simple truth. But it is evident tiiat they uo. 
We quote certain Scriptures Jia'V'ing a boariiig 
upon this matter: 

"Behold, all souls are mine ; as the soul of the 
father, so also the soul of the son is mine : the 
soul that siiuieth it shall die." (Ezekiel IS: 4) 
"In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, 
till thou return unto tlie ground; for out of it 
wast thou fallen: for dust thou art, and unto 
dust shalt thou return." (Genesis 3; 19) "The 
dead praise not the Lord, neither any that go 
doAvn into silence." (Psalm 115:17) "For the 
living know that they shall die: but the dead 
know not am-thing." (Ecclesiastes 9:5) "For 
yet a little while, and the wicked shall not be 
[exist] ; yea, thou shalt diligently consider his 
place, and it shall not be." (Psahn 37: 10) "The 
Avicked shall perish, and the enemies of tlie Lord 
shall be as the fat of Iambs : tliey shall consume ; 
into smoke shall they consume away." (Psalm 
37 : 20) "I said in my heart concerning the estate 
of the sons of men, that God might manifest 
them [make it manifest what they are], and' 
that they might see that they themselves are 
beasts [of the animal creation]. For that which 
befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts [ani- 
mals] ; even one thing befalleth them; as the 
one dicth, so dieth the other ; yea, they have all 
one breath ; so that a man hath no preeminence 
[in this respect] above a beast [animal] : for all 
is vanity. All go imto one place; all are of the 
dust, and ail turn to dust again." (Ecclesiastes 
3: IS -20) "If there be no resurrection of the- 
dcad, then is Christ not risen. And if Christ be 
not raised, your faith is vain ; ye are j'et in your 
sins. Then they that are fallen asleep in Christ 
are perislied."' (1 Corintliians 15:13, 17, 18) 
■•Mr.ny 01 tiicm that sleep in the dust of the earth 
shall av.alce."— Daniel 12:2. 

The thocry of relativity is held by some to 
deny the existence of a space-filling ether, and 
to substitute an emission theory for the gen- 
erally accepted undulatory theory of light. The 
changes this theory is making in the scientific 
v.orld remind us of the words of the prophet: 

"I am tho Lord tliat mal:eth all things; that 
strotcheth forth the heavens alone; that spread- 
eth abroad tJie earth by myself; that frustrateth 
the tokens of the liars, and maketh diviners 



436 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



mad; that turncth ^vise men [scientists and theo- 
logians] backward, and inakctli their knowledge 
looli.sh."— Isaiah 44 : 24, 25. 

Proposed Clock Revision Bii Mimam. n. Ru-kan 

MR. liniTor. : In connection with your month 
calendar described on page 301), I would 
suggest that we also adopt a change in the 
di^•isions of time in the day by substituting a 
day of ten hours in place of the present twenty- 
four-hour day. 

Commencing "with midnight this would bring 
noonday at five o'clock and midnight at ten 
o'clock, the hours to be divided on the decimal 
system, one hundred seconds in a minute, and 
one hundred minutes in an hour. In duration 
of time the seconds and minutes of this ten- 
hour day would very nearly correspond with 
those in the tAventy-four-hour day. 

Such a division of time would be found a great 
advantage to all who have to do with computing 
and working with time tables, as in the offices of 
steam and electric railroads and factories where 
the working hours of employes are figured; 
also to astronomers, and in fact to everybody, 
for we all have to reckon with time. 

For example, instead of having to find the 
time between, say, 9 ;47 a. m. and 5 :16 p. m., we 
would have something like this: By the new 
schedule it would be from 3.86 to 7.32, simply 
subtracting the decimals. 

Then tliere would be no mistakes as to a. m. 
and p. m., as the hour itself would indicate what 
part of the day the event happened. One serious 
objection to its adoption, however, would be the 
inunense sacrifice of capital invested in clocks 
and watches, unless the change could be brought 
about gradually as new timepieces were needed. 
Perhaps we shall be relieved of these perplex- 
ities in the new era. 

Most Powerful Locomotive 

IT HAS been spoken of as the most rcmark- 
able-looliing thing on wheels, this electric 
locomotive ninety feet long. It consists of two 
duplicate Mallard Pacific running gears back to 
back and covered with one cab. It rides so ea.sily 
and operates with sudi smoothness as to hr.ve 
earned the name, "The Pullman Locomotive". 

Many a good thing has come from tlio Nortli- 
west; and this new type locomotive is the pro- 
duct of the immense available water power of 



the Cascade Mountains, handling trains on the 
heaAy grades between Seattle and OtheUo, 
"Washington, on the St. Paul. The most power- 
ful steam locomotive possible, under the limita- 
tions of a railroad of the present 4-foot-8i-inches 
gauge, could have but 3,000 horsepower, accord- 
ing to careful estimates; but the new electric 
giant develops 4,200 horsepower, with a draw- 
bar pull of 100,000 pounds. The weight is 275 
tons and it can draw a heavy train of Pullman 
cars 56 miles an hour on the level and 20 nailes- 
on the heaviest grades. ": 

With steam locomotives the handling of exist- 
ing traffic under the conditions of the railroad- ; 
ing of the Cascade Mountains and other parts _[j 
of the Northwest would be impossible, or too -j;- 
costly. And it was apparent two or three decades :/ 
ago that the mountain streams must be harness- 
ed and the most powerful traction machinery 
in the world developed to insure for the trade . 
of Portland and Seattle and of the fertile re- 
gions of Oregon and "Washington, the trans- 
portation necessarj"- for their prosperity. 

Heads to the North 

ASUBSCRIBEE asks whether there is any 
advantage in sleeping with the head to the 
north. It is believed that on account of the direc- 
tion of flow of magnetic currents in the earth it 
is advisal)le to sleep with the head pointed to- 
ward the north. It is said tliat experiments have 
l)oen made of floating a body upon the surface 
of a quiet body of water, and that in a few hours 
llie head of the body turns toward the north 
magnetic pole and remains in that positton. 

Assuming that the foregoing is correct, it is 
peculiarly appropriate to the Scriptural philos- 
ophy which places the emphasis upon the Nortli 
as the location of Jehovah's throne. — Isa. 14:13. 

An Earthly Image 

THE first man, Adam, when created, was an 
earthly image of his Creator, the highest type 
of fleshly or animal being. That image of his 
Creator consisted in his moral and intellectual 
likoness. It is difficult to judge from present 
human conditions all that is meant by God's 
image, because we have no sample of perfect 
humanity for comparison. It was toward tiic 
olope of the sixth day, or approximately foi'ty- 
two thousand years from the time of beginning 
the ordering of earth, that God created man. , 

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The Qolden Age fcyr March 31, 1920 



437 






HOUSEWIFERY AND HYGIENE 



Keep Well 

U.XCLE SA^.f telis Jiov; to Irpop well, and dio 
advico of the Public liodU; Service is good, 
becauso the tiling.- rfcconiniondod tend to build 
up the bodily pov/eit : 
1. Ventilate- every room you occupy, 
-. "Wear loose, porotis clotliing suited to sea- 
son, "W'cather and oecupation. 

3. If an indoor worker, be sure to get recrea- 
tibii outdoors. 

4. Sleep in i'resh air always, in the open if 
you (an. 

5. Hold a handkerchief before your mouth 
and nose wlien you oougli or sneeze, and insist 
that other55 do so, for mutual protection. 

6. Always wash your hands before eating. 

7. Do not overeat, cr-pecially on meats and 

8. Eat some hard and some bulky foods and 
some fruits. 

9. Eat slowly and chew thoroughly. 

10. Drinlc suflicient water daily. 

11. Evacuate thoroughly, regularly. 
12.- Stand, sit and walk erect. 

13. Allow no poison? and infections to enter 
the body. 

14. Keep thr- tecih. gums and tongue eler.n. 
IJj. Work, p!a\", ro.^i. antl sleop in moderation. 

16. Keep pereiie; woT-ry is the i'oo of health. 
Cultivate the <-ornpi<juonship of your fclJow nic-n. 

17. Avoid iieir-dnva-giiig; beware the plausible 
limnhug ol iho patent medicine faker. 

15. Have ynur doctor examine you carefuJIy 
ojiee a year. C'ojisnlt your dcntisr at regular 
intervals. 

Mixed Her Recipes 

A "WOMAN walked into the village grocery 
.store witli the striilo that foniyliadowed a 
drop in temperature. She seemed disturbed. 

She tlu-ew a package upon the counter. -This," 
she exclaimed £arca.<-tieally, "is tlie soap 'ihat 
makes washing a pleasure". It's the soap that 
"tarns life into joy', jt's the soap — "' 

"Ma'am,'' intcTrupted the grocev, e>:nmij)ii!g 
the package, '"tliai aint soap. Your lilile girl 
wis iit here for a half poun<l eacJi of soap and 
something else. This is the cheese."' 



'TT-mm,that accounts for it," said the woman, 
as the liglit dawned, "•'All nighi I v.'ondcrcd why 
that Wclsli rarebit for supper tasted so queer." 

The Humble Bean 

LEAST of all nitrogenous foods in both size 
^ and price is the bean. It is a meat-substi- 
tute food. A cup of baked beaus furnishes as 
much protein as a quarter-pound of sirloin steak 
and requires only a third of a cup of dried 
beans. It is obviously cheaper; for much of the 
steak is waste, wliile there is no refuse to the 
boaji. The soy bean is richest in protein and 
fat. Slilk, cheese, eggs, or meat should furnish 
some of the protein in the dietary. Long cook- 
ing at moderate heat is considered the best for 
beans and the other legumes. 

Infernal Cleanliness 

IT MAY seem ratlier strong to assert that 
cleanliness internally is the first essential in 
health building, but this is true. The neglect 
to keep the blood stream free from effete matter 
and dead tissue is the cause of 95% of all dis- 
eases. Internal cleanliness is infinitely more 
important than external cleanliness, which, is 
nl.'^o very important. 

The amount of \dtality and strength one pos- 
sesses at any one time is directly dependent 
upon the degree of cleanliness of the intestinal 
tract and of the blood-stream.. Just in degree 
that the body is free from waste products it ij_. 
p.hle to function normally. Few people realize 
the tremendous part internal bathing plays in 
accjuiring and maintaining a healthy body. 

FcAv people know that the normal functioning 
of the bowels and a clean intestinal tract make 
it impossible to become sick: and very few know 
tliat the univei-sal disorder from which all 
humanity is sufi'ering, ''constipation", "auto-in- 
toxication"", etc., is not only curable but pre- 
ventable through internal bathing and tlie con- 
.stimption of a proper amount of rough, fibrous 
food, sucli as celer%-, radishes, lettuce, tomatoes, 
( abbage, string beans, ttirnips, beet?, chard and 
oll'.er vegetables, as well as all the fruits. 

It is not a difficult feat to keep well and in 
a normal condition of health and strength. It 



43S 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



tr.kc«^ n litili' tirjo: and it scorns a? if many pco- 
pJo l<^ifay ];ave t;;ijc to do ercrythiiig oho bur 
one of ilic inosl orfwontial things of all, that 01 
g'ivinp^ thc'ir IjOviiv? proper care. 

A iow niiuutC'S ofcasionally devoted to talcinj? 
an enema before roiii-ing is one of the greatest 
factors in proinotir,,^ and maintaining a healthy 
condition 01 iae 'tody. I^Ianv may ask. "What 
do you moan hy an internal bath?" An internal 
batli is a method of treatment for acqiiirin.c and 
maintaining a healthy condition of th.e human 
body by ■washing out the colon or large intestine. 

This is not what is knoA\Ti as "talking a]i in- 
jection" ; for the small amount of water u.sed in 
the injection is not only ineffective, but leaves 
the bowels in a worse condition than before 
using. From four to six quarts of warm 
water injected into the colon is what constitutes 
an internal bath. It should be taken every day 
for at least six months, and then may be taken 
twice a week if, meantime, the suggestions in 
healtlx building which will follov.' this article 
Lave been faithfully practised. 

The pi'eservation of health is a duty every 
one owes to self and friends; and a failure to 
use the knowledge when it has b^en obtained is 
slow suicide, and notliing less. I earnestly rec- 
ommend the internal bath as a means of regain- 
ing and maintaining health, after having used 
it more than ten years myself and having o]> 
served the same good results follow its use by 
others under my instructions. The body that 
is clean internally is the body possessing the 
greatest strengtli and endurance. 

Health Food Recipes 

Tomato Bisque 
One can tomatoes put tlirough ricer, one heap- 
ing tablespoon grahant flour, one onion cut fine, 
salt and pepper to tasto, tablespoon sugar. Let 
tomatoes come io boil with all but flour, then 
add piece of butter and flour wot v.-ith cold 
water. Cook until it is well done. Pour in ]-»int 
of sweet milk and serve hot ^vith graliani bread. 

Macaroni With Tomatoes 
One and one-half cups broken macaroni. Put 
in cold water and let come to boil. Plaoc in 
colander and let cold water run through. Re- 
place in kettle with one can tomatoes, one table- 
spoon sugar, salt and pepper to taste, a piece 
of butter. When ready to serve, and while hot 
pour in as much milk as desired. 



Sabnoii Loaf 
One can nf snlniou. R.'T.mve the bones,, break 
fis!; ii'. iuiali pifc-ts: add ono beaten egg, one apd 
ojie-half cups graham liread crumbs, grated 
from the loaf. Ono onion cut up, salt and pep- 
per 10 taste, one teaspoon grotind mustard, dash 
of sago, dash of nutmeg. Add the liquid from 
fish and enough sweet milk to make soft. Dot 
v.ith butter and bake imtil a dark bro-wni. Serve 
^\"ilh vrhite sauce. 

Nut Bread 
2h cups flour, I cup sugar, \ teaspoon salt, 
,3 teaspoons baliing powder, ^ cup chopped nuts. 
Mix these ingredients thoroughly. Then take 1 
beaten egg and 1 cup milk and mix them to- 
gether. Combine the mixtures, ttim into butter- 
ed bread pan, and place in an oven at 300° 
Leave for" 45 minutes, when bread will have 
finished rising. Increase the temperature to 
350' and bake for 15 minutes more. This wiU 
finish the baking, and give tlie loaf a golden 
brown color oil all sides. Cut when cold. 

Quich Coffee Cake 
-J cup sugar, 4 tablespoons butter, 1 egg, 1 
cup milk, 1 cup flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 
i teaspoon mace. Cream the butter and sugar, 
add. milk and egg and finally the flour with the 
baking powder. iPour batter into a square bake 
tin and sprinkle thickly over top with a mixture 
composed of one-half nuts and one-half granu- 
lated sugar with one teaspoon ciimamon. Bake 
forty minutes at 350°. 

Economical Pound Cake 

1 cup sugar, ]. cup milk, * cup butter or 
or i 300, 1 egg, \ teaspoon salt, 2 teaspoons 
baking powder, 2 cups flour, nutmeg and lemon 
flavoring. Cream sugar and butter together. 
Then add the heaton egg. Put baking powder and 
sail in the flour and add first small quantity of 
mill:, '.lion Hour, until all the milk and flour are 
in. Boat each time you put in flour or milk and 
your dough will be suffioiently beaten. Bake in 
ovon CO minutes. 

Velvet Sponge Cake 

2 eggs beaten, very light. Beat in 1 cup sugar, 
I cup sifted flour. Then add I cup flour sifted 
v.-ith 1 teaspoon baldng powder, ■J cup (scant) 
boiling water. Add gradually. Bake in oven in 
loaf tin. Bnttor Mill seem thin. Flavor as c de- 
sired. For chocolate cake add 1 heaping tea- 
spoon cocoa. 



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The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



459 




(PiOR€.ChlAi^AcrER@ 



IM XW A'w Prtm. tlml 

THOSE students of Nature v/ho believe in 
God as an intelligent and personal Cause 
. back of all the marvelous and multitudinous 
effects which the senses perceive, quite naturally 
expect to find in. all of God's handiwork the 
■stamp of his ovm character or personality. Even 
;'with. ptiny man, his -work bears his impress. 
But the work is not the man. Neither is God's 
work God— as Pantheism would have us believe. 

HaTing seen the general significance of the 
basis or primaiy colors, it would be entirely in 
line with our expectations to discover a more 
than distant relationship between Color, Sound 
and Form. 

Isdeiiendent vocal soimds we call vowels — 
sounds which are basic and can be pronounced 
wi&out the aid of another sound. American 
and English text books'give us a, e, i, 0, u as 
our vowels ; but i is plainly a diphthong com- 
pounded of ah and ec. Ee is the sharpest of 
T0«^ and is avoided by vocalists, being too 
penetrating to be called musical, on a promin- 
entnote. There is danger that it may degenerate 
into ft squeak. A little reflection ■will establish 
the dose relavionship between ec and a bar of 
glistening, penetrating, white light, perhaps 
hexagonal in shape. 




SILENCE 



Of the basic sounds, a, 0, and 00 are left. 
(Note that the simpler Latin value is here given 
to u, and not the diphthong value ee-00, as gen- 
erally used by the Eiiglish,and still to a limited 
extent by Americans.) .4 is a broad. ellipticaJ, 
yellow sound. Of these three basic, colorful 
tones, it is the most brilliant, though much more 
mellow tlian e. is a full round, red. glowing 
sound — the tone of love and its anguish. The 
bass sound 00 is blue and quadrangular, or at 
least angular in its configuiation. Black, pro- 



ducing no color effect, corresponds to silence 
and tlie quiescent triangle. 

All of these sounds may be understood, in 
concrete instance?, to be not merely planes in 
form, but rather solids, spheroidal, spherical, 
cubical and pyramidal. It will be noticed that 
there is a fair similarity between the "shape" of 
these basic s<junds and the shape into wliich the 
lips are brought when forming them. 

Ttuning a Robin bu iir*. Joteph coates. sr. 

TWO sunmiers ago two robins tried to build 
their ne.«;t on the top of one of our veranda 
posts. The Avind kept bloAving away the grass 
on the unfinished nest : so my husband nailed a 
cigar box on the post, and v/hile the birds were 
away I filled it with grass and mud, and shaped 
the nest in the box. 

When llrs. Robin returned you never sav/ 
such a happy bird. She got into the box and 
began to shape things up for certain. It was not 
long before she had four eggs tliere and began 
to hatch them. To her sorrow and ours a cat got 
her husband before the birds were hatched. My 
husband and I thought we could help the widow 
by digging worms and throAving them to her. 

She soon learned that we were friends. Each 
day she would come a little nearer, until when 
I held a worm dangling down dose to the ver- 
anda floor she saw it and came up the steps. 
Within about two feet of my hand she stoppcft 
a minute but finally decided to take the worm 
ns she knew it Avould make a good meal for one 
nf her babies. In a few ihinutes back she came 
i'or more. I dropped them right at my feet, and 
one after another she picked them up and car- 
ried them to her nest until all had had their 
share. Then you should have seen her eat her 
own meal ! I was afraid I would not have 
enough food prepared, but I did. Finally she 
flew to the pail of water we kept for her in the 
beck yard and drank her fill. Then she hovered 
over her babies until it was time to feed them 
again, about four hour? later, 

Meantime I had found some very fine worms 
again, and of course she looked for help as soon 
as die saw me on the veranda. Ever after I 
helped her feed her brood. She was never wor- 



440 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 




Tied agnin thnt smnnier, and bocnrae so tame 
that one day when my husband sat with one 
kneo 0%-er the otJier slie flew up and lit on lii.? loe, 
sat there ail of three minutes and then oamo iii) 
and took a ■worm from his kiieo. 

She seemed to dearly love her ^rido^ved life, 
alter all; for we helped her raise two other 
broods tliat summer. J'or her last brood she 
built a nest in our nearest tree, just out of the 
danger of cats. AVhen fall earae she looked care- 
worn. Her feathers were worn off and she was 
thin as compared with what she was in the 
spring. Tltis did n'ot discourage her, however; 
for she married a,c:ain and came back last spring 
and raised tw-o more broods. She was quite in- 
dependent this last year and did not get as 
friendly as before. She did not object to our 
giving her some worms, but seemed to rely upon 
her second husband to provide for the family 
and thought she was giving us pleasure to see 
her and to hear her mate sing. It certainly 
did make us feel happy to see her so joyful. 

We know a man who used to shoot everj' bird 
he possibly could, but after a while he saw what 
a sin it was to take the lives of these beautiful 
creatures, so he turned about and became their 
friend. He puts tags on a number of birds each 
fall, with a Scripture verse attaclied. One tag 
was sent back this summer by a man in the 
South who said he had shot his last bird. The 
text w^as: "The Father himself careth for you"'. 

Everything goes to show that we are coming 
into a grand Golden Age when man will have 
his. dominion back. AVhat a glorious time that 
will be ! How I long to see it and to see all the 
misery of this present time flee away! 

Unexpected Exits 

HIS family got $7500 when his car skidded 
on wet leaves, left the road and gave him 
broken legs, arms and ribs, including one rib 
that punctured his lung and caused his exit from 
mundane activities in two days. 

A thousand dollars v/ent to another man's 
folk because he pounded a gasoline tank "with 
a hammer, made a spark, and exploded tlie 
gasoline vapor in the tank, which hurled him 
out tlie door and killed him instantly. 

Fifteen thousand dollars was the snug sum 



that flevr into the widow's window after her hus- 
band climbed over a fence and pulled the gun 
over after him muzzle forward. 

Near Hartford it was three at a time, when 
four men were walking single file carrying rifles. 
The rear gun went off; and the bullet Avent 
through all three ahead, killing one man and 
injuring two others. 

The lights failed when he was driving home in 
Indiana; and before the automobile could be 
stopped it hit a, culvert, killed one person and 
injui-ed several others. 

The brakes failed. It was at the bottom of a 
steep hill, going down, the fence was frail, the 
river full of ice. Several were badly injured. 

Tliis man was talking with the engineer in the 
engine room and put his hand on the journal of 
a machine to see if it wa:s hot. It wasn't; but 
the belt caught him and threw him against the 
wall, crushed him, and indirectly sent his family 
$7,500 accident insurance money. 

In the Golden Age things will be better. Then 
there will be no need to carry accident or any 
other insurance, for means will be at hand to 
prevent accidents absolutely. "They shall not 
hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountam 
[kingdom] ." — Isai ah 11 : 9. 

A Correspondent Sees Red 

A good friend. 
a subscriberjiiade 
this cartoon aitd 
sent it to us with- 
out any insti-uc- 
tions as to how to 
use it. He seems 
to think that it 
needs no explana- 
tion, and it is 
quite possible that 
such is the case, 
but it seems to us 
that the bewhiskered gentleman over the fence 
will be liable to bo just as much in evidence if 
the dog fails to get the meat as if the animal 
gets it. In the one case he wears a red shirt 
and in the other he would have on a silk hat. 




The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



441 




Tile Kble Ignored 

A NATION that claims to be Christian ocfu- 
pics a position of greater responsibility 
than a heathen nation. The decadence of nations 
has been marked from the time when such 
nations began to forget God, after once having 
pretended to recognize him. This is in harmony 
"with the statement of the Psalmist : "The wicked 
shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that 
forget God".— Psalm 9: 17. 

Jehovah organized the nation of Israel, mak- 
ing with them a special law covenant. One of 
Mb prophets thereafter wTote: "Blessed is the 
nation whoRe God is the Lord"'. (Psabn 33: 12) 
Jehovah committed to the priestly class the 
obligation of teaching the people the law and 
leading them in the way of righteousness. The 
priestly class became ultra-selfish, gave much 
attention to formalism and utterly igjiored the 
spirit of the law of God. W]ien Jesus came he 
found the nation of Israel dominated by this 
priestly class, who used their religion as a cloak 
in order to mislead and to control the people. 
They claimed to be the representatives of God; 
yet they had forgotten him in this, that they 
had forgotten and ignored the covenant made 
at Mount Sinai, and had forgotten and ignored 
the principles of righteousness taught by that 
covenant. Because of this fact, as the great 
Master approached Jerusalem to offer himself 
as king, he halted on the side of the Mount 
.of Olives overlooking the city and wept saying: 
"0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that Idllest the 
prophets, and stonost them which are sent unto 
thee, how often would I have gathered thy 
cltildren togellKT, even as a hen gathereth her 
chickens- under her ^^^ngs, and ye would not ! 
Behold, vour house is left unto vou desolate." 
—Matthew 23:37, 38. 

Forty years thereafter the nation of Israel 
was completely destroyed as a polity and its 
people scattered in the earth. The nation of 
l!?rael was t}i>iral. It foreshadowed lliose na- 
tions of earth which have lor many years called 
themselves Christendom. 

The great Master, Jesus, when on earth, 
taught the people; and the most vital lesson 
taught by him was the establishment of the 



Messianic kingdom of righteousness, the resur- 
rection of the dead and the full reconstruction 
of the human familv and the social order of 
earth. He commissioned his followers to thus 
teach. Even' prophet from Samuel to John the 
Baptist foretold tlie times of reconstruction, and 
at Pentecoat St. Peter pointed out that this 
period of reconstruction should begin witli the 
establishment of the Messianic kingdom. There- 
fore, there has rested upon the ecclesiastical 
teachers in the nations called CHiristendom a 
great obligation of instructing the people in 
these fundamental tilings ; viz., the work tlii^it the 
atonement of Jesus accomplishes for man, tlie 
. establishment of his kingdom, the resurrection 
of the dead, the reconstruction of all things in 
the world. No proof is needed in this our day to 
establish the fact that the gi-eat mass of the 
ecclesiastical teachers of the earth who claim to 
follow^ God have forgotten him, have forgotten 
Jesus and have failed to teach, and yet fail to 
teach, those primary and vital truths. The chief 
concern seems to be the formation of a federa- 
tion of churches, wathin the pale of which any 
one may believe and teach what he pleases, as 
long as he conforms to the federation rules, it 
being announced by this federation movement 
that all doctrinal questions will be ignored. 

In other phrase, the Bible and its teaching, 
God's Word, is forgotten and ignored. God 
manifests himself to man through his expressed 
will set forth in the Bible and in his method of 
dealing with those who love and serve him. 
Thereiore, to ignore the fundamental and vital 
teaching of his "Word means to forget God. The 
forgettijig of God has led to haughtiness among 
the teachers, haughtiness among the people — a 
lack of humility ; and in this connection the Lord 
foretold through his prophet that a time of 
stress would come to the nations, saying: "The 
loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the 
iiaughtiness of men shall be made low; and the 
Lord alone shall be exalted in that day". (Isaiah 
2:17) '"And I will punish the world for their 
evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; and I 
will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, 
and ^vill lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. 
. . . Therefore I will shake the heavens [ecclo- 



44^ 



■iiie Qolden Age for March 31, 192c 



siastical sTstcmsl, and the earth [organized 
tsoi'iety] shall roruovp out oi' hrr place, in the 
vrath of (lie i.ord ol' Jmsts, and in the day oI his 
fiorcp aii.E'cr." (Isaiah 13: 11 - IH) "Would it not 
be well lor the leaders in the ecclesiastical 
atTairs of carlli to lake heed to this vvarning ot 
the Lord"s pioplirt and consider well as to 
%vheth?r or not tJiey are following God and the 
Lord Jesus in the course taken? 

It is no secret that the majority of theological 
schools teach higher criticism and evolution, 
ignore the fall of man, deny either in terms or 
in substance the vicarious atonement, and dis- 
pute the resurrcclioii of the dead and the resti- 
tution, or reconstniotion, of the world. Is not 
this ignoring the Bible 1 

The doctrines of the Bible have been the 
torchlight of civilization and liberty. No nation 
can afford to noghxt its plain teacliings. It 
must be conceded, liowever, that in the rush, 
hurry, strife and tarraoil of the tR'cntieth cen- 
tury careful Bible study is a rare thing. Thu 
IMJople are reaping the effects thereof. How 
much teaching of prophecy do we hear from the 
ecclesiastical leader:: of the world today? Alasl 
little or none. 

"What Js prophecy ? The prophecies recorded 
in the Bible are i:i fact statements of great 
historical event.s written long in advance of the 
happening of .?udi events. No human mind 
could have concei\"!.'d tlioFC things ; and thorefori> 
"vvG nrast concludo that the divine mind, fore- 
knowing what vrould come to pass, canted his 
holy men of old to write dovra these important 
events in order that the student might, when tiie 
events would lake place, be able to understand 
the meaning of prophecy and thereby determine 
the proximity of Messiah's kingdom. The 
prophets themselves did not understand what 
they WTOtc: for it was God's plan that they 
should not understand. To Daniel Jehovali gave 
a vision of thing.s that should come to pass, and 
he briefly recorded the important events of 
history from Nebuchadnezzar's to Messiah's 
kingdom. Daniel could not understand and so 
he said: "I heard, but I understood not; then 
said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these 
things? And he [.TehovahJ said, Go thy way, 
Daniel : for the words arc. closed up and sealed 
till the time of the end. Many shall be purified, 
and made white, and tried; but the -wicked shall 
do wickedly : and none of Uie wicked shall under- 
stand : but the v.-itc shali und<?rstand." (Daniel 



12:8-10) Here is the positive promise from 
Jehovah that in tlie time of the end those who 
would forget God, ignoring the great doctrines 
. of his Woid, would not understand the meaning 
of the events occurring, but that the wise 
would understand. The wise here mentioned are 
those who are humble [teachable] and who rev- 
erently desire and seek to know the purposes 
of God. "The reverence of the Lord is the 
beginning of wisdom." The secret of the Lord 
is with them that reverence him and he will show 
them his plan. No one can reverence God in the 
true sense who ignores the teachings of his 
AVord; therefore none such will understand the 
secret of the Lord, nor appreciate the unfolding 
of the divine program. 

For instance, for the past few years the world 
has been living in a time of greatest advance- 
ment materially, a time of the most extensive 
education and acquisition of knowledge, a time 
of greatest invention, and a time w^hen trans- 
portation- by steam, electricity, gas engines, fly- 
ing macliines, etc., has outstripped any other 
period of the world's history. Why has it coicc 
in recent times? The world in general, including 
tliose who claim to be followers of the Lord, 
wall aiisv,-cr that this has come in the natural 
course of cvevts, as a result of mans evolution. 
The student of divine prophecy', however, sees 
it from an entirely different viewpoint, i i<?r 
Jehovah had caused Daniel to record the coming 
events of the world's history. Avhich marked 
the rise and fall of Nebuchadnezzar's tuiiver:5al 
empire, the rise and fall of the Medes anri 
Persians, the rise and fall oif the Grecians, and 
tlien of the Romans, carrying the history down 
to the very day in which we are living, in re- 
sponse to the question as to how manTnlgh: 
know when the end should come, Jehovah ar.- 
swered : "But thou, Daniel, shut up the word?, 
and seal the book, even to the time of the end ; 
many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall 
be increased". (Daniel 12:4) Clearly here is th<» 
marker, definitely determining that civilization 
in its present form is at the time of the end — a 
time when tlie old order is paesmg away, makiug 
way for a new order; and tliis is the very time 
in whicli the Scriptures are to be understood. 
But alas ! Those who have assumed the obliga- 
tion of teaching them have failed to tell the 
people their meaning and have diligently sought 
to retard tlie feeble efforts of a few who have 
attempted to hold these truths before the world. 



J 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



443 



That the nations are in distress and the people 
perplexed is evidenced upon every hand. The 
question generally asked is : Hov?^ may we extri- 
cate ourselves from this dilemma? "VMiat is the 
real cause of it? We have but to refer to the 
words of the great Master- Teacher -when asked 
what would be an evidence of the end of the 
•world — the passing away of the old order and 
the coming in of a new social order. He said 
that at tliat time there would be "upon the earth 
distress of nations, ^nth perplexity ; the sea and 
the waves roaring; men's hearts failing them 
for fear, and for looking after those things 
which are coming on the earth". (Luke 21 :25 ,26) 
How vividly that describes present conditions ! 
:Every*nation is in perplexity. The peoples in 
.aH iiralks of life are in perplexity. The sea, 
symboBis of the restless element of humanity, is 
dashing violently against the rocks — the more 
solid part of civilization ; the waves — the peoples 
—are roaring, and revolution is fomenting 
throughout the eartli. And yet the plain teach- 
ing of Jesus is ignored and the people are not 
instructed as to the real meaning of events. 
■ What the people of Christendom really need 
is to return to a sane and sober condition — to 
a thoughtful and prayful consideration of the 
divine message as set fortli in the Bible. States- 
men of every comitry, recognizing that the old 
order is perishing, are saying in substance : We 
must reconstruct tlie social order. But how? Ave 
ask. And they invariably ^inswer. By the same 
means that we have used for centuries past, viz., 
tiirough the efforts of man. In this connection 
we are reminded oi" the words of Jesus that if a 
piece of new cloth is se-\ni on an old garment, 
both will rend. Tlie old order of things cannot 
be patched up. The time of reconstruction is 
here, and shortly the reconstruction ■ftill begin. 
What the peoples everywhere desire is a govern- 
ment of righteousness administered in behalf of 
all; peace and not war; plenty and not profiteer- 
ing; the right to enjoy life, liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness. This desire -H-ill be ful- 
filled to them under the reconstruction period. 
Looking down to this time, the prophet of the 
Lord wrote concerning the great Messiah and 
his reconstruction blessings upon the world: 
"The government shall be upon his [Messiah's] 
shoulder; and his name shall be called Wonder- 
ful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlast- 
ing Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the in- 
crease of his government and peace there shall 



be no end." (Isaiah 9:6, 7) Again says the 
prophet : "When thy [Jehovah's] judgments are 
in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will 
learn righteousness". (Isaiah 26:9) Bevolu- 
tions in high or low places, anarchy, violence 
and disorder ■will not be permitted. ' Every one 
■will be required to deal justly ■with his neighbor, 
as says the prophet : "With righteousness shall 
he judge the poor, and reprove ■with equity for 
the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the 
earth with the rod of his mouth [the message of 
truth], and with the breath of his lips shall he 
slay the ■wicked [put the ■wicked to flight by 
showing forth the truth]. And righteousness 
shall be the girdle of his loins, and faitiifulness 
the girdle of his reins." — ^Isaiah 11 : 4 - 9. 

In tliis hour of greatest distress amongst 
humankind, instead of forming unions and in- 
structing the peoples that the doctrines of the 
Bible should be ignored, the opjrasite course 
should be followed and the doctrines of the 
Bible carefully considered, that the people 
might know what is the true, safe and correct 
course to pursue. For instance, one element 
agitates another, causing violence of speech and 
action. Why not tell the people, in the language 
of the prophet, to "seek righteousness, seek 
meekness; it may be ye shall be hid" in this 
time of distress? (Zephaniah 2:3) Instead of 
advancing man-made theories, why not tell the 
people that all this trouble and distress on the 
earth is for the purpose of humbling the hatighty 
and bringing low the high-minded, in order that 
the world of mankind will be in an attitude of 
heart and mind to receive the teachings and 
blessings of the Lord? Through the prophet he 
has said: "I -will shake all nations, and [then J" 
the desire of all nations shall come". (Haggai 
2:7) The shaking is on. Why not profit by the 
lessons and why not diligently seek to know 
God's will and do it and thus save further dis- 
tress, shaking and trouble? Let us turn to the 
Bible and study the divine program, and from 
it ascertain the di'vine ■will, and conforming our- 
selves to this, be a comfort and strength to 
others and obtain for oursel'ves the peace of 
mind and heart that passeth all understanding. 
Let us point the people to the fact that ig- 
norance, superstition, ■wickedness, persecution, 
blindness, and failure to understand the trutli 
are due to the deceptions and machinations of 
the adversary; that soon Messiah 'will assume 
control and the evil one shall be restrained; and 



444 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



that then the blessings of the Lord shall come to 
the people, all shall be taught ; and those who 
are ^villing to be taught shall be blessed ; and the 
flood of truth vnll continue to rise until it fills 
the whole earth as the waters fill the deep. 

Under the righteous rejgn of tlie iJessiali, to 
quote the prophet, '"the eyes of the blind rhall 
be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be 
unstopped: then shall tiie lame man leap as an 
hart, and the tongue of the dumb shaU sing"' — 
thus picturing in beautiful poetic phrase how 
tJie reign of Messiah will open the eyes of under- 
standing and unstop the deaf ears, that the 
people may see and hear and know that recon- 
struction must come only through the ministra- 
tion of Messiah's kingdom. The time is at hand 
spoken of by St. Peter: God "shall send Jesus 
Christ, . . . whom the heaven must retain 
until the times of reconstruction [restitution] 
of all things, wliich God hath spoken by the 
mouth of all his holy prophets since the world 
began". (Acts 3:19-21) This reconstruction 
means the reconstruction of society, the estab- 
lishment of a new and happy order of things 
amongst men, governing the people under just 
and^ righteous laws, and bringing to man his 
long-cherished desire of life, liberty and happi- 
ness. During that happy reign "the ransomed 
of iho Lord shall return, and come to Zion -inth 
songs, and everlasting joy upon their heads: 
they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow 
and sighing shall flee away". — Isaiah Go:]©. 

The Apostle Peter (2 Peter 3:5-13) describes 
the present condition of unrest and the melting 
of the elements now in progress, viz., the capital 
and labor eIeme^t^■, tlio ecclesiastical, social, 
financial and politici;] elements. In prophetic 
vision, looking down to Messiah's kingdom, he 
declared: "Nevertheless, we, according to his 
[God's] promise, look for a new heavens and a 



new earth". "New heavens'' means a new in- 
\isible ruling power, viz., ^lessiah's lungdom; 
the new earth, a new social order under his 
supervision, prevailing amongst men, whereby 
they shall be blessed with life, liberty and happi- 
ness and given the opportunity to dwell forever 
on the earth if they are obedient to the require- 
ments of the new laAV covenant. 

"\Miy were these things recorded in Holy Writ 
unless they were intended for tJie instruction 
and comfort of man in the hour, of distress? 
And if recorded for that purpose, why not pro- 
claim them from the housetops to the people? 
We are just now about to enter that wonderful 
time described in beautiful phrase by St. John, 
while on the isle of Patmos, saying: "^aid I 
John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem [in 
Ej-mbolic language, ^Messiah's kingdom], coming 
dov.Ti from God out of heaven, prepared as a 
bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a 
great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the 
tabernacle [dwelling place] of God is with men, 
and he will dv»-ell ■wdth them, and they shall be 
his people, and God himself shall be -witli them, 
and be their God. And God shall wipe away all 
tears from their eyes ; and there shall be no more 
death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither sliall 
there be any more pain; for the former thine 
are passed away. And he that sat upon tl 
throne said, Behold, I make all things new. Anu 
he said unto me, AVritc; for these words ar^ 
true and faithful." — Revelation 21 : 2 - 5. 

The formation of men into leaguds, combina- 
tions and systems ecclesiastical and political 
vrill not bring man's heart desire. The^ satis- 
fying portion will come only through the king- 
dom of the Lord. The Bible alone tolls about 
this. Let us tiirn to a careful, prayful, hono?t 
and faithful study of this great treasure-houce 
of knowledge and vi-isdom. 



THOSE DEAR FAMILIAR FEET 



"Thpy arc snch dear familiar feot th.Tt go 
Along U:e path wllh ours — feet fnst or slow, 
But tryinj? to keep pace. If they mistake. 
Or tread upon sonio flower that we would take 
Upon our breast ; or brui.se some rccd ; 
C)r crush poor hope until it bleed — 
Wc must l-" muf'.'. 

Nor turnins quickly to impute -grave faults: 
I'or they ami wc • 

* Have sucli a little wiiy to pn, can be 
Topetfier .«iip!! « lllile "iille upon the w;iy — 
We must he patiait icliilc wc mai/. 



"So many little fr.uUs wc< find : 
Wo sec them, for not blind 
Is lore. We see them ; but If you and 1 
Perhaps remember them — r-pnie by and bj' — 
They will not be faults tlisn, 
Onive faults to you and nic; 
But just odd wa.\s. mistakes or even less, 
Itemembrar.i.'es to bles.-, 
T>ny'-' clinnpe so many things, yet;, hours, 
\\'o foe t^o dilTerently In sun and showers. 
Mistaken words toniglit may be ro cherished 
By tomorrow's liirlit, 
— Thtrc's such a little Kay to go." — xsakno-xn 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



445 



JUVENILE BIBLE STUDY 

ONE question for each day Is provided by tbls Jonmal. The parent ttUI find It interesting and helpfnl 
to have the child take np the question each day and to aid it in flndlnc the answer in the Scriptures, 
ttana deTeloping a Imotrledge of the Bible and learnlns where to find in it the information which is desired. 



1. Was Jesus icmptedf 

Answer: See Hebre\rs 4:15; Maithew 4:1; 1 
Pet*r 2:22. 

2. Why could Jesus he tempted and God notf 

Ajowtr: Jesus was a man; God is a divine being. 
-Raines 1 : 13 ; Hebrews 2:18. 

3. Wk^n Jenis died, teas he actually dead? 

;. Ai^er: See Hebrews 2 : 9 ; 9:22; Philippians 2: 
#; Is^ah 53:12; 1 Corinthians 15:3, 4. 

. 4. Who raised Jesus from the dead? 

Aarnrer : See Acts 3 : 32 ; 3:15: 4:10; 5 : 30 ; 10 : 
40; 18:80; Galatians 1 : 1 ; Acts 17:31; Romans 4: 
24; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 15:15; Ephesians 1:20; 
Colossians 2:12; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; Hebrews 13: 
20; 1 Peter 1:21. 

5. Could Jesus raise himself? 

Answer : No ; for he was dead. — 1 Corinthians lo : 15. 

6. Do dead people Jcnow anythinr}? 

Answer : See Ecclesiastes 9:5; Psalm 146 : 4 ; Eccle- 
■iastes 3 : 20. 



7. Eoic Inntj was Jesus dead? 

Answer: See Acts 10:40; Luke 24:46; 1 Cor- 
inthians 1* : 4. 

8. Where was Jesus' during these three days? 
Answer : See Matthew 27 : 57 - 60 ; Isaiah 53 : 9. 

9. How did they kill Jesus f 

Answer: Sec Mark 15:20-26; Luke 23:83. 

10. Was Jesus resurrected as a man againf 
Ansv.cr: See 1 Peter 3:18; 1 John 8:2; 1 Cor- 
inthians 15:45, 51; 2 Corinthians 5:16; 8:17. 

11. Do spirit beings hai'C flesh and hone hodiesf 
Answer: See Luke 24:39; 1 Corinthians 15:50. 

12. When did Jesus ascend into heaven? 

Answer: Forty days after his resurrection. — ^Acts 1: 
3-11. 

13. Will Jes^is ever come againf 
Answer: See John 14:3; Hebrews 9:28. 

14. Will Jesus he a man at his second comingt 
Answer: See 2 Corinthians 5:16; 1 John 3:2; 

Acts 1:3-11. 



A HEART-CRY AND ITS ANSWER 



By Leslie Erncrion 



Into the great beyond! 

God, what does it mean? 
This vailed separation — 

This awful giilf between? 

Akswee: 

Into the great beyond? 

It means the age of right. 
Look up! tear-dimmed sufferer, 

Behold the dawning light. 

AVhat is the other world? 

Can none return to tell? 
Is heavenly bliss a fiction? 

Is there a burning hell ? 

Answer : 

What is the otlier world? 

Men will return to tell. 
Earth shall become their heaven, 

The grave has been their hell. 



■Whither have gone our loved ones? 

God, reveal the light; 
From dark despair, save us; 

Guide thou our steps aright. 

Axsv.-tn: 

M'hither have gone our loved ones? 

In restful sleep they've lain. 
Now comes the hestjkrzctiok. 

With joy instead of pain. 

Oh, lift the weight so crushing. 

This cruel, heartless war 
Has brought the earth a sadness 

Deeper than known before. 

AxswKii : 

Lifted the weight tp crushing; 

The agony is post. 
Today brings hope and glidneas, 

The Golden Age tt last. 



446 



The Qolden Age for March 31, 1920 



THE CRY OF JEWRY 



(Cy Israel 

Jews of the frrent. Republic, clnsjipd to her raother-breiisr. 
NestUnp so warm ami [>et',rcful within that hnsoni Most, 
Turn to our torturer] I-AUMiif. liark !o t'lC r.iyri:Hl i;:oan 
Of puichcd lips, white wiiJi isunper. Uc.r stiSVi; tn^ t!ip;- criTian, 
Ai;il renicn;l*r in the?e wuu creature- riiu,> tiio biuud tl'.at 

Is your own. 
Their sires aiid yours fdporlior l)ore ce.-iseiess y;^,",j-s of sofirn ; 
AVirh qi;eni:-!:i'>rs f:iii!i. i'l ni::rsht;;vs f.u-v fcilloweil ai'te;' morn. 
They built their Iiouj:^; <jri iniii-ks.-ir.rt nr rjie rod volttiiio'.? eono, 
Ani.1 every w^c Ijflwld ir erirulfed or nverlliro'.vn. 
For never in ull the files did .-i home renir.in their own. 
By clevnstnted dwelliups. by dt'secmted fanes. 
By hearth-stones coltl and crimsoned, and slaujhter-reeliinj: 

lanes, 
Acain Is the Hebrew qur.rter through half of Europe known ; 
And crouchins in tli<> shambles. Ritrhel. the nncionr crone. 
Weeps agiiin for her (.•hiluicn and the fate that is her ov.n. 

JCo lauphter rings in these ruins save of girls to inadiiers 

shamed. 
Their mothers dlsemlioweled lie stark 'raid children maimed. 
The "Shod" has a great congrogutioii but never a p.salm 

they drone, 
Shrouded in red-slrlped "Tallisim." Levi huddles with Kolin : 
But the blood from their lx)dies ooziny is tae blood that 

is your ov.u. 
Shot, some six to a hulle!, lashed a:id traile<l in the dust, 
Mutilated with hatchets in .':uperl.evtial lust — 
No beast can even imacine what .'oaio men do or condone — 
Surely these hear our burdrn ai:d for our sin--, atone. 
And if we hide our faces, tlien the piill is as our own. 

Laden with bubes and bundles, footsore on every road. 
Their weary remnants wander, with bayonets for goad, 
They cry: "Slieina Visnel" In trasjic monotone. 
And if ye. Israel, hear not. by whom shall truth I)o sho\rTi? 
For the strength whereby God save.? us is the .strength that 
Is our own. 



Zanauill) 

Alas! for the wizened Infants, sucking at stone-dry breasts. 
.\las : for the babies writhing in the grip of plagues and pests. 
Tiiey are fever-stricken and famished, they are rottea of 

skin and bone. 
Yi't their motlievs must die and ler.ve them to suffer and 

starve alof.e. 
And any one of tliese children might be your very own. 

Barefoot, ragged and staring like walkers in their sleep. 
Feeding on bark or savnlus t. the doomed procassions creep; 
t'niwling through niarsl! or snowdrift or forest overgrown, 
They bear on high their "Torah" like a flag to heaven flo^^-n ; 
They prove hovv great Uielr spirit, let us prove how great 
our own. 

At last hut n naked rablile. clawing the dust for bread, 
.tabliering, wailing, whining, horde? of the living dead. 
Halt apes, half ghosts, they grovel, nor buman is their tone. 
Yet they are not brutes but brethren, these wreckAtf tlie 

hungcr-Kone. . jb 

And their death-cry rings to heaveu In' tfe^ tongue^hat is 

your own. 



y 

lurso 



.Tews of the gre.'it Republic who gave your sons to death. 
Thar I'eace ]» born in Europe and Justice draw new breath. 
Will yc still endure to witness as of yore your kindred thrown 
To races whose souls are savage, to tribes whose hearts are 

stone. 
Compared with, the love and mercy that for ages have 

Wirmed our omi? 

S'ot your lips to the"Shofar,'" waken a fiery bUtst, 
Shrill to the lieatiien'nations — this slaugliter Shall be the last : 
Ani\ send our old Peace-greeting pealing from cot to tliroue. 
Till inanklud heeds tlie message on die Hebrew trumpet 

blown. 
And the faith of the whole world's peoples Is the faith that 

is our own. 

— The Jeici*li Advocate 



PALESTINE s THE ^ NEW 



GOLDEN AGE REMITTAI^CE 
COUPON 

Zio:^isT Organization oi Ameiupa 
05 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Gsntlemen : — I desire to help the 
Jews in the restoration of Palpsiine 
as their national home and enclo.so 
$ for that purpose. 

Address _ 



THE imagination of mankind is fired today by the 
picture of a Now Palestine — a Palestine Restored. 
Ill tb.ii tlie world sees more thin the vctttrn of scattered 
].=rnol to the Prorni.sed Land — more than a realization ol- 
the age-long aspirations of a people. .It sees tl:c renewal of 
a fov.iit frciii which, for centnrie.s past, civilization has 
' drami rich inspiration — moral. infc?llpcttial and spiritual. 
Or.ce more united on the sacred soil of their fnthers, inspired 
anew by their traditions of old, their wisdom enriched by the 
accumul.ited lore of many peoples and many land.s, the modern 
son.-; of an ancient race will give new treasures to the world. 
I'alestinc Restorerl holds out new promise to manlciad. 

U. S. SENATOR JOHN SHARP ^VILUAMS smys: 

"I think It all con.'tlfutes an eiwch in the history of the 
'Chosen Race." and still more than that, It constitutes an epoch 
in the hi.s;ory of civiUzraion." 



PALESTINE RESTORATION FUND 

AViitc for free literature. Coniribuliotis t.) authorized representatives or direct to 

The Zionist Organization of America 

55 Fifth Arenue, New York City 



V 



HOPL FOR DI5TRL55LD 

HUMANITY 

"STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES" 

give you Hope based on Fact and Faith. They tell the meaning of present -world 
events and sustain both mind and heart in these distressing times. 



I 




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ARE YOU A CHURCH-MEMBER t 

These volunics will answer your every ques- 
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settle your misgivings and doubts.' 



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Then you cannot afford to be without this helpful series of Sciuptuke Stcdies 
In Bi:^ volumes — 3,000 pages. 



Vol. I "The Pivinr. Plan of the A'jcs" 
Vol. II "The Time is at Hand" 
Vol. Ill "Thij Kingdom Come' 



Vol. IV "The BalUc of Armageddon" 
Vol. V "The Atonement" 
Vol. VI "The h'ew Creation" 



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I'ltaM u«nlloa Tut UoLDI^ Ack vii«n antv. ving atlT«rtlKort. 




April 14, 1920. ToL ]. No. IS 

WBM rii&Mahstf overt «0^*f 

1199 leeeMataSltvrtltAcenM, 

180 xVew Tor*. .Y. T., XT.a.A. 

^^^ fSarmugh •/ 9r»aWfaJ 

T«B ChU • Cour— n.M • Tar 

roretcn SafascxipUaa Frlca $2.09 



TolABM 1 WSOMXSSXT. APBIZi 14, 1S80 iraai»«r U 

CONTENTS of the GOLDEN AGE 
tABon m4 leoHomct 

OBtal Tata* Wb7 Mm Oriaalm 489 

toeiAI. nd XOTJCATIONAL 
CMMm'a Riit-XIiMWork +63 ' TmportMtMwri flnpp f MM d 4BS 

cSiMXnlalas 454 Cluneal OpprMMn 4S« 

nilAMeib COHKBKCa. TXANtPOXTATIOIl 

mUUh SxpmtMtaim *5T Brlttsft Flntndml . 

Tb* Brlttali Etebt -488 RoiMdlai . ... «W 

POLITICAU DOHBSTIG »« FORKIGH 
Slitlah Bmpli* TroablM 459 Itebirth of Idtria 401 

icSp.«J and Ireland 401 Militarism Coat 463 

Aa>ICUI.TUaE and BUSBANSSY 
CMnrttr lift is ITaim Boraaoa 

tteXW Aso <-4«S Ftdaratton ,. 464 

•CISMCa ««d IirVBNTIOM 
Ai* n«N Daad Stan T 4S5 Cnric— ^Aedtati 



.4as Snata for Nnmbar 14 
BOVnWITBRT and HTCtBHa j 

ITmBaMlaa of SAtnaL—- 48S ' 

:- V ■ - ... ■ .1 

TIAVSI. aad MIICXLLAIIT 

KaalOl 0t CMldrwi -489 Ds Morlaa But ' \ 

$QM«pky«(CWrapnette 4a» tin* Braat in . ^ . ! 

ULXOION nd TRILOSOPBT 
Dm irav Ed«B Jtrrailla BlbU Btnrty ,„ 4Ta 
^taaabadowed. 473 Aa Othara Baa Ua 4S« 

MAmryAcniRiNa aad kihimo 



nklMMa (HIT atta W ■*■■«■» M s vjTti* 

Av«na«. (B«ro of Uro«k)Tnt S( « 5^erl(, N. T., 
kr WOODWORTB. aXTDCOiaS Md MAariN 
ctATTON /. WOODWOITH . , Edit" 

ftSEV'iyidS'.gaP : : : : HiT-WBSr 

C«rutaa« od pnviMan. 4d4nM: » Hrrcl* 

Avuw, (barvoi aiaoiiUii) 4%.« lock, N. Y. 

Tw Czara t. Govt— <l.00 a nas. 
UaJn rKilttancaa to TAa OcUten Agt. ' 



TSmTmk. M. f. 



«rtc Golden Age 



N«w Tork, YTtdamday. April 14, ISM 



VrmhtTlB 



CAPITAL VALUE AND STANDARDS 

By S. B. Broiteh 



IT HAS been amply and forcefully demou- 
strated to world inteUig;ence that a prime 
caose df the high cost of living, social onrest 
and financial chaos everysvhere existing is due 
to in-stalulity of prices in making domestic and 
foreign exchange of products ; in other words, 
inability to define correctly the character and 
volume of value in units of commerce. 

The only way possible of eliminating an effect 
is to remove its cause, in this case ignorance of 
values. When producer and consumer can cor- 
rectly define the value of products they will 
demand just equivalents in making commercial 
esdiaEfges, and an honest public sentiment will 
enforce their demands without confusion or 
without controversy. 

Known and generally recognized facts ivill 
not admit of argument When world democracy 
and stable government have become automatic 
and self-adjusting, social unrest, militarism and 
finaneial chaos vnll disappear, and every child 
of man will have full opportunity to develop 
morally, physically and mentally to the limit of 
its natural ability. 

Capital includes all units employed by society 
in social development and human uplift. Value 
is correctly defined and measured by stating the 
volume and character of social service rendered. 
Standards are natural agents by whose means 
we may correctly define the character and vol- 
ume of all social units and thus remove them 
from the realms of controversy. Any part of a 
thing, large or small, is a nnit of that thing and 
that unit never varies in character, composition 
and function. This is axiomatic. 

■Though unrecognized and unnamed when 
Abel kept liis floclks, units of time, electricity, 
heat, distance, etc., hours, watts, degrees, rods, 



etc., existed and functioned exactly as they do 
today, and will so continue through perpetual 
ages. The laws of nature never sleep. 

Dollar is a term by which we define a unit of 
gravity containing twenty-five and ei^t-tenths 
grains weight (of gold). That unit of gravity 
always existed, always will exist and wiU never 
vary in function, will always define twenty-five 
and eight-tenths grains' weight and nothing else. 
We cannot define value in terms of weight. 

A bushel of No. 1 wheat in the twelfth cen- 
tury, when it sold for about two cents, contained 
exactly the same number of gravity units, cubic 
units and nutritive units that it contains today, 
and always has and always will render exactly 
the same value or volume of social service — ^wiil 
never vary, but ever remain the same in com- 
position, character, function and value. 

Standards are natural products over which 
men and nations have no jurisdiction, no option 
in their selection and establishment. Nature 
established gravity, duration, space, altitude, 
longimetry, etc., as standards of weight, time, 
capacity, height, length, etc. Man had no choice 
in the matter whatever. A standard is identical 
in character with the units defined, with the 
units that compose its structure. 

The law of standards defines a standard as 
the greatest possible or culminating unit of its 
kind and includes all units of its own character. 
Gravity includes all weight units, space all ca- 
pacity units, duration all time units, etc. There 
is no exception to the law or rule. Hence the 
standard of values must include all units of 
value or all factors of commerce. An under- 
standing of that law makes the location of a 
standard a simple matter. Name its greatest 
unit, and you have named the standard. 



45S 



The Qolden Age fcrr Apnl 14, 1920 



Space includes the nnirerse and is the stand- 
ard of capacity and the greatest unit of capac- 
ity. Duration includes all units of time from 
seconds to eternity, and is the only possible 
standard of time. Gravity embraces all weight 
units, altitude all height units, etc Obedient to 
that law all social factors, all tmits of commerce 
from toothpicks, minerals, power-sites, etc., to 
the world's greatest transportation systems are 
parts or units of the Standard of Value. 

Labor is the world's greatest unit of value 
and., includes all other units of value combined. 
It is the greatest unit of' commerce and is the 
only possible standard, of value. As space is 
the architect of all capacity units, so is labor 
Uio. originator of all commercial units. The 
first intelligent step in any enterprise is to 
determine correctly its labor cost or require- 
ments, and that cost or value is determined by 
the volume and character of labor required. 
There is no other way of determining values ; 
and this fact is recognized and employed by all 
contractors of public and private enterprises. 

"Without space there can be no capacity; with- 
out duration there can be no time ; without grav- 
ity there can be no "height; without altitude 
there can be no height; 'ndthout dominating or 
unlimited units there can be no standards. 

Without labor there can be no woodpulp, no 
musical composition, no books, no tools, no ma- 
chinery, no enterprise, no transportation, no 
commerce, no business and no civilization. 
Labor, bought and sold, is the one unit of value 
that comprehends and defines all units of value. 

The valuo of any product is correctly defined 
by the volume and character of the labor em- 
ployed in its creation. 

As we define and measure heat, steam, light 
and electrical energies by their results, products 
or units so can we dciinc and measure labor 
energy by its results, products or units. A table 
of actual values and a national currency defin- 
ing actual values in different denominations of 
units of value will eliminate social and financial 
stress forever from the affairs of men. 

Why Men Organize bv a. PoUerma» 

MB. Editor: I have been reading your arti- 
cles regarding railroad wages and espe- 
cially the communications in your number dated 
February 4. The most of Avhat one reads about 
railroad wages in papers and magazines refers 



to the big brotherhoods. I wish to give you 
an idea of the condition that confronts other 
men in railway ser\'ice. For thirty years I 
have been employed as clerk for a large railroad 
system and have finally worked up to the posi- 
tion of power-man: This position does not come 
under the head of any of the organizations, but 
before the government took over the roads was 
on the same par as train dispatchers and yard- 
masters. "VVe were all getting $140 per month. 
When the organizations started their machinery 
for more pay, the yardmasters' organization de- 
manded $250 per month and got $225, but are 
expecting any time now that it will be made 
$250. We were not organized in any way, and 
were reduced to clerks, with an increase of 
$12.50 per month, instead of $85 to $110 per 
month increase. The poyit I am trying to make 
is, Can you blame men for organizing f We 
made a protest, but did not even receive an 
answer, iand are poorer than ever. 

Something About Sugar By l. d. samet 

THE following announcement is j\ist off the 
press xmdcr current date in a letter to 
candy-makers: 

"That ouz CQgtomers may receive the benefit of Iott 
wholesale prices and the priTilege of bujug sugar duxing 
the shortage of that product, we offer: 

Sugar $9.63 per 100 lbs. 



Fecans- 



-$1 per lb. shelled. 



These prices are subject to change without notice and to 
prior sale (pecans arc expected to drop to 90 cents or 
lower at any time, and your order will be filled at the 
prerajling market price). — Service Department, Soutk- 
em Candy Company, Confectionery Speciaiists, New 
Orleans, U. S. A." 

It goes to show that something is crooked 
indeed when working people can hardly get 
sugar for table use at any price, and when 
available at all it comes in pound lots at double 
the wholesale price. This condition develops 
wliilc the "-wise men" quarrel for a year about 
how to run the rest of the world. 

We long for the fulfillment of the promise that 
the worthies of the past — the prophets and ■wise 
ones of Israel — be made princes in all the earth. 
(Psalm 45: 16) Nothing short of divine power 
can- cope with the scliish elements of earth. 
Moses, Xoah, Daniel, Job, Joseph and such like 
characters may be depended upon under divine 
direction to remove all dissatisfaction and bring 
in the desire of ail nations. Thy kingdom come! 



The Qolden Age for April 14, 1920 



453 



SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL 



i- 



iij» 



Children' a Part-Time Work 

WHILE they are still at school, in the morn- 
ing, at noon and at night, on Saturdays 
and holidays and vacations, there are many little 
men and women that help to bear the expenses 
of the family by services rendered to others for 
pay, or by little businesses of their own which 
they run at a profit 

A kind Qf business frequently undertaken by 
boys is the selling of papers. But these poor 
lads usually become victims of vice as a. result 
of their etreet experiences, and as the work re- 
quires their time in the early morning and late 
at night they not infrequently become so fa- 
tigued that they cannot keep up with their school 
studies and become dwarfed in mind and body. 
It has been found by careful inquiry that during 
the summer months boya who have large paper 
bunnesses, requiring much time morning and 
night, can make more money in the same time 
if spent in gardening for profit. 

Many children do odd laboring jobs for fees, 
and some even do heavy manual labor, includ- 
ing working on the road, teaming, ditching, cut- 
ting wood, mowing lawns, washing automobiles, 
.sweeping, dusting and scrubbing offices, beating 
rugs, caring for furnaces, working around pub- 
lic buildings, barber shops, hairdressing, shoe- 
shining, carrying grips, bellboy, waiter, caddy, 
delivery and messenger service. There is noth- 
ing in these occupations to commend them to 
schoQl children, and they, are liable to start the 
children permanently in the wrong direction. 
"Work as an office boy or office girl also provides 
few opportunities to observe business methods 
or to sccTlro useful training in any way. The 
exceptions are few. 

Other children accept positions in department 
stores at wrapping parcels, running errands and 
doing odd jobs ; and when the offer of a perma- 
nent position comes, the opportunity to earn 
money and to get some of the things that money 
Mill buy, proves irresistible and they leave 
school. Tliis work is not heavy, but the hours 
are long, the children are on their feet most of 
the time, and many girls experience serious 
foot trouble as a result of such work. The sur- 
roundings are not objectionable, however; and 



children so employed have many opportunities 
to learn much about business affairs. 

In cases where schoolgirls engage to assist in 
home duties, a large proportion of them are en- 
gaged in the care of younger children, an occu- 
pation very suitable to girls, and one in which 
most girls take pleasure. These girls usually 
have an abundant opportunity for recreation in 
the open air, and their activities offer good 
training facilities. 

In cases where boys hire out to farmers, the 
hours of labor are sometimes long; but as a rule 
chUdren are not overworked on the fanzL Some 
of the work, such as hoeing and weeding, is 
fatiguing if persisted in many hours at a time ; 
but mudi of the work is in the form of errands, 
picldng fruit, etc. The work is done in the fresh 
air, the food is wholesome and in good supply, 
the environment is good, and at the conclusion 
of the vacation season the child returns to the 
city mrich stronger for his experience. More- 
over, tlio varied opportunities that are provided 
on a f aim for an all-roimd development of the 
senses make a season on a farm a very desirable 
part of every boy's education. 

For work undertaken oh their own account, 
there is nothing so healthful and profitable for 
children during the summer montiis as a weU- 
kcpt garden. It is surprising how much money 
can be made in a season by a boy or a girl who 
is willing to work as hard at this work as would 
be necessary at other money-making occupa- 
tions. Producers of food in the United Slates 
will be rendering a great service to humanity 
this coming season, provided economic condi- 
tions permit the food's produced to be properly 
distributed. The' census of 1910 showed that 
from 1900 to 1910 the agricultural products of 
the United States increased only 10% as com- 
pared -with the preceding decade, while the pop- 
ulation increased 21%. 

If the Tangco" twins, now living in a children's 
home in Brooklyn, ever take to gardening they 
will have to be careful of the plants. The^e 
poor children, natives of the Philippines, are 
joined together; one of them walks backward 
while the other walks forR-ard. They were for- 
merly on exhibition at Coney Island, but -^stre 



4J4 



TTie Qolden Age for April 14, 1920 



i 

I 

'4 



ordered by a Manila court to be placed in cus- 
tody where they could be better cared for. One 
of them recently had the influenza ; the other was 
not ill but had to remain in bed until his brother 
recovered from the attack. 

There will come a time, in the (Jolden Age, 
when the Lord will separate these brothers. 
Will it not seem like heaven to them when they 
are able to runabout like others T Miracles will 
be common then. "Then the eyes of the blind 
shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall 
be unstopped. Then shall the lame man leap as 
an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing." — 
Isaiah 33 : 5, 6; 65 : 17 - 25. 

Child Training 

CHILD training should begin about fifty 
years before birth and continue until the 
'child has reached seventy years of age, by which 
, time he will have learned the fundamentals of 
how to live, unless he has been brought up in 
the atmosphere of certain ecclesiastical institu- 
tions and has remained in it, in which instance 
the ease may become hopeless. 

A mother who does not use her intelligence 
can make large progress toward raining a child 
within a very few weeks after its birth ; she can. 
do this by malcirig it perfectly clear to the child 
that he can get anything he wants by crjing for 
it Later she can teach the child to lie by mak- 
ing promises which she does not keep and does 
not intend to keep. Fathers can assist in this. 
They can also teach their children to swear, to 
be unclean in mind and body, to be evasive, 
tricky, unprincipled and brutal. It is entirely 
natural for children to do what they see done 
by their fathers. 

Love for right principles and love for God as 
the Author of ail that is pure and lovely in crea- 
tion is never inculcated in children by parents 
who do not love and practice those principles. 
No child was ever beaten into godliness or a 
love of truth. The child should be appealed to 
through the power of reason and example ; and 
the greatest of these is example. 

The physical ability of a sLx-foot man to beat 
a boy of tender years does not imply that the 
man is fit to be a father. An ourang-outang 
might be able to give the father an even worse 
punishmont than the father would dare give 
the boy, though sometimes these punishments 
are. bad enough, and far -worse than a decent 
anthropoid ape would think of using. A man 



who knows how to use only physical strength 
in disciplining his children is not much of a 
father. His children are to be pitied. 

A New York justice sentenced, to not less 
than six months and not more than three years 
in the penitentiary, a father who beat a frail 
littla underfed boy ,of nine years old with a 
leather trace because he did not hold the baby 
as ordered. One hundred and eleven cuts were 
found on this child's body. In the central part 
of New York state a clergyman best a four- 
year-old child to death for refusing to say hia 
prayers. What kind of God would one be that 
would wish a parent to beat a child to death for 
refusing to pray to Himf He would be worse 
than the parent himself. He would be like 
Moloch, the old-time eternal-torment deity. 

Runaways from pleasant homes seldom occur. 
Most of the runaways occur from homes where 
the parents follow* an old-established and evil 
custom of some priest-ridden European conn- 
tries, of working children like slaves and insist- 
ing upon their handing over their pay envelopes 
tmopened. When a child begins to earn money 
he begins to have certain rights to a portion 
of it that were not his before. Parents should 
respect these rights. 

Following another ancient European custom, 
more than half of the states of ^ the union still 
give the fathers exclusive rights over their cliil- 
dren, control of education, religion and medical 
care, earnings, and the right to all property in 
case of death. Three states, Delaware, P'lorida 
and Tennessee, to their shame, even permit the 
father at his death to transfer his children from 
the mother's care to that of other guardians. A_ 
more just and merciful arrangement, in effect 
in many states, is equal guardianship of the 
children as long as the parents live together, 
entire control to the surviving parent in case 
of the death of one of the parents, and in the 
case of separation or divorce the judge decides 
which parent is better fitted to have the children. 

On account of the high cost of living fewer 
children of seven to twelve years of age are being 
adopted from the asylums than heretofore. A 
child of this ago requires as great an outlay as 
an adult; and as he is unable to render aid to 
the family adopting him, he does not find as 
great a welcome in a new home as when prices 
were not so higli. The demand for girls For 
ndnption is far greater than the demand for 
boys. Pretty rough on the boys I 



The Qolden Age far April 14, 1920 



455 



Important Newt Suppressed By o. a. DrUcoii 

MB. Editor : In a recent contribution for the 
columns of your paper, which you published 
under the caption "Eussellism Will Not Down ', 
in your issue of March 17th, I stated that Eus- 
seiiism had thrived on persecution; and the 
following comments on the Rutherford Hippo- 
drome meeting are for tho purpose of giving 
you something further to tMnk about. 
The Hnssellites, now 



every country of the world for the purpose of 
making this a world-wide proclamation. He 
furtlier made it plain that the clergy of all 
denominations, Protestant and Catholic, would 
bring their full influence to bear through every 
possible channel and by either fair or foul 
means keep the members of their congregations 
in ignorance upon these subjects and that their 
continued opposition should be expected by all 



t%T 1' n truth-seekers 

**mimr\s now living ml never die 



b a &M iKtin m Um HIppadtaiiN oat SoDdir litenMea k wiO b« cMchniveljr pnina 
faj muT BibBcal pr«|iiMtM> wUck hmn bwn fdOU iutwt tb* put few ftm, 
ud fa«ai muT atb«» ttil ■ «n(M oi (uUifaHBt, that biBdndi of dwvMBb BOW 






under the leadership 
of Judge Rutherford, 
their presideut, began 
a world campaign 
with a new proclama- 
tion: "Millions Now 
Living Will Never 
Die". In advertising 
this meeting, full 
page announcements 
similar to the facsim- 
ile herewith submitted 

?ew ?o1i"pa"^i JudgeRutherford 

throughout the week 



■rin •a' udmbWht •'• uA m ^i iw 

It* whU ia itt ny» «i» « < l la MV l« 
pitltm^ had *9w slttr* ^ 






Km Snd*r. Mud) nil. •! ;s a'deek ia tb 

StHlPPODROME^ 




preceding the lecture. 
These announcements 
contained the points 
to be proven, namely : 
That there are actual- 
ly millions of people 
now living who will 
never die, but will re- 
main.and enjoy life as 
human beings upon 
earth forever; and 
that they ^vill not see 
death. Further, that 
the foregoing would 
be proved by proph- 
ecies that were ful- 
filled during and since 
the world war; and 
that the proclamation 
should in no way be considered as a prophecy or 
as the opinion of an individual, but that it was 
and is the unanimous verdict of thousands of 
non-sectarian Bible students scattered through- 
out many countries, who base their conclusion 
upon fulfilled prophecy. 

Judge Rutherford stated that the Hippodrome 
meeting was only an example of similar meet- 
ings which would be held in every large city of 



New York Matdteata Unparalleled Religioiu Fervor 

ApprotimaMv twelve to fifteen thoviand people clamored for 
admittance to the A'eto York Hippodrome Sanday aftemotm, 
ilareh Slit, to hear Judge ButherforA of tJM .V«w Sorh City 
Bar in M* world proclamation, '^iiiUions A'oie Living WiU Kever 
DM". TTle people were for him and the clergy agaiiat him. 



The Hippodrome 
was filled to its 
capacity of 5,500; and 
people, many of whom 
had come f romdistant 
cities, actxially wept 
in front of the audi- 
torium, crying in vain 
for adjmittance long 
after the doors were 
closed. The floral dis- 
play on the stage, ar- 
ranged by Mr. Pier- 
spn, president of the 
Cromwell Gardens of 
Cromwell, Conn., was 
a most beautiful 8ym< 
bol of incoming king- 
dom ' conditions as 
pictured by the speak- 
er when referring to 
world conditions at 
the close of the pro- 
sent great recon- 
struction epodi. 

The speaker was 
very generously ap- 
plauded as he stepped 
on 'the stage to 
address his audience; 
and as he launched 
forth in the presenta- 
tion of a mass of 
evidence proving the 
authenticity of his proclamation, "Millions now 
living wiU. never die", it was evident that he had 
caught the cordial spirit of his audience, and 
the following two hours witnessed the delivery 
of a remarkable proclamation equaled only by 
the profound and thoughtful manner in which 
it was received- 
Judge Rutherford made it plain from the 
prophecies that the time would surely come 



36 



The Qolden Age for April 14, 1920 



Avhen millions upon the earth ■would enter into a 
new epoch and would never need to die, and 
that the only question seemed to be as to wheth- 
er that time is a dozen years distant or 3 
hundred years distant or whether tv'C are now 
living in the transition period. Ail his evidence 
•was to prove that we are now living in that time. 

The several tables for newspaper reporters 
•vrere well tilled by representatives of New York 
papers busily reporting the address, and every 
facility was afforded them for reporting fully 
for the benefit of their readers, most of whom 
depend wholly upon the public press for infor- 
mation. Such reports were looked for, not only 
by tlibse hearing the lecture and those unable to 
obtain admittance, but by hundreds of thousands 
of others who had seen the announcements and 
who were greatly surprised when on the follow- 
ing morning they found not even one line upon 
the subject in any of the metropolitan papers. 

Strange as tliis may seem to the unsophisti- 
cated, it was nevertheless easy to all familiar 
with the persistent opposition of the clergy, to 
read between the lines that orders had g^T^^^ 
forth from high ecclesiastical or interchurch 
authorities to 'lieep silence". Pastor Bussell 
predicted just such efforts to suppress the trijth 
l^ igndring it, more than thirty years ago, in 
his Third Volume of Scripture Studies, from 
:whic!i I quote: 



"ManT of the rejected will realize the troubles coming, 
yet -will still be blind to their real cause. They ■nrill saj, 
Let- U3 imite ourselves and entrench oursekea in the 
strong cities (governments), and keep silence. They 
somehow realize that ncitlier reason nor Scripture sup- 
ports their false doctrines, ajid that the \rijcst method 
13 to keep silent, in the shadow of old slipexstitiona and 
under the protection of so-called Christian govemments. 
They arc represented ai saj-iug very truly: *Th* Lord 
hath put us to silence, and given us bitter poison-water 
to drinlt'. The only refreshment they may havB is the 
cup which thcj- liivG mixed (the poison of bitter error, 
the 'doctrines of devQs'.. mingled "with the pure vater of 
life, the truth of God's Word). Shall not such as are of 
Babylon, and who love her, and are therefore unreaiJy to 
obey the command, 'Come out of her/ be forced to drink 
the cup of their 'own mixing? Shall not such be forced 
to admit the falsity of their doctrines? They surely 
shall j and thej will all be thoroughly nauseated by it 
It seems that the prophet knew what he was saying when 
he said : The wise men are asliamcd, they are dismayed 
and taken: lo, they have rejected the word of the Lord; 
and what wisdom is in tlicm?' — Jeremiah 8; 14, 9. 

It is not for mc to say, nor should it be neces- 
sary for me to do more now than to. simpjyby 
this letter call attention to the news-editors' 
treatment of the Rutherford meeting to prove 
this to be an additional evidence of ecclesiastical 
pressure and persecution; but, as prcTiousIy 
stated, "Russellism has thrived on persecution" 
and will continue to do so. Tours in the interest 
of truth and a free press. 



CLERICAL OPPRESSORS 



Just Godt — and these are they 
■' "Who minister at Thine altar, God of Right - 
, Men who their haads with prayer and blessing laj 
Ob Israel's Arte ot light I 

What: preacb. and kidnap men? 
Give thanks — and toI> Thy own afflicted poor? 
Talk of Thy glorious libertr. and then 

Bolt hard the captive's door? 

What! servants of Thy own 
Merciful Son, who came to seek and save 
' The homeless and the outcast — fetterlns down 
The tasked and plundered slave! 

Fllate and Herod, friends!' 
Chief priosta and rnlcrs, as of old. combine! 
Just God and holy : is that rhurcli, whicU lends 

Strength to the spoiler, Thrutf? 

Paid hypocrites, tIio turn 
.TndOTi«nt asidp. imd i-ob th" Ho1.t Book 
Of those hi;h words "f truth which search and burn 

In warning and vebul;e; 

Foed Eat. yf! Inru^tJ. food I 
.*.nd. in your ta~?Mletl pulplis. tluink thir L^rfl 
That, fmn tho ti>ilin.5 norWmun's* uucr aood, 
Vc pilfl \'Mir r>"n full L>"ird. 
Writitn ia IS^G. * Worj mo'liccd. 



How Ions, O Lord ! how tony. 
Shall such a priesthood barter truth away. 
And, la Tliy name, for robbery and wrony 

At Ihy own altars pray 7 

Is not Thy hand stretched forth / 

Visibly !n the heavens, to awa and fmlte! 
Shall aot the living; God of all the earth, 

Aud beavens above, do rifht } 

. Woe, then, to all who jrlad 
Their brethren of a common Fatlier down! 
To all who plunder from the Immortal mind 
Its brieht and glorious crown I 

Woe to the priesthood: woe 
To those whose Iiire is with the price of blood — 
PcrverUnjr, darkening, chnnginjs as ilicy ;o, 

The seui-chJu; truths of God t 

Their glory and thr>ir might 
iSliall I'tcrish; and their rci-y niimes ^huU be 
Vile before all the people, in the lisht 

Of a world's Ulwrty. 

Oil ' ppeed the moment on 
^^'h»n Wrong shall cuase— ami Liberty ami f^orp, 
.\n(l Truth, anfl Risht. thronshout ihc earth be known 

As in thoir honies above. 

John (jittnl'.cl TVAifder 



The QoUen Age for April 14, 1920 



^r" 



457 



FINANCE-COMMERCE-TRANSPORTATION 



BritiMh Expenditurea 

A COUNTBY in whueh the whole man power 

*V and almost the whole woman power is em- 

i ■ ployed in war pursuits cannot instantly change 

i irmn a war basis to a peace basis, but con- 

I' «idering all the difficulties it was done with rea- 
sonable dispatch in England. There were many 
critids of the go vc rnment for delay in this work ; 
ther« was even sharp criticism that in some 
directions the expenditures looking toward war 
were greater than during the war itself. 

These critics pointed out that ten months 
after- the armistice the goremment was still 
spending $24,000,000 per day, eight times the 
pre-war exjienditure, or an amount double its 
ineome from all sources; that one year after 
the armistice the government still had to bor- 
row $55,000,000 every week in order to keep 
running; that $1,000,000,000 were paid out in 

i unemployment doles of $6 per week, to cover the 

'^ time between the soldier's discharge and his 
return to work, M'hich put a premium upon idle'- 
n«s8 and resulted in no benefits to anybody; 
that tlie expenditures every three months 
equaled the total pre-w^ar national debt; that 
the deficit for the year, was double the amoxmt 
fixed in the budget; that an enormous, navy was 
still burning up the coal needed to keep the 
people warm ; that an enormous army was still 
eating up taxes ; that a huge army of clerks was 
still keeping army and navy records of no value 
to a country on a peace basis; that the cost of 
the government home spy system (secret serv- 
ice) was four times its cost in 1914; and that 
although, at the time the war ended, there were 
not more than 1700 active airmen, yet a year 

'• after the war there were mote than 14,000 
oljicers in the Koyal Air Force. Added to these 
criticisms is the fact not open to criticisrai that 
the annual cost for pensions is $500,000,000 and 
will be not less than that amount for many 
years to come. 

In England they still believe in the principle 
<»nunciatod by Thomas .fefferson, the founder of 
Ameripnn democracy, when he said: "The spirit 
oIl re.'istance to gorcrnmeut is so valuable upon 
certain occasions that I hope it may always bo 
kept alivp. It may orten be exercised when 
wrong, but better so than not to be exercised at 



all." Hence it was possible for the papers there 
to give expression to these criticisms, and the 
government gave close attention. 

The government explained that it had done 
what it could to pay its bills as it went along; 
that £1,000,000,000 of foreign securities had 
been sold during the war to pay for war mate- 
rial; th*t one-fourth of Britain's total debt rep- 
resented loans to allies and colonies and could 
be carried easily as the borrowers were main- 
taining interest payments; that great reduc- 
tions in the sizes of army and navy were being 
made and that by the end of 1919 the army 
would consist of but 300,000 British troops and 
100,000 Indian troops, and that it was believed 
no new taxation would be required in 1920 to 
balance revenues and ex}>enditures. It pointed 
out that there were stiU held in England £3,000,- 
000,000 of the £4,000,000,000 that were ield 
there before the war. 

In the discussions it was brou^t out that the 
financial situation is very critical; that the great 
land owners have been compelled to sell off their 
estates because they are on the edge of bank- 
ruptcy; that it had been necessary to defer the 
payment of interest on the $4^000,000,000 loaned 
to Britain by America; that men of incomes 
approximating $2000 per year are now paying 
inconie taxes of approximately $500 per year, 
and that, as Lloyd George expressed it, *^ritain 
is borrowing herself to death". The prospect 
of bankruptcy was freely discussed in. the press, 
and in the House of Lords a noteworthy address 
contained the startling declaration that "Iffihind 
bankruptcy, revolution treads with swift, impa- 
tient feet" — surely trouble enough. 

British financiers protest that American 
financiers, while doing lip service to assist 
Europe, have heen doing nothing but pile up 
profits, forgetting the principles of brotherhood 
so lavishly expressed while hostilities were in 
progress.' They declare that the whole capi- 
talist system is' shaken, that capital is now in- 
ternational and that American capital itself is 
'•'already too heavily committed abroad to with- 
stand a catastrophe with which the Eussian 
debacle would be no more comparable than the 
Balkan wars v.ith the great war**. 



458 



The Qolden Age for April 14, 2920 



"i"*^ 

i:^. 



V.' 












•li: 






.-?-. 



tv: 



Tke British Debt 

BEFORE the war the British debt was 
£645,000,000, or about $500 for each family 
in the Idngdom. This was bad enough, bat see 
what the war did. 

', The war is estimated by the Carnegie Founda- 
tion to Jiave coat the worid $337,000,000,000. 
Bailways v^cre formerly constructed and sold 
at a good profit in America for $25,000 per 
mile. Reduced to railway mileage, tlie world 
war cost as much as the construction of 13,- 
480,000 miles of these steel highways. The total 
area of the earth, water and land, is 196,940,000 
square miles, or a plot 14,033 miles square. Such 
a railway would cross that plot 960 times, in 
lines fourteen and one-half miles apart. 

In other words, for the cost of the world war, 
a railway could have been built around the earth 
in parallel Unes so that no point on the earth's 
sn^^ace would be more than seven and one- 
fourth miles distant from a railway. But this 
assumes that the earth is all land surface. As 
a matter of fact the land surface is only 52,000,- 
000 square miles, or a plot 7211 miles square. 
A railway 13,480,000 miles long would cross that 
plot 1870 times in lines 3.85 miles apart, so 
that no point on the land surface of the earth 
would be more than two miles from the railway. 

It is not to be wondered at that the load which 
baa been created by this expenditure of the ac- 
cuamlated wealth of mortals is staggering be- 
yond the power of the mind to comprehend. By 
the end of March, 1919, the English debt was 
£7,430,000,000, and ran to larger figures during 
the balance of the year. This debt of now ap- 
proximately £8,000,000,000 is at present equiva- 
lent to $4000 for each family in the kingdom. 
It ia estimated at 44% of the national wealth. 

Before the war the interest on the British 
debt was so great as to make a very consider- 
able burden. Now the national debt is twelve 
times greater than it was, and the interest pay- 
able annually is a sum equal to one-half the total 
of the pre-war debt The debt is so great that 
80X06 believe that it can neither be wiped out nor 
diminished through ordinary taxation. Not only 
did the war cost England 44% of its real wealth, 
bat it eost a tenth of its men, the principal 
sonree from which the wealth can be recreated. 
A financial writer says of the situation : "How 
fascinating the whole scene would be to Gibbon 
were he alive in these most critical days of the 
British Empire T 



British ^nancial Remedies 

FIVE interesting remedies have been sug- 
gested to help put England upon her feet : 

(1) A member of the Parliament came for- 
ward with a proposition to take advantage of 
the gambling instinct lurking in almost every 
human being and organize on a grand scale a 
state lottery similar to that once maintained 
in Louisiana, and still maintained in Spain, and 
recently proposed for France. This would be a 
blow at British honor. 

(2) Lord Bothermere suggested that Great 
Britain sell to the United States the Bermudas, 
the Bahamas, British Guiana and British Hon- 
duras in part payment of the loan advanced by 
the United States. This would be a blow at 
British pride, but defensible in an emergency. 

(3) A writer in the London Journal of 
Finance and Trade urged that the vast holdings 
of the Church of England, supported by the 
whole population, but no longer believed in by 
the whole people, should be disestablished and 
every item of its property, even including West- 
minster Abbey, sold at auction and converted 
into cash for the relief of the debt-stricken coun- 
try. This would be a blow at ecclesiasticism. It 
would not be a blow at Christianity, for "God 
dwelleth not in temples made with hands"'. 

(4) It has been proposed to levy such a tax 
on capital and war profits as to bring every 
man's fortune down to the amount that he pos- 
sessed at the beginning of the war. This sub- 
ject is now receiving great attention. There are 
some who fear that these taxes would tend to 
frighten capital away from England and tlius 
do irreparable mischief to trade and industry; 
and there are a good many British statesmen 
who have shared in these profits and would-rtot 
like to part with them. But it is estimated that 
such a tax would yield more than a billion 
pounds, and it is likely to be levied in due time. 
This would be a blow at selfishness. 

(5) An exodus of several million of the pop- 
ulation has been proposed, and under the spur 
of impending difficulties at home large numbers 
emigrated to Mexico in the latter part of 1919. 
This would